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Träfflista för sökning "hsv:(MEDICIN OCH HÄLSOVETENSKAP) hsv:(Klinisk medicin) hsv:(Allmän medicin) "

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61.
  • Ahlander, Britt-Marie, 1954- (författare)
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Heart Image quality, measurement accuracy and patient experience
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Background: Non-invasive diagnostic imaging of atherosclerotic coronary artery disease (CAD) is frequently carried out with cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) or myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (MPS). CMR is the gold standard for the evaluation of scar after myocardial infarction and MPS the clinical gold standard for ischemia. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is at times difficult for patients and may induce anxiety while patient experience of MPS is largely unknown.Aims: To evaluate image quality in CMR with respect to the sequences employed, the influence of atrial fibrillation, myocardial perfusion and the impact of patient information. Further, to study patient experience in relation to MRI with the goal of improving the care of these patients.Method: Four study designs have been used. In paper I, experimental cross-over, paper (II) experimental controlled clinical trial, paper (III) psychometric crosssectional study and paper (IV) prospective intervention study. A total of 475 patients ≥ 18 years with primarily cardiac problems (I-IV) except for those referred for MRI of the spine (III) were included in the four studies.Result: In patients (n=20) with atrial fibrillation, a single shot steady state free precession (SS-SSFP) sequence showed significantly better image quality than the standard segmented inversion recovery fast gradient echo (IR-FGRE) sequence (I). In first-pass perfusion imaging the gradient echo-echo planar imaging sequence (GREEPI) (n=30) had lower signal-to-noise and contrast–to-noise ratios than the steady state free precession sequence (SSFP) (n=30) but displayed a higher correlation with the MPS results, evaluated both qualitatively and quantitatively (II). The MRIAnxiety Questionnaire (MRI-AQ) was validated on patients, referred for MRI of either the spine (n=193) or the heart (n=54). The final instrument had 15 items divided in two factors regarding Anxiety and Relaxation. The instrument was found to have satisfactory psychometric properties (III). Patients who prior CMR viewed an information video scored significantly (lower) better in the factor Relaxation, than those who received standard information. Patients who underwent MPS scored lower on both factors, Anxiety and Relaxation. The extra video information had no effect on CMR image quality (IV).Conclusion: Single shot imaging in atrial fibrillation produced images with less artefact than a segmented sequence. In first-pass perfusion imaging, the sequence GRE-EPI was superior to SSFP. A questionnaire depicting anxiety during MRI showed that video information prior to imaging helped patients relax but did not result in an improvement in image quality.
62.
  • Ahmadi, Nasser S., et al. (författare)
  • Clinical characteristics of asymptomatic left ventricular diastolic dysfunction and its association with self-rated health and N-terminal B-type natriuretic peptide : : a cross-sectional study
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Heart Failure Clinics. - Elsevier Inc.. - 2055-5822. ; 3:3, s. 205-211
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AIMS: Left ventricular hypertrophy, obesity, hypertension, and N-terminal B-type natriuretic peptide (Nt-proBNP) predict left ventricular diastolic dysfunction with preserved systolic function (DD-PSF). Self-rated health (SRH) is shown to be associated with chronic diseases, but the association of SRH with DD-PSF is unclear. In light of the clinical implications of DD-PSF, the following goals are of considerable importance: (1) to determine the role of SRH in patients with DD-PSF in the general population and (2) to study the association between Nt-proBNP and DD-PSF.METHODS AND RESULTS: The current study is a cross-sectional study conducted on a random sampling of a rural population. Individuals 30-75 years of age were consecutively subjected to conventional echocardiography and tissue velocity imaging. Data were collected on 500 (48%) men and 538 (52%) women (n = 1038). DD-PSF was the main outcome, and SRH and Nt-proBNP were the primary indicators. Diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and obesity were accounted for as major confounders of the association with SRH. DD-PSF was identified in 137 individuals, namely, 79 men (15.8%) and 58 women (10.8%). In a multivariate regression model, SRH (OR 2.95; 95% CI 1.02-8.57) and Nt-proBNP (quartile 4 vs. quartile 1 OR 4.23; 95% CI 1.74-10.26) were both independently associated with DD-PSF.CONCLUSIONS: SRH, evaluated based on a descriptive question on general health, should be included in the diagnostic process of DD-PSF. In agreement with previous studies, our study confirms that Nt-proBNP is a major indicator of DD-PSF.
63.
  • Banach, Maciej, et al. (författare)
  • Association between phenotypic familial hypercholesterolaemia and telomere length in US adults: results from a multi-ethnic survey
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: European Heart Journal. - 0195-668X .- 1522-9645. ; 39:40, s. 3635-3640
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims: Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) accelerates atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) and accordingly is the most potent hereditary cause of premature coronary heart disease. The association between telomere length (TL), a biological index of ageing, and FH has not been hitherto investigated. We addressed this question using data from the US National Health and Education National Surveys (NHANES, 1999-2002).Methods and results: We included individuals, who had TL measurements (with quantitative polymerase chain reaction method) and a phenotypic diagnosis of FH based on the Dutch Lipid Clinic Network (DLCN) criteria. Sample weights were applied for unequal probabilities of selection, non-response bias, and oversampling by complex sample analysis. The adult prevalence of FH in NHANES was 0.43% [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.33-0.57]. The frequencies of probable FH (mean DLCN score: 6.2) and definite FH (mean DLCN score: 8.9) were 0.42% (95% CI 0.32-0.48) and 0.03% (95% CI 0.02-0.06), respectively. Subjects with FH had a higher prevalence of non-communicable diseases (hypertension, diabetes 2 type, and obesity) and early atherosclerosis (2.9% in overall population vs. 42.2% in FH). Overall, the mean TL in the non-FH population was 1.09 (95% CI 1.06-1.12) (T/S ratio) and 1.09 (95% CI 1.03-1.12) [(T/S ratio) for total FH]. Telomere length adjusted for age, sex, race, and body mass index was shorter in FH compared with healthy subjects (FH 0.89, 95% CI 0.84-0.93 vs. healthy: 1.05, 95% CI 0.97-1.11 T/S ratio; P < 0.001). Subjects with longer TL (highest quartile) had 12% less chance of having FH compared with those with TL in the lowest quartile (Q1, 95% CI 0.78-0.93).Conclusions: These preliminary data suggest an association between TL, an index of biological age, and the presence of FH, the most common inherited cause of premature ASCVD. Given our relatively low sample size, the findings need confirmation in larger studies.
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64.
  • Bergfors, Elisabet, et al. (författare)
  • A child with a long-standing, intensely itching subcutaneous nodule on a thigh : an uncommon (?) reaction to commonly used vaccines
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: BMJ Case Reports. - BMJ Publishing Group. - 1757-790X.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A 2-year-old girl presented with an intensely itching subcutaneous nodule on the front of a thigh. The nodule persisted for 10 months until it was excised. Subsequent investigation for malignancy and systemic disease showed no pathological findings. The diagnosis, persistent itching vaccination granuloma, was revealed by hazard almost 2 years after the onset of symptoms. Persistent itching subcutaneous nodules at the injection site for aluminium containing vaccines (mostly diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis combination vaccines for primary immunisation of infants) may appear with a long delay after the vaccination (months), cause prolonged itching (years) and are often associated with contact allergy to aluminium. The condition is poorly recognised in Health Care which may lead to prolonged symptoms and unnecessary investigations.
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65.
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66.
  • Bergfors, Elisabet, et al. (författare)
  • How common are long-lasting, intensely itching vaccination granulomas and contact allergy to aluminium induced by currently used pediatric vaccines? A prospective cohort study
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Pediatrics. - Springer Berlin/Heidelberg. - 0340-6199. ; 173:10, s. 1297-1307
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The frequency of long-lasting, intensely itching subcutaneous nodules at the injection site for aluminium (Al)-adsorbed vaccines (vaccination granulomas) was investigated in a prospective cohort study comprising 4,758 children who received either a diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-polio-Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine (Infanrix®, Pentavac®) alone or concomitant with a pneumococcal conjugate (Prevenar). Both vaccines were adsorbed to an Al adjuvant. Altogether 38 children (0.83 %) with itching granulomas were identified, epicutaneously tested for Al sensitisation and followed yearly. Contact allergy to Al was verified in 85 %. The median duration of symptoms was 22 months in those hitherto recovered. The frequency of granulomas induced by Infanrix® was >0.66 % and by Prevenar >0.35 %. The risk for granulomas increased from 0.63 to 1.18 % when a second Al-adsorbed vaccine was added to the schedule. Conclusion: Long-lasting itching vaccination granulomas are poorly understood but more frequent than previously known after infant vaccination with commonly used diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-polio-Haemophilus influenzae type b and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. The risk increases with the number of vaccines given. Most children with itching granulomas become contact allergic to aluminium. Itching vaccination granulomas are benign but may be troublesome and should be recognised early in primary health care to avoid unnecessary investigations, anxiety and mistrust.
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67.
  • Bill-Axelson, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Radical Prostatectomy versus Watchful Waiting in Early Prostate Cancer
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: New England Journal of Medicine. - 0028-4793 .- 1533-4406. ; 364:18, s. 1708-1717
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUNDIn 2008, we reported that radical prostatectomy, as compared with watchful waiting, reduces the rate of death from prostate cancer. After an additional 3 years of follow-up, we now report estimated 15-year results.METHODSFrom October 1989 through February 1999, we randomly assigned 695 men with early prostate cancer to watchful waiting or radical prostatectomy. Follow-up was complete through December 2009, with histopathological review of biopsy and radical-prostatectomy specimens and blinded evaluation of causes of death. Relative risks, with 95% confidence intervals, were estimated with the use of a Cox proportional-hazards model.RESULTSDuring a median of 12.8 years, 166 of the 347 men in the radical-prostatectomy group and 201 of the 348 in the watchful-waiting group died (P=0.007). In the case of 55 men assigned to surgery and 81 men assigned to watchful waiting, death was due to prostate cancer. This yielded a cumulative incidence of death from prostate cancer at 15 years of 14.6% and 20.7%, respectively (a difference of 6.1 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.2 to 12.0), and a relative risk with surgery of 0.62 (95% CI, 0.44 to 0.87; P=0.01). The survival benefit was similar before and after 9 years of follow-up, was observed also among men with low-risk prostate cancer, and was confined to men younger than 65 years of age. The number needed to treat to avert one death was 15 overall and 7 for men younger than 65 years of age. Among men who underwent radical prostatectomy, those with extracapsular tumor growth had a risk of death from prostate cancer that was 7 times that of men without extracapsular tumor growth (relative risk, 6.9; 95% CI, 2.6 to 18.4).CONCLUSIONSRadical prostatectomy was associated with a reduction in the rate of death from prostate cancer. Men with extracapsular tumor growth may benefit from adjuvant local or systemic treatment.
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68.
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69.
  • Grundvold, Irene, et al. (författare)
  • Body weight and risk of atrial fibrillation in 7,169 patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes; an observational study
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Cardiovascular Diabetology. - 1475-2840 .- 1475-2840. ; 14, s. 5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Obesity, type 2 diabetes and atrial fibrillation (AF) are closely associated, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We aimed to explore associations between body mass index (BMI) or weight change with risk of AF in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: A total of 7,169 participations with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes were stratified according to baseline BMI, and after a second BMI measurement within 18 months, further grouped according to relative weight change as "weight gain" (> 1 BMI unit), " stable weight" (+/- 1 BMI unit) and " weight loss" (< 1 BMI unit). The mean follow-up period was 4.6 years, and the risk of AF was estimated using adjusted Cox regression models. Results: Average age at diabetes diagnosis was 60 years and the patients were slightly obese (mean BMI 30.2 kg/m(2)). During follow-up, 287 patients developed incident AF, and those with overweight or obesity at baseline had 1.9 fold and 2.9-fold higher risk of AF, respectively, than those with normal BMI. The 14% of the patients with subsequent weight gain had 1.5-fold risk of AF compared with those with stable weight or weight loss. Conclusions: In patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes, baseline overweight and obesity, as well as modest weight increase during the first 18 months after diagnosis, were associated with a substantially increased risk of incident AF. Patients with type 2 diabetes may benefit from efforts to prevent weight gain in order to reduce the risk of incident AF.
70.
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