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Träfflista för sökning "hsv:(MEDICIN OCH HÄLSOVETENSKAP) hsv:(Klinisk medicin) hsv:(Annan klinisk medicin) "

Sökning: hsv:(MEDICIN OCH HÄLSOVETENSKAP) hsv:(Klinisk medicin) hsv:(Annan klinisk medicin)

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  • Sandström, Göran, et al. (författare)
  • Increased Level of Serum Hepcidin in Female Adolescent Athletes.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Clinical journal of sport medicine : official journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine. - 1536-3724. ; 28:2, s. 180-183
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To determine the serum hepcidin concentration and standard hematological parameters in a group of female adolescent athletes, compared with a group of nonathlete females.A case-control study.A senior high school for athletes in Gothenburg, Sweden.All female athletes (70), at the school were offered to take part. Fifty-six athletes accepted. From a random sample of age-matched nonathletes, 71 students were recruited to the control group.Iron deficiency (ID) was determined by levels of serum iron, total iron-binding capacity, transferrin saturation (TS), and ferritin. Serum hepcidin was determined by a mass spectrometry method. All samples were taken at least 12 hours after training.The main result was the finding of a significantly elevated serum hepcidin level in the athlete group, 4.7 nmol/L compared with 3.3 nmol/L (P < 0.001) in the nonathlete group. In the athlete group, the serum iron concentration was significantly lower, 14.0 μmol/L compared with 17.6 μmol/L (P = 0.003) in the nonathlete group. No difference was found regarding TS, total iron binding capacity, and ferritin. There was no difference in the occurrence of ID or iron deficiency anaemia (IDA).These findings show an increase in serum hepcidin in a large group of female athletes. The elevated hepcidin levels may affect the iron balance of the athletes, adding to the traditional explanation of dietary intake/iron loss balance.
  • Tasevska, Gordana, et al. (författare)
  • Gender aspects on survival among patients admitted to hospital with suspected or diagnosed heart failure.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Cardiovascular Journal. - Taylor & Francis. - 1651-2006. ; 42, s. 383-391
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives and design. There are conflicting data on gender differences in survival among heart failure (HF) patients. We prospectively assessed gender differences in survival among 930 consecutive patients (464 [49.9%] women, mean age 76.1 +/- 10.1 years), admitted to hospital with suspected or diagnosed HF. Results. Overall, women had lower unadjusted mortality hazard ratio (HR) than men: HR 0.827; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.690-0.992; p = 0.040. Adjusted HR was 0.786; 95% CI 0.601-1.028; p = 0.079. Unadjusted mortality was significantly higher among patients with a discharge HF diagnosis, compared to those without: HR 1.330; 95% CI 1.107-1.597; p = 0.002; adjusted p = 0.289. Women and men with a discharge HF diagnosis had similar survival: unadjusted HR 1.052; 95% CI 0.829-1.336; p = 0.674; adjusted HR 0.875; 95% CI 0.625-1.225; p = 0.437. Women had lower mortality risk among patients without a discharge HF diagnosis: HR 0.630, 95% CI 0.476-0.833, p = 0.001; adjusted HR 0.611, p = 0.036. Conclusion. Prognosis was poor among patients hospitalised with suspected or diagnosed HF. Among all patients, women had better survival, whereas both sexes had similar survival when the HF diagnosis was certified.
  • Löfqvist, Anders (författare)
  • Vowel-related tongue movements in speech: Straight or curved paths? (L).
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. - American Institute of Physics. - 1520-8524. ; 129:3, s. 1149-1152
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper examines tongue movements between the two vowels in sequences of vowel-labial consonant-vowel, addressing the question whether the movement is a straight line or a curved path. Native speakers of Japanese and Italian served as subjects. The linguistic material consisted of words where the bilabial consonant was either long or short. The inclusion of words with different consonant lengths was motivated by earlier findings that the tongue movement is often longer when the consonant is long, which may be due to a more curved movement path. Tongue movements were recorded using a three-transmitter magnetometer system. To assess the movement path, the movement magnitude was calculated in two ways, as a straight line, the Euclidean distance, and as the actual path, obtained by summing the individual Euclidean distances between successive samples from movement onset to offset. The ratio between the path and the Euclidean distance is 1 when the movement is a straight line and greater than 1 when the path is curved. Results show that in virtually all 21 cases examined the ratio was very close to 1 and in most cases 1.2 or less. There was no reliable influence of consonant length on the ratio.
  • Ahnstedt, Hilda, et al. (författare)
  • Male-female differences in upregulation of vasoconstrictor responses in human cerebral arteries.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - Public Library of Science. - 1932-6203. ; 8:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Male-female differences may significantly impact stroke prevention and treatment in men and women, however underlying mechanisms for sexual dimorphism in stroke are not understood. We previously found in males that cerebral ischemia upregulates contractile receptors in cerebral arteries, which is associated with lower blood flow. The present study investigates if cerebral arteries from men and women differ in cerebrovascular receptor upregulation.
  • Asplund, Pär, et al. (författare)
  • One hundred eleven Percutaneous Balloon Compressions for Trigeminal Neuralgia in a Cohort of 66 Patients with Multiple Sclerosis
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Operative neurosurgery. - Oxford University Press. - 2332-4252. ; 17:5, s. 452-459
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Trigeminal neuralgia associated with multiple sclerosis (MS-TN) is comparatively rare and larger series of percutaneous balloon compression (PBC) in such cases are few in the literature.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the results after PBC for MS-TN with regards to therapeutic effect, side effects, and complications.METHODS: One hundred eleven procedures with PBC performed in 66 cases of MS-TN were analyzed. Therapeutic effect was measured as postoperative time to pain recurrence without medication. All complications were compiled and the sensory function was evaluated in a subgroup of cases.RESULTS: The initial pain free rate was 67% and the median time to pain recurrence was 8 mo. Thirty-six patients were treated with PBC only, and among them, the results were worse if treated 3 to 4 times before, compared to first treatment (P = .009-.034). Patients who had several PBCs had worse results already after the first surgery (P &lt; .001). A significant number of patients had impaired sensation to light touch directly after surgery, which was normalized at the late follow-up. Sensimetric testing showed raised thresholds for perception and pain directly after surgery (P = .004-.03), but these were also normalized at the late follow-up.CONCLUSION: PBC is a treatment that can be effective for many patients with MS-TN. Repeated previous surgeries is a risk factor for an unsatisfactory outcome. However, the patients with multiple surgeries had less satisfactory results already at the first procedure, indicating that a therapy resistant disease can be predicted after the first two PBCs. Postoperative sensory deficits were common but not lasting.
  • Chan, K. Y., et al. (författare)
  • Characterization of the Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide Receptor Antagonist Telcagepant (MK-0974) in Human Isolated Coronary Arteries
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. - American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. - 1521-0103. ; 334:3, s. 746-752
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The sensory neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) plays a role in primary headaches, and CGRP receptor antagonists are effective in migraine treatment. CGRP is a potent vasodilator, raising the possibility that antagonism of its receptor could have cardiovascular effects. We therefore investigated the effects of the antimigraine CGRP receptor antagonist telcagepant (MK-0974) [N-[(3R,6S)-6-(2,3-difluorophenyl)-2-oxo-1-(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)azepan- 3-yl]-4-(2-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine-1-yl)piperidine-1-c arboxamide] on human isolated coronary arteries. Arteries with different internal diameters were studied to assess the potential for differential effects across the coronary vascular bed. The concentration-dependent relaxation responses to human alpha CGRP were greater in distal coronary arteries (i.d. 600-1000 mu m; E-max = 83 +/- 7%) than proximal coronary arteries (i.d. 2-3 mm; E-max = 23 +/- 9%), coronary arteries from explanted hearts (i.d. 3-5 mm; E-max = 11 +/- 3%), and coronary arterioles (i.d. 200-300 mu m; E-max = 15 +/- 7%). Telcagepant alone did not induce contraction or relaxation of these coronary blood vessels. Pretreatment with telcagepant (10 nM to 1 mu M) antagonized alpha CGRP-induced relaxation competitively in distal coronary arteries (pA(2) = 8.43 +/- 0.24) and proximal coronary arteries and coronary arterioles (1 mu M telcagepant, giving pK(B) = 7.89 +/- 0.13 and 7.78 +/- 0.16, respectively). alpha CGRP significantly increased cAMP levels in distal, but not proximal, coronary arteries, and this was abolished by pretreatment with telcagepant. Immunohistochemistry revealed the expression and colocalization of the CGRP receptor elements calcitonin-like receptor and receptor activity-modifying protein 1 in the smooth muscle cells in the media layer of human coronary arteries. These findings in vitro support the cardiovascular safety of CGRP receptor antagonists and suggest that telcagepant is unlikely to induce coronary side effects under normal cardiovascular conditions.
  • Edvinsson, Lars, et al. (författare)
  • Effect of the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor antagonist telcagepant in human cranial arteries.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Cephalalgia. - Wiley-Blackwell. - 0333-1024. ; 30:10, s. 1233-1240
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • INTRODUCTION: Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a neuronal messenger in intracranial sensory nerves and is considered to play a significant role in migraine pathophysiology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We investigated the effect of the CGRP receptor antagonist, telcagepant, on CGRP-induced cranial vasodilatation in human isolated cerebral and middle meningeal arteries. We also studied the expression of the CGRP receptor components in cranial arteries with immunocytochemistry. Concentration response curves to αCGRP were performed in human isolated cerebral and middle meningeal arteries in the absence or presence of telcagepant. Arterial slices were stained for RAMP1, CLR and actin in a double immunofluorescence staining. RESULTS: In both arteries, we found that: (i) telcagepant was devoid of any contractile or relaxant effects per se; (ii) pretreatment with telcagepant antagonised the αCGRP-induced relaxation in a competitive manner; and (iii) immunohistochemistry revealed expression and co-localisation of CLR and RAMP1 in the smooth muscle cells in the media layer of both arteries. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide morphological and functional data on the presence of CGRP receptors in cerebral and meningeal arteries, which illustrates a possible site of action of telcagepant in the treatment of migraine.
  • Fäldt, Roger, et al. (författare)
  • Prevalence of thyroid hormone abnormalities in elderly patients with symptoms of organic brain disease.
  • 1996
  • Ingår i: Aging (Milan, Italy). - Kurtis. - 0394-9532. ; 8:5, s. 347-357
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Analysis of the serum concentrations of free thyroid hormones (fT3, fT4) and thyrotropin (TSH) in 173 psychogeriatric patients (94 females and 79 males, mean age 79 +/- 8 years) disclosed that the hormone levels were related to sex, psychiatric diagnosis, medication and the presence of nonthyroid illness (NTI). Subnormal concentrations of thyroid hormones and/or TSH were found in 25% of the patients. In addition, fT3 and fT4 concentrations were significantly lower (p < 0.05 and p < 0.001, respectively) in demented males compared with demented females although the levels were within the reference limits. Strongly negative correlations between fT3 and age (p < 0.001), and between fT3 and the sedimentation rate (SR) (p < 0.01) were found in demented but not in non-demented patients. These correlations were most pronounced in (age) or restricted to (SR) demented males. In addition, the correlation between fT3 and Hb was strongly positive (p < 0.001) in demented as well as in nondemented patients, particularly in males. The concentration of fT4 was positively correlated to Hb in demented males (p < 0.001), whereas TSH concentration was positively correlated to Hb in demented females (p < 0.05). The results show that TSH is not sufficient as the sole screening assay for evaluation of possible thyroid dysfunction in psychogeriatric patients. In addition, central (hypothalamic?) hypothyroidism may be present in a substantial amount of psychogeriatric patients, as we found an adequate TSH response to exogenous thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) also in patients with decreased fT3/fT4 and no signs of non thyroid diseases. Furthermore, there was an apparent lack of correlation between thyroid hormone levels and dementia (or subgroups of dementia), even though thyroid hormone abnormalities seemed to be rather common in frontotemporal dementia (38%) and non specified dementia (36%).
  • Gunnarsson, Salina (författare)
  • Synergistic effects of mesenchymal stromal cells and immunotherapy in experimental brain tumors
  • 2010
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and aggressive form of primary brain tumor. In spite of surgical resection, combined radiation therapy and chemotherapy, the mean survival is less than 15 months following diagnosis. Using the established N29 and N32 animal models of glioma, shown to have many similarities with the human tumor, we are able to study and develop therapeutic strategies against GBM. The tumor models were first characterized according to cancer-initiating capacity. It was established that both models concomitantly and homogenously express several immature and mature markers of neural origin. Furthermore, the glioma cells were highly clonogenic in vitro and showed a robust tumorigenicity in vivo. Next multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) were compared to neural precursor cells (NPCs) in capacity of survival and migration following intratumoral grafting, which revealed that MSCs were superior to NPCs as potential vectors in tumor therapy. It was also concluded that MSCs do not migrate towards a pre-established tumor when grafted behind it or in contact with the corpus callosum. Neither do the MSCs proliferate following grafting, further confirming that MSCs are suitable as cellular vehicles. MSCs derived from adult rat bone marrow are relatively easily isolated and cultured as well as able to be stably transduced to express a therapeutic gene/drug. When MSCs are grafted intratumorally following peripheral immunizations with IFNγ-secreting autologous irradiated tumor cells, a synergistic effect on anti-tumor immunity is noticed with a prolonged survival and an increased tumor infiltration of immune cells. Rat MSCs were modified to produce the cytokine interleukin 7 (IL-7), a growth factor for immune cells. IL-7 secreting MSCs injected intratumorally resulted in a decreased tumor area compared to control. When combined with peripheral immunization the mean area of pre-established tumors was further decreased. The effect on tumor was coupled to an increase of tumor-infiltrating T cells. In conclusion this thesis points to a synergistic effect of intratumorally located MSCs and peripheral immunotherapy with IFNγ-producing tumor cells. Hopefully this combination might be further developed into a clinically useful treatment strategy.
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