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  • van Hemelrijck, Mieke, et al. (författare)
  • Thromboembolic events following surgery for prostate cancer
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: European Urology. - Elsevier. - 0302-2838. ; 63:2, s. 354-363
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Prostate cancer (PCa) and surgery are both associated with increased risk of thromboembolic diseases (TED). Objective: We assessed risk of TED among men undergoing different types of urologic surgery. Design, setting, and participants: Using the Prostate Cancer Database Sweden (PCBaSe) Sweden, we identified all men (n = 45 065) undergoing pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND), radical prostatectomy (RP) with or without PLND, orchiectomy due to PCa, or a transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). We identified a comparison cohort from the population. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis: Main outcomes were deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) as primary diagnoses in the National Patient Register or Cause of Death Register (2002-2010). We calculated hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models. Results and limitations: All surgical procedures were associated with increased risk of TED; laparoscopic and open RP with a PLND were the most strongly associated with TED (HR for PE: 8.1 [95% CI, 2.9-23.0] and 7.8 [95% CI, 4.9-13], respectively). For surgery including a PLND, the risk increased during the second half of the first postoperative month. The HR for PE after TURP in men with PCa was 3.0 (95% CI, 1.8-5.1). Patients with a history of TED had a strongly increased risk of TED (HR for DVT: 4.5; 95% CI, 2.6-8.0). A limitation is lack of information on TED prophylaxis, but its use was standardized during the study period for RP and PLND. Other limitations are lack of information on extent of PLND and lifestyle factors. Conclusions: Surgeries for PCa, including TURP, are associated with hospitalization for TED. Patients with a history of TED and patients undergoing a PLND were at highest risk. The largest risk was observed from days 14 to 28 postoperatively. Thus, our results suggest that prophylactic measures may be beneficial during the first 4 wk in these patients. (C) 2012 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B. V. All rights reserved.
  • Van Herzeele, Charlotte, et al. (författare)
  • Poor Compliance With Primary Nocturnal Enuresis Therapy May Contribute to Insufficient Desmopressin Response
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Journal of Urology. - Elsevier. - 0022-5347. ; 182:4, s. 2045-2049
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: Studies of desmopressin in children with primary nocturnal enuresis show a greater than 90% decrease in wet nights in 20% to 30%, a 50% to less than 90% decrease in 20% to 40% and less than a 50% decrease in up to 60%. Insufficient response to desmopressin is attributable to various factors, including differences in the primary nocturnal enuresis definition, underlying bladder dysfunction and/or desmopressin pharmacokinetic characteristics. However, little attention has been given to poor compliance with therapy as a possible explanatory factor. For a drug with an effect duration limited to the night after administration a high degree of compliance is essential to ensure consistent therapeutic effects. Materials and Methods: This was a substudy of an international investigation of treatment for 6 months or less with desmopressin tablets in children with primary nocturnal enuresis. Medication was dispensed at each visit as required and collected at each subsequent visit. Compliance was determined by pill counts by study staff. Results: Compliance data were available on 723 patients. Of the patients 81% to 91% ingested all medication as instructed during the initial run-in phases. However, this decreased to 77% and 71% during the first and second 3-month treatment periods, respectively. Conclusions: Patient motivation and compliance are generally stronger in clinical trials than in clinical practice. However, this study shows that some patients were poorly compliant with medication even at study initiation and only 71% were fully compliant with long-term treatment. Decreased compliance was associated with a lower response rate. Patients should be encouraged to comply fully with treatment to achieve an optimal outcome.
  • Van Holsbeke, C., et al. (författare)
  • Acoustic streaming cannot discriminate reliably between endometriomas and other types of adnexal lesion: a multicenter study of 633 adnexal masses
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology. - John Wiley & Sons. - 1469-0705. ; 35:3, s. 349-353
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective To determine the ability of acoustic streaming to discriminate between endometriomas and other adnexal masses. Methods We used data from 1938 patients with an adnexal mass included in Phase 2 of the International Ovarian Tumor Analysis (IOTA) study. All patients had been examined by transvaginal gray-scale and Doppler ultrasound following a standardized research protocol. Assessment of acoustic streaming was voluntary and was carried out only in lesions containing echogenic cyst fluid. Acoustic streaming was defined as movement of particles inside the cyst fluid during gray-scale and/or color Doppler examination provided that the probe had been held still for two seconds to ensure that the movement of the particles was not caused by movement of the probe or the patient. Only centers where acoustic streaming had been evaluated in > 90% of cases were included. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios (LR+, LR-), and positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV) of acoustic streaming with regard to endometrioma were calculated. Results 460 (24%) masses were excluded because they were examined in centers where <= 90% of the masses with echogenic cyst fluid had been evaluated for the presence of acoustic streaming. Acoustic streaming was evaluated in 633 of 646 lesions containing echogenic cyst fluid. It was present in 19 (9%) of 209 endometriomas and in 55 (13%) of 424 other lesions. This corresponds to a sensitivity of absent acoustic streaming with regard to endometrioma of 91% (190/209), a specificity of 13% (55/424), LR+ of 1.04, LR- of 0.69, PPV of 34% (190/559) and NPV of 74% (55/74). Conclusions Acoustic streaming cannot discriminate reliably between endometrioinas and other adnexal lesions, and the presence of acoustic streaming does not exclude an endometrioma. Copyright (C) 2009 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • Van Holsbeke, C., et al. (författare)
  • Endometriomas: their ultrasound characteristics
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology. - John Wiley & Sons. - 1469-0705. ; 35:6, s. 730-740
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives To describe the ultrasound characteristics of endometriomas in pre- and postmenopausal patients and to develop rules that characterize endometriomas. Methods All patients included in the International Ovarian Tumor Analysis (IOTA) studies were used in our analysis. Patients with an adnexal mass were scanned by experienced sonologists using a standardized research protocol. The gold standard was the histology of the surgically removed adnexal mass. The gray-scale and Doppler ultrasound characteristics of the endometriomas were compared with those of other benign and malignant masses. Based on decision-tree analysis, the existing literature and clinical experience, ultrasound rules for the detection of endometriomas were created and evaluated. Results Of all 3511 patients included in the IOTA studies, 713 (20%) had endometriomas. Fifty-one per cent of the endometriomas were unilocular cysts with ground glass echogenicity of the cyst fluid. These characteristics were found less often among other benign tumors or malignancies, or among the small set of endometriomas (4%) that were found in postmenopausal patients. Based on the decision-tree analysis, the optimal rule to detect endometriomas was an adnexal mass in a premenopausal patient with ground glass echogenicity of the cyst fluid, one to four locules and no papillations with detectable blood flow'. Based on clinical considerations, the following rule: 'premenopausal status, ground glass echogenicity of the cyst fluid, one to four locules and no solid parts' seems preferable. Conclusions Several rules had a good ability to characterize endometriomas. The ultrasound characteristics of endometriomas differ between pre- and postmenopausal patients. Masses in postmenopausal women whose cystic contents have a ground glass appearance have a high risk of malignancy. Copyright (C) 2010 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • Van Holsbeke, Caroline, et al. (författare)
  • External Validation of Diagnostic Models to Estimate the Risk of Malignancy in Adnexal Masses
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Clinical Cancer Research. - American Association for Cancer Research. - 1078-0432. ; 18:3, s. 815-825
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: To externally validate and compare the performance of previously published diagnostic models developed to predict malignancy in adnexal masses. Experimental Design: We externally validated the diagnostic performance of 11 models developed by the International Ovarian Tumor Analysis (IOTA) group and 12 other (non-IOTA) models on 997 prospectively collected patients. The non-IOTA models included the original risk of malignancy index (RMI), three modified versions of the RMI, six logistic regression models, and two artificial neural networks. The ability of the models to discriminate between benign and malignant adnexal masses was expressed as the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios (LR+, LR-). Results: Seven hundred and forty-two (74%) benign and 255 (26%) malignant masses were included. The IOTA models did better than the non-IOTA models (AUCs between 0.941 and 0.956 vs. 0.839 and 0.928). The difference in AUC between the best IOTA and the best non-IOTA model was 0.028 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.011-0.044]. The AUC of the RMI was 0.911 (difference with the best IOTA model, 0.044; 95% CI, 0.024-0.064). The superior performance of the IOTA models was most pronounced in premenopausal patients but was also observed in postmenopausal patients. IOTA models were better able to detect stage I ovarian cancer. Conclusion: External validation shows that the IOTA models outperform other models, including the current reference test RMI, for discriminating between benign and malignant adnexal masses. Clin Cancer Res; 18(3); 815-25. (C)2011 AACR.
  • Van Holsbeke, Caroline, et al. (författare)
  • External validation of mathematical models to distinguish between benign and malignant adnexal tumors: A multicenter study by the International Ovarian Tumor Analysis group
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Clinical Cancer Research. - American Association for Cancer Research. - 1078-0432. ; 13:15, s. 4440-4447
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: Several scoring systems have been developed to distinguish between benign and malignant adnexal tumors. However, few of them have been externally validated in new populations. Our aim was to compare their performance on a prospectively collected large multicenter data set. Experimental Design: In phase I of the International Ovarian Tumor Analysis multicenter study, patients with a persistent adnexal mass were examined with transvaginal ultrasound and color Doppler imaging. More than 50 end point variables were prospectively recorded for analysis. The outcome measure was the histologic classification of excised tissue as malignant or benign. We used the International Ovarian Tumor Analysis data to test the accuracy of previously published scoring systems. Receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed to compare the performance of the models. Results: Data from 1,066 patients were included; 800 patients (75%) had benign tumors and 266 patients (25%) had malignant tumors. The morphologic scoring system used by Lerner gave an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.68, whereas the multimodal risk of malignancy index used by Jacobs gave an AUC of 0.88. The corresponding values for logistic regression and artificial neural network models varied between 0.76 and 0.91 and between 0.87 and 0.90, respectively. Advanced kernel-based classifiers gave an AUC of up to 0.92. Conclusion: The performance of the risk of malignancy index was similar to that of most logistic regression and artificial neural network models. The best result was obtained with a relevance vector machine with radial basis function kernel. Because the models were tested on a large multicenter data set, results are likely to be generally applicable.
  • Van Holsbeke, C, et al. (författare)
  • Imaging of gynecological disease (3): clinical and ultrasound characteristics of granulosa cell tumors of the ovary
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology. - John Wiley & Sons. - 1469-0705. ; 31:4, s. 450-456
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives To describe the clinical and ultrasound characteristics of granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) of the ovary, and to define the ultrasound appearance of GCTs based on pattern recognition. Methods Databases of four gynecological ultrasound centers were searched to identify patients with histologically proven GCTs who had undergone a standard preoperative ultrasound examination. Results A total of 23 women with confirmed GCT were identified. Twelve (52%) women were postmenopausal, nine (39%) were of fertile age and two (9%) were prepubertal. Clinical symptoms were abdominal distension (7/23, 30%), pain (5/23, 22%) and irregular vaginal bleeding (6/23, 26%). Seven patients (30%) were asymptomatic. Endometrial pathology was found in 54% (7/13) of the patients from whom endometrial biopsies were taken. On ultrasound scan 12/23 (52%) masses were multilocular-solid, 9/23 (39%) were purely solid, one mass (4%) was unilocular-solid and one mass was multilocular (4%). Multilocular and multilocular-solid cysts typically contained large numbers of small locules (> 10). The echogenicity of the cyst content was most often mixed (6/16, 38%) or low level (7/16, 44%). Papillary projections were found in only four women (17%). The GCTs were large tumors with a median largest diameter of 102 (range, 37-242) mm and manifested moderate or high color content at color Doppler examination (color score 3 in 13/23 tumors (57%); color score 4 in 8/23 tumors (35%)). Conclusions At ultrasound examination, most GCTs are large multilocular-solid masses with a large number of locules, or solid tumors with heterogeneous echogenicity of the solid tissue. Hemorrhagic components are common and increased vascularity is demonstrated at color/power Doppler ultrasound examination. The hyperestrogenic state that is created by the tumor often causes endometrial pathology with bleeding problems as a typical associated symptom.
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