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11.
  • Paterson, R. W., et al. (författare)
  • A targeted proteomic multiplex CSF assay identifies increased malate dehydrogenase and other neurodegenerative biomarkers in individuals with Alzheimer's disease pathology.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Translational psychiatry. - 2158-3188. ; 6:11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia. Biomarkers are required to identify individuals in the preclinical phase, explain phenotypic diversity, measure progression and estimate prognosis. The development of assays to validate candidate biomarkers is costly and time-consuming. Targeted proteomics is an attractive means of quantifying novel proteins in cerebrospinal and other fluids, and has potential to help overcome this bottleneck in biomarker development. We used a previously validated multiplexed 10-min, targeted proteomic assay to assess 54 candidate cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers in two independent cohorts comprising individuals with neurodegenerative dementias and healthy controls. Individuals were classified as 'AD' or 'non-AD' on the basis of their CSF T-tau and amyloid Aβ1-42 profile measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; biomarkers of interest were compared using univariate and multivariate analyses. In all, 35/31 individuals in Cohort 1 and 46/36 in Cohort 2 fulfilled criteria for AD/non-AD profile CSF, respectively. After adjustment for multiple comparisons, five proteins were elevated significantly in AD CSF compared with non-AD CSF in both cohorts: malate dehydrogenase; total APOE; chitinase-3-like protein 1 (YKL-40); osteopontin and cystatin C. In an independent multivariate orthogonal projection to latent structures discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA), these proteins were also identified as major contributors to the separation between AD and non-AD in both cohorts. Independent of CSF Aβ1-42 and tau, a combination of these biomarkers differentiated AD and non-AD with an area under curve (AUC)=0.88. This targeted proteomic multiple reaction monitoring (MRM)-based assay can simultaneously and rapidly measure multiple candidate CSF biomarkers. Applying this technique to AD we demonstrate differences in proteins involved in glucose metabolism and neuroinflammation that collectively have potential clinical diagnostic utility.
12.
  • Warkentin, S, et al. (författare)
  • rCBF pathology in Alzheimer's disease is associated with slow processing speed
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Neuropsychologia. - Elsevier. - 1873-3514. ; 46:5, s. 1193-1200
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Decreased information processing speed (mental slowing) is a known sequelae of many brain disorders, and can be assessed by continuous naming tasks. Functional imaging studies have shown that pause and articulation times in continuous speech are normally associated with different brain regions, but knowledge about such association in dementia is lacking. We therefore tested the hypothesis that perfusion deficits in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are not only associated with slower processing, but also with these speech measures. Using regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) measurements during the performance of a continuous colour and form-naming task, we found that naming speed was substantially slower in AD patients than in controls. This slower naming was exclusively determined by an increase in mean pause time, and only to a limited extent by articulation time. The increased pause time was uniquely associated with temporo-parietal rCBF reductions of the patients, while articulation was not. By contrast, the rCBF of healthy elderly control subjects was consistently accompanied by substantially shorter articulation and pause times, although the naming measures were not statistically associated with rCBF. These findings suggest that pause time (in contrast to articulation time) may serve as a sensitive measure in the assessment of information processing speed deficits in dementia, by virtue of its close association with brain pathology. (C) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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13.
  • Gustafson, Lars, et al. (författare)
  • A factor analytic approach to symptom patterns in dementia.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Alzheimer's Disease. - Hindawi Publishing Corporation. - 2090-0252.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Previous publications have shown a high diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of three short clinical rating scales for Alzheimer's disease (AD), frontotemporal dementia (FTD), and vascular dementia (VaD) validated against neuropathological (NP) diagnoses. In this study, the aim was to perform an exploratory factor analysis of the items in these clinical rating scales. The study included 190 patients with postmortem diagnoses of AD (n = 74), VaD (n = 33), mixed AD/VaD (n = 31), or FTD (n = 52). The factor analysis produced three strong factors. Factor 1 contained items describing cerebrovascular disease, similar to the Hachinski Ischemic Score. Factor 2 enclosed major clinical characteristics of FTD, and factor 3 showed a striking similarity to the AD scale. A fourth symptom cluster was described by perception and expression of emotions. The factor analyses strongly support the construct validity of the diagnostic rating scales.
14.
  • Nord, Maria, et al. (författare)
  • Is Levodopa Pharmacokinetics in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease Depending on Gastric Emptying?
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Advances in Parkinsons Disease. - Scientific Research Publishing. - 2169-9712. ; 06:01
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Levodopa uptake from the gastrointestinal tract in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) can be affected by delayed gastric emptying (GE). This might lead to fluctuating levodopa levels resulting in increased motor fluctuations. Continuous dopaminergic stimulation (CDS) improves motor fluctuations and could be a result of smoothening in levodopa uptake. In this study we wanted to study the levodopa pharmacokinetics peripherally in PD patients with motor fluctuations and investigate the relation between levodopa uptake and GE and the effect of CDS. PD patients with wearing off (group 1) and on-off syndrome (group 2) were included. Breath tests were performed to evaluate the half time (T1/2) of GE. Concomitantly 1 tablet of Madopark® was given and the levodopa concentrations in blood and subcutaneous (SC) tissue were analyzed for both groups. Group 2 was then given a 10-d continuous intravenous levodopa treatment and the tests were repeated. Higher levels of levodopa in group 1 compared to group 2 in blood (p = 0.014) were seen. The GE was delayed in both group 1 (p < 0.001) and group 2 (p < 0.05) compared to a reference group with healthy volunteers with T1/2 median values 105 and 78 min vs. 72 min. There was no difference in GE between the two PD groups (p = 0.220) or in group 2 before and after infusion period (p = 0.861). CDS resulted in lower levodopa levels in blood (p < 0.001) and SC tissue (p < 0.01). In conclusion, PD patients in early complication phase have a more favourable levodopa uptake than patients later in disease. We found delayed GE in PD patients with motor fluctuations but no obvious relation between GE and levodopa uptake or GE and PD stage. The effect of CDS indicates no effect of CDS on the mechanisms of GE but on the mechanisms of levodopa uptake.
15.
  • Nilsson, Peter, et al. (författare)
  • The enigma of increased non-cancer mortality after weight loss in healthy men who are overweight or obese.
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Journal of Internal Medicine. - Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Ltd. - 1365-2796. ; 252:1, s. 70-78
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective. To study effects on non-cancer mortality of observational weight loss in middle-aged men stratified for body mass index (BMI), taking a wide range of possible confounders into account. Design. Prospective, population based study. Setting. Male population of Malmö, Sweden. Participants. In all 5722 men were screened twice with a mean time interval of 6 years in Malmö, southern Sweden. They were classified according to BMI category at baseline (<21, 22-25, overweight: 26-30, and obesity: 30+ kg m-2) and weight change category until second screening (weight stable men defined as having a baseline BMI ± 0.1 kg m-2 year-1 at follow-up re-screening). Main outcome measures. Non-cancer mortality calculated from national registers during 16 years of follow-up after the second screening. Data from the first year of follow-up were excluded to avoid bias by mortality caused by subclinical disease at re-screening. Results. The relative risk (RR; 95% CI) for non-cancer mortality during follow-up was higher in men with decreasing BMI in all subgroups: RR 2.64 (1.46-4.71, baseline BMI <21 kg m-2), 1.39 (0.98-1.95, baseline BMI 22-25 kg m-2), and 1.71 (1.18-2.47, baseline BMI 26+ kg m-2), using BMI-stable men as reference group. Correspondingly, the non-cancer mortality was also higher in men with increasing BMI, but only in the obese group (baseline BMI 26+ kg m-2) with RR 1.86 (1.31-2.65). In a subanalysis, nonsmoking obese (30+ kg m-2) men with decreased BMI had an increased non-cancer mortality compared with BMI-stable obese men (Fischer's test: P=0.001). The mortality risk for nonsmoking overweight men who increased their BMI compared with BMI-stable men was also significant (P=0.006), but not in corresponding obese men (P=0.094). Conclusions. Weight loss in self-reported healthy but overweight middle-aged men, without serious disease, is associated with an increased non-cancer mortality, which seems even more pronounced in obese, nonsmoking men, as compared with corresponding but weight-stable men. The explanation for these observational findings is still enigmatic but could hypothetically be because of premature ageing effects causing so-called weight loss of involution.
16.
  • Sjöholm, H, et al. (författare)
  • Necrosis of malignant gliomas after intratumoral injection of 201Tl in vivo in the rat
  • 1995
  • Ingår i: Anti-Cancer Drugs. - Rapid Communications. - 0959-4973. ; 6:1, s. 109-114
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Fourteen adult Fischer 344 rats were inoculated in vivo unilaterally in the caudate nucleus in the brain with malignant RG 2 glioma cells. By 3 weeks a tumor with a diameter of 3-6 mm normally develops. Ten animals which survived the repeated periods of anesthesia and thallium (Tl) injections (intratumorally three times of 201Tl, 15-23 days after inoculation) showed a prolonged retention of radioactivity at the site of injection with no uptake in other organs except for the kidneys. Singular circumscribed necroses were found post-mortem at the site of injection, comprising malignant glioma tumor tissue, which in six animals was absent, in three animals was markedly reduced in size compared with controls and in one animal had the expected size. In four animals metastases were found in distant locations in the brain; in three of these cases there was a retention of radioactivity in the tumor. The selective necrotizing effect on the tumor cells is interpreted as mainly due to emission of Auger electrons from intracellularly accumulated 201Tl, giving rise to very high energy deposition in the vicinity of the cell nucleus. The results should also have implications for the treatment of human malignant gliomas.
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17.
  • Peny-Dahlstrand, M., et al. (författare)
  • Patterns of participation in school-related activities and settings in children with spina bifida
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Disability and Rehabilitation. - Taylor & Francis. - 0963-8288. ; 35:21, s. 1821-1827
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: To evaluate how children with spina bifida (SB) participate in school-related activities and to explore if their motor and process skills in task performance were related to their level of active participation in school. Method: Fifty children from a geographical cohort of children with SB (aged 6-14 years) and their teachers rated the children's frequency of participation in school-related activities using a Swedish adaptation of the Availability and Participation Scale. The teachers also rated each child's level of active participation with the School Function Assessment, part one. Each child's motor and process skills were evaluated with the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills. The relation between levels of active participation and motor and process skills was subjected to binary logistic regression analysis. Results: The children participated very frequently in school activities, but their level of active participation was restricted, particularly in the recess/playground setting. There was a highly significant relation between full active participation in most school settings and the children's motor and process skills. Conclusion: Children with SB need support to become more actively involved, particularly in unstructured peer activities. The school staff need to be informed that not only the motor skills but also the process skills have an impact on the children's active participation.
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18.
  • Trägårdh, Karin, et al. (författare)
  • Risk Profiles of Female Perpetrators of Severe Violence
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: 13th Nordic Symposium on Forensic Psychiatry.
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Female offenders without a severe mental disorder show more criminogenic factors than those with. Both groups are characterized by mental health problems. We need to further characterize female offenders. Background Offenders of lethal/severe violence are in a majority of cases male, about 90% (Falk et al., 2014), and research has to a considerable extent focused on male violent offenders. Although less is known about female violent offenders than male offenders, previous research has indicated significant differences between male and female offenders of lethal/severe violence (Trägårdh et al., 2016; Yourstone et al., 2008). Since a majority of female perpetrators of lethal violence undergo a forensic psychiatric investigation (RPU/FPI), these documents contains important information about this group. Purpose The aim of this ongoing study is to characterize female perpetrators of severe violent crimes, and to compare female perpetrators sentenced to forensic psychiatric compulsory care with those sentenced to correctional treatment. Method This is an exploratory and descriptive study with a cross-sectional design. All forensic evaluations (FPI) made in Sweden between 2000-2014 (from The National Board of Forensic Medicine/RMV), and the subsequent court verdicts, in cases where women had used lethal/severe violence (n≈180) where used as the basis for data collection in this study. The present preliminary analyses (2-tests and ANOVA) contains approx. 26% (n=47) of the total group. Group differences were investigated regarding: Mental health (FPI) Risk factors (HCR-20 and PCL-R) Victim relation (FPI) Criminal behavior (FPI) Results Female offenders with and without a Severe mental disorder (SMD) seems to differ in some respects. For female offenders with a SMD, the crime was more likely to have been conducted in a less criminal context (see Table). For female offenders without a SMD, the following characteristics were more frequently present: Victim gender – male Substance abuse + Under the influence of substance (offender and victim) Previous violence between victim and offender Previous registered criminality Also, several common features between the SMD and non-SMD group of female offenders were found. The majority of all female offenders had: Previous psychiatric contact and diagnoses Previously attempted suicide No previously registered criminality Conclusions Preliminary results of the female perpetrators who had underwent a FPI seems to identify both substantial differences and similarities between those with versus without a SMD, where those without show more criminogenic factors. Both groups were also characterized by a high amount of mental illness. Also, these results supports previous research that female and male offenders of severe violence differ in important ways. Since a majority of female perpetrators of lethal violence undergo a forensic psychiatric investigation, these results should be generalizable to this group as a whole in Sweden. Based on these results, a great need to further characterize female offenders of severe/lethal violence remain.
19.
  • Hellström Ängerud, Karin, et al. (författare)
  • Differences in symptoms in relation to myocardial infarction.
  • 2016
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Background: In myocardial infarction (MI) rapid diagnosis and treatment is crucial for the prognosis. Previous research has found that symptom presentation influence pre hospital delay times but studies about differences in MI symptoms between patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and non ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) are sparse and inconclusive. To enhance the understanding of symptom presentation in regard to MI type, we aimed to describe symptoms in relation to MI type and to find predictors of STEMI versus NSTEMI in patients with MI.Methods: Patients with MI (n=694) from the SymTime study were included. SymTime was a multicentre cross-sectional study of symptoms and actions in the prehospital phase of MI and data were collected using a previously validated questionnaire administered to MI patients within 24 h of admission to hospital.Results: Patients with STEMI were younger, more often men and smokers. Patients with NSTEMI were more likely to have a history of hypertension, MI and stroke. Chest pain was the most common symptom in both groups. Pain, discomfort, or pressure located in the jaw or teeth, vertigo/pre-syncope, cold sweat and nausea/vomiting were significantly more frequent in patients with STEMI (Table 1). In a multivariate logistic regression model patients with STEMI were more likely to present with cold sweat (OR 4.13, 95% CI 2.71–6.29) jaw pain (OR 2.14, 95% CI 1.02–4.50), and nausea (OR 2.01, 95% CI 1.20–3.33), and less likely to have a history of stroke (OR 0.35, 95% CI 0.15–0.84), fluctuating symptoms (OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.36–0.83) and anxiety (OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.32–0.92) compared to patients with NSTEMI.Conclusion: Patients with STEMI differed significantly from those with NSTEMI regarding symptom presentation. This knowledge is important for health care personnel to recognize symptoms alarming for STEMI when evaluating patients with MI symptoms.
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20.
  • Schöll, Michael, 1980-, et al. (författare)
  • Biomarkers for tau pathology.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Molecular and cellular neurosciences. - 1095-9327. ; 97, s. 18-33
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aggregation of fibrils of hyperphosphorylated and C-terminally truncated microtubule-associated tau protein characterizes 80% of all dementia disorders, the most common neurodegenerative disorders. These so-called tauopathies are hitherto not curable and their diagnosis, especially at early disease stages, has traditionally proven difficult. A keystone in the diagnosis of tauopathies was the development of methods to assess levels of tau protein in vivo in cerebrospinal fluid, which has significantly improved our knowledge about these conditions. Tau proteins have also been measured in blood, but the importance of tau-related changes in blood is still unclear. The recent addition of positron emission tomography ligands to visualize, map and quantify tau pathology has further contributed with information about the temporal and spatial characteristics of tau accumulation in the living brain. Together, the measurement of tau with fluid biomarkers and positron emission tomography constitutes the basis for a highly active field of research. This review describes the current state of biomarkers for tau biomarkers derived from neuroimaging and from the analysis of bodily fluids and their roles in the detection, diagnosis and prognosis of tau-associated neurodegenerative disorders, as well as their associations with neuropathological findings, and aims to provide a perspective on how these biomarkers might be employed prospectively in research and clinical settings.
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