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31.
  • Nilsson, Christer, et al. (författare)
  • Tracking the neurodegeneration of parkinsonian disorders - A pilot study
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Neuroradiology. - Springer. - 1432-1920. ; 49:2, s. 111-119
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The purpose of the study was to explore the possibilities of using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and tractography (DTT) for the differential diagnosis and monitoring of disease progression in idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD), compared with the atypical parkinsonian disorders multiple system atrophy (MSA) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). A 3.0-T MR scanner was used. DTI was acquired using a single-shot EPI sequence with diffusion encoding in 32 directions and a voxel size of 2×2×2 mm3. DTI data were analysed and DTT was performed using the PRIDE fibre tracking tool supplied by the manufacturer. The fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) within each tract were determined. DTI and DTT images in patients with moderate to advanced MSA demonstrated degeneration of the middle cerebellar peduncles and pontine crossing tracts, with decreased FA and increased ADC. This accounted for most of the pontine and cerebellar atrophy characteristic of this disease. In contrast, patients with PSP showed a selective degeneration of the superior cerebellar peduncle. Three-dimensional images of whole-brain white matter tracts demonstrated a reduction of cortical projection fibres in all patients with PSP. Visualization of the selective degeneration of individual fibre tracts, using DTI and DTT, adds qualitative data facilitating the differential diagnosis of parkinsonian disorders. Repeated measurements of FA and ADC values in a whole fibre tract might be used for monitoring disease progression and studying the effect of treatment in neuroprotective trials. The results are preliminary considering the small number of subjects in the study. © Springer-Verlag 2007.
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32.
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33.
  • Aljabery, Firas (författare)
  • Staging and tumor biological mechanisms of lymph node metastasis in invasive urinary bladder cancer
  • 2017
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Aim: To study the possibility of detecting lymph node metastasis in locally advanced urinary bladder cancer (UBC) treated with radical cystectomy (RC) by using preoperative positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and peroperative sentinel node biopsy (SNB) technique. We also investigate the clinical significance of macrophage traits expression by cancer cells, M2-macrophage infiltration (MI) in tumor stroma and the immunohistochemical expression of biomarkers in cancer cells in relation to clinicopathologic data.Patients and Methods: We studied prospectively 122 patients with UBC, pathological stage pT1–pT4 treated with RC and pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) during 2005–2011 at the Department of Urology, Linköping University Hospital. In the first study, we compared the results of preoperative PET/CT and conventional CT with the findings of postoperative histopathological evaluation of lymph nodes (LNs). In the second study we investigated the value of SNB technique for detecting pathological LNs during RC in patients with UBC. W also examined the significance of the primary tumor location in the bladder in predicting the site of LN metastases, and the prognostic significance of lympho-vascular invasion (LVI) and lymph node metastasis density (LNMD) on survival. In the third study, we investigate the clinical significance of macrophage infiltration (MI) in tumor stroma and macrophage-traits expression by tumor cells. In the fourth study, we investigate the cell cycle suppression proteins p53, p21, pRb, p16, p14 ARF as well as tumors proliferative protein Ki67 and DNA repair protein ERCC1 expression in cancer cells. The results were compared with clinical and pathological characteristics and outcome.Results: Prior to RC, PET/CT was used to detect LN metastasis in 54 patients. PET/CT had 41% sensitivity, 86% specificity, 58% PPV, and 76% NPV, whereas the corresponding figures for conventional CT were 41%, 89%, 64%, and 77%. SNB was performed during RC in 103 patients. A median number of 29 (range 7–68) nodes per patient were examined. SNs were detected in 83 out of 103 patients (81%). The sensitivity and specificity for detecting metastatic disease by SNB varied among LN stations, with average values of 67% -90%. LNMD or ≥8% and LVI were significantly related to shorter survival. In 103 patients, MI was high in 33% of cases, while moderate and low infiltration occurred in 42% and 25% of tumors respectively. Patients with tumors containing high and moderate compared to low MI had low rate of LN metastases (P=0.06) and improved survival (P=0.06), although not at significant level. The expression of different tumor suppression proteins was altered in 47-91% of the patients. There were no significant association between cancer specific survival (CSS) and any of the studied biomarkers. In case of altered p14ARF, ERCC1 or p21, CSS was low in case of low p53 immunostaining but increased in case of p53 accumulation, although not at a significant level, indicating a possible protective effect of p53 accumulation in these cases.Conclusion: PET/ CT provided no improvement over conventional CT in detection and localization of regional LN metastases in bladder cancer. It is possible to detect the SN but the technique is not a reliable for perioperative localization of LN metastases; however, LVI and LNMD at a cut-off level of 8% had significant prognostic values. MI in the tumor microenvironment but not CD163 expression in tumor cells seems to be synergistic with the immune response against urinary bladder cancer. Our results further indicate that altered p53 might have protective effect on survival in case of altered p14ARF, p21, or ERCC1 indicating an interaction between these biomarkers.
34.
  • Klaff, Rami, 1971- (författare)
  • Disease-Specific Survival in Prostate Cancer Patients Results from the Scandinavian Prostate Cancer Group (SPCG) Trial No. 5 and Regional Cancer Register Data
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • IntroductionProstate cancer (PCa) is the most common cancer among men in Sweden. The clinical course varies considerably, which makes it difficult to predict the prognosis in the individual case. In order to explore the early as well as the late course of the disease, large study groups and population-based cohorts are necessary.AimsTo explore factors that influence the long-term outcome of men with low-risk tumours in a population-based register, to predict the long-term course, and to assess the mortality rate for men with prostate cancer (Paper I)To analyse long-term outcome and to investigate factors associated with long-term survival in patients with metastases to the skeleton (Paper II)To analyse early androgen deprivation treatment (ADT) failure and to define clinical predictors associated with short survival due to early ADT failure in prostate cancer patients with bone metastases (Paper III)To analyse the prognostic significance of the extent of bone metastases in relation to other pretreatment variables in prostate cancer patients, and to explore the impact of bone metastases on quality-of-life (Paper IV)Material and methodsThe study groups were assembled from The South East Region Prostate Cancer Register (SERPCR), and The Scandinavian Prostate Cancer Group (SPCG) Trial No. 5. In the first study, prognostic factors and long-term disease-specific mortality rates of low-risk prostate cancer patients from the early PSA era were analysed. In the second study, patient-related factors, quality-of-life (QoL) and long-term survival in 915 PCa patients with bone metastases (M1b) under ADT, were analysed. In Study III factors predicting primary failure to respond to ADT were identified. Study IV explored the impact of the extent of bone metastases on survival and QoL for these men.Result and conclusionsThe long-term disease-specific mortality of low-risk localised PCa is low, but the annual mortality rate gradually increases. This indicates that some tumours slowly develop into lethal cancer, particularly in men 70 years or older and with a PSA level ≥ 4 μg/L. From the SPCG Trial No. 5, a subgroup of patients with M1b disease and favourable set of predictive factors survived more than 10 years under ADT with an acceptable QoL. Independent predictors of long-term survival were identified as performance status (PS) < 2, limited extent of bone metastases, and a PSA level < 231 μg/L at the time of enrolment in the trial. However, four independent clinical predictors of early ADT failure could be defined. Men exhibiting these features should be considered for an alternative treatment. Patient grouping based on three categories of extent of bone metastases related to PS, haemoglobin, and QoL at presentation, as independent predictors of mortality, may provide improved accuracy of prognosis.
35.
  • Loftås, Per, 1964- (författare)
  • Response to neoadjuvant treatment in rectal cancer surgery
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Rectal cancer is one of the three most common malignancies in Sweden with an annual incidence of about 2000 cases. Current treatment consists of surgical resection of the rectum including the loco-regional lymph nodes in the mesorectum. In advanced cases, neoadjuvant chemo-radiotherapy (CRT) prior to the operative treatment reduces local recurrences and enables surgery. The neoadjuvant treatment can also eradicate the tumour completely, i.e. complete response. This research project was designed to investigate the effects of preoperative radiotherapy/ CRT and analyze methods to predict response to CRT.Study I investigated the expression of the FXYD-3 protein with immunohistochemistry in rectal cancer, with or without preoperative radiotherapy. The results from the total cohort showed that, strong FXYD-3 expression was correlated to infiltrative tumour growth (p = 0.02). In the radiotherapy group, strong FXYD-3 expression was related to an unfavourable prognosis (p = 0.02). Tumours with strong FXYD-3 expression had less tumour necrosis (p = 0.02) after radiotherapy. FXYD-3 expression in the primary tumour was increased compared to normal mucosa (p=0.008). We concluded that FXYD-3 expression was a prognostic factor in patients receiving preoperative radiotherapy for rectal cancer.Study II investigated FXYD-3 expression in tumours that developed local recurrences following surgery and compared this with expression in tumours that did not develop local recurrences. There was no difference in the expression of FXYD-3 between the group that developed local recurrences and the group that did not develop local recurrences. There was no difference in survival between those with strong or weak FXYD-3 expression. We concluded that this study could not confirm the findings from study 1 i.e. that FXYD-3 expression has prognostic significance in rectal cancer.Study III was a register-based study on the incidence and effects of complete response to neoadjuvant treatment. Eight per cent of the patients with adequate CRT to achieve complete response also had a complete histological response of the luminal tumor in the resected bowel. Sixteen per cent of that group had remaining lymph node metastases in the operative specimen. Chemotherapy together with radiotherapy doubled the chance of complete response in the luminal tumour. Patients with remaining lymph node metastases had a lower survival rate compared to those without. We concluded that residual nodal involvement after neoadjuvant treatment was an important factor for reduced survival after complete response in the luminal tumour.Study IV followed up the results from the previous study by re-evaluating magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)- images in patients with complete tumour response. Two experienced MRI radiologists performed blinded re-staging of post CRT MR- images from patients with complete response in the luminal tumour. One group with lymph node metastases and another one without were studied and the results compared with the pathology reports. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predicted values for correct staging of positive lymph nodes was 37%, 84%, 70% and 57%. The size of the largest lymph node (4.5 mm, p=0.04) seemed to indicate presence of a tumour positive lymph node. We concluded that MRI couldn’t correctly stage patients for lymph node metastases in patients with complete response to CRT in the luminal tumour.
36.
  • Berntorp, Erik, et al. (författare)
  • Centraliserad vård grundläggande i vårdprogram för blödarsjuka
  • 1999
  • Ingår i: Läkartidningen. - Swedish Medical Association. - 0023-7205. ; 96:15, s. 1849-1852
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Haemophilia is a rare and potentially life-threatening disease. In Sweden, with a population of approximately 8.5 million, about 350 people suffer from the more severe forms of haemophilia or von Willebrand disease. Meticulous management is important if the patients are to be spared chronic disability and serious treatment complications. The disease is lifelong and affects psychosocial aspects of life among patients and their families. With the help of a grant from the Swedish Board of Halth and Welfare, a care programme has been designed to guarantee Swedish haemophiliacs comparable and optimal care. The programme has been drawn up by representatives of the three haemophilia centres in Sweden (at University Hospital, Malmo, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, and Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm) in co-operation with the World Federation of National Haemophilia Organisations. To ensure optimal individual application of the programme, individualised management strategies and patient information leaflets have been prepared.
37.
  • Burman, Joachim, et al. (författare)
  • Autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation for aggressive multiple sclerosis: : the Swedish experience
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry. - BMJ Publishing Group. - 0022-3050. ; 85:10, s. 1116-1121
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a viable option for treatment of aggressive multiple sclerosis (MS). No randomised controlled trial has been performed, and thus, experiences from systematic and sustained follow-up of treated patients constitute important information about safety and efficacy. In this observational study, we describe the characteristics and outcome of the Swedish patients treated with HSCT for MS. Methods Neurologists from the major hospitals in Sweden filled out a follow-up form with prospectively collected data. Fifty-two patients were identified in total; 48 were included in the study and evaluated for safety and side effects; 41 patients had at least 1 year of follow-up and were further analysed for clinical and radiological outcome. In this cohort, 34 patients (83%) had relapsing-remitting MS, and mean follow-up time was 47 months. Results At 5 years, relapse-free survival was 87%; MRI event-free survival 85%; expanded disability status scale (EDSS) score progression-free survival 77%; and disease-free survival (no relapses, no new MRI lesions and no EDSS progression) 68%. Presence of gadolinium-enhancing lesions prior to HSCT was associated with a favourable outcome (disease-free survival 79% vs 46%, p=0.028). There was no mortality. The most common long-term side effects were herpes zoster reactivation (15%) and thyroid disease (8.4%). Conclusions HSCT is a very effective treatment of inflammatory active MS and can be performed with a high degree of safety at experienced centres.
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38.
  • Gulati, Sasha, et al. (författare)
  • Risk of intracranial hemorrhage in users of oral antithrombotic drugs: Study protocol for a nationwide study
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: F1000 Research. - 2046-1402. ; 4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background A wide range of antithrombotic medications can be used in the prevention and treatment of thrombosis. Among hemorrhagic complications of antithrombotic drugs, intracranial hemorrhage may have particularly devastating consequences with high morbidity, disability and mortality rates. The incidence and risks of intracranial hemorrhage in patients on antithrombotic treatments from regular clinical practice outside clinical trials remain largely unknown. It is not known if results from clinical trials can be extrapolated to everyday clinical practice. We will conduct a nationwide study to investigate the risks and incidence rates of intracranial hemorrhage in users oral antithrombotic drugs in Norway from 2008 through 2014. Methods and design The aim of this nationwide study is to investigate the incidence rates of intracranial hemorrhage requiring hospitalization in users of oral antithrombotic drugs. The study will be conducted within the approximately 4.7 million inhabitants of Norway from January 1st, 2008, to December 31st, 2014. Treatment and outcome data are obtained from the Norwegian patient registry and the Norwegian prescription database.
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39.
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40.
  • Nordanstig, Joakim, et al. (författare)
  • Vascular Quality of Life Questionnaire-6 facilitates health-related quality of life assessment in peripheral arterial disease.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Journal of Vascular Surgery. - 0741-5214. ; 59:3, s. 700-707
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Most commonly used outcome measures in peripheral arterial disease (PAD) provide scarce information about achieved patient benefit. Therefore, patient-reported outcome measures have become increasingly important as complementary outcome measures. The abundance of items in most health-related quality of life instruments makes everyday clinical use difficult. This study aimed to develop a short version of the 25-item Vascular Quality of Life Questionnaire (VascuQoL-25), a PAD-specific health-related quality of life instrument.
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