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Träfflista för sökning "hsv:(MEDICIN OCH HÄLSOVETENSKAP) hsv:(Klinisk medicin) hsv:(Cancer och onkologi) srt2:(2000-2004);srt2:(2002)"

Sökning: hsv:(MEDICIN OCH HÄLSOVETENSKAP) hsv:(Klinisk medicin) hsv:(Cancer och onkologi) > (2000-2004) > (2002)

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51.
  • Dikic, Inga, 1968- (författare)
  • Signal Transduction by Proline-Rich Tyrosine Kinase Pyk2
  • 2002
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>The proline-rich tyrosine kinase (Pyk2) together with focal adhesion kinase (FAK) define a family of non-receptor protein tyrosine kinases that are regulated by diverse stimuli. Activation of Pyk2 has been implicated in multiple signaling events, including modulation of ion channels, activation of MAP kinase cascades and apoptotic cell death. This thesis investigates the role of Pyk2 in the regulation of mitogenic signals and cell cytoskeleton.</p><p>We identified a hematopoietic isoform of Pyk2 (designated Pyk2-H)that is generated by alternative RNA splicing and is mainly expressed in thymocytes, B cells and natural killer cells. In addition, we demonstrated that engagement of antigen receptors in lymphocytes leads to rapid tyrosine phosphorylation of Pyk2-H suggesting a potential role in host immune responses. These findings were corroborated by defects in B cell-mediated immune responses of Pyk2-/- mice. </p><p>Several reports have previously indicated that Pyk2 acts as an upstream regulator of ERK and JNK MAP kinase cascades in response to numerous extracellular signals. Which MAP kinase pathway is activated by Pyk2 depends on arrays of effector proteins associated with Pyk2. We proposed a model where the formation of Pyk2-Src complexes results in phosphorylation of Shc, p130Cas and Pyk2. This creates binding sites for the SH2 domains of adaptor proteins Grb2 and Crk, which in turn recruit exchange factors for Ras and Rho GTPases that specifically activate ERK or JNK.</p><p>Integration of signaling pathways initiated by receptor tyrosine kinases and integrins is essential for growth factor-mediated biological responses. We described neuronal cellular models where activation of both growth factor receptors and integrins is required for neurite outgrowth. In these cells, Pyk2 and FAK associate with integrin-linked complexes containing EGF receptors via their C- and N-terminal domains. Inhibition of Pyk2/FAK functions was sufficient to block neurite outgrowth and effectors of the C-terminal domain of Pyk2/FAK, including paxillin, were shown to regulate neurite outgrowth independently of ERK/MAP kinase in these cells. We thus proposed that Pyk2 and FAK play important roles in signal integration proximal to the integrin-growth factor receptor complexes.</p>
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52.
53.
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54.
  • Dreinhofer, KE, et al. (författare)
  • DNA ploidy in soft tissue sarcoma: Comparison of flow and image cytometry with clinical follow-up in 93 patients
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Cytometry. - John Wiley and Sons Inc.. - 0196-4763. ; 50:1, s. 19-24
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In soft tissue sarcoma, the prognostic importance of DNA ploidy status is limited. One possible explanation may be technical; small nondiploid stemlines will he diluted in relation to the presence of normal diploid cells and may not be detected by flow cytometry (FCM). We assessed DNA ploidy status in 93 tumors with both FCM and image cytometry (ICM). ICM may permit the exclusion of nonrelevant cells. The ability of the two methods to detect nondiploid stemlines was compared, as were the prognostic consequences. The patients (54 males) had a median age of 69 years. Surgical procedures were performed on all patients. None of the patients had received preoperative radiotherapy or chemotherapy. FCM and ICM were performed with standard methods. The prognostic value was assessed with univariate and multivariate analysis. In 82 of the 93 tumors, a concordant ploidy status by FCM and ICM was found. In 5 FCM type 1-2 tumors (diploid), the identification of nondiploid stemlines by ICM did not influence the metastatic rates. Increasing tumor size, histotype other than liposarcoma, increasing malignancy grade, tumor necrosis, and ICM nondiploidy were univariate prognostic factors for metastasis. In a multivariate analysis, only tumor size larger than 9 cm was a prognostic factor. In about 10% of the tumors, a discrepancy between FCM and ICM ploidy status was found, but we could not find a consistent prognostic consequence of this. Neither FCM nor ICM ploidy status was an independent prognostic factor. (C) 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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55.
  • Einbeigi, Zakaria, 1962-, et al. (författare)
  • Clustering of individuals with both breast and ovarian cancer--a possible indicator of BRCA founder mutations.
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Acta oncologica (Stockholm, Sweden). - 0284-186X. ; 41:2, s. 153-7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In a cohort of 60436 women with a diagnosis of invasive breast carcinoma and known to reside in Sweden in 1960, 321 had a subsequent diagnosis of ovarian carcinoma. Assuming no correlation between the two cancers, one would expect that 191 women would develop ovarian cancer (standardized incidence ratio (SIR) 1.7; 95% confidence interval 1.5-1.9). Women with breast cancer before 40 years of age were at highest risk for developing ovarian cancer (SIR 4.5). Between 40 and 49 years of age, the SIR was 1.9, and at 50 years of age or older, the SIR was 1.3. Most of the excess in ovarian cancer occurred in southern Sweden. The geographic distribution of these cases coincided with the distribution of families with known BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutations. These results suggest that genetic factors account for the excess in ovarian cancer that occurs in breast cancer patients and that geographic clustering of patients who have both breast and ovarian cancer may indicate the presence of a BRCA founder mutation.
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56.
  • Ek, Sara, et al. (författare)
  • Mantle cell lymphomas express a distinct genetic signature affecting lymphocyte trafficking and growth regulation as compared with subpopulations of normal human B cells.
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Cancer Research. - American Association for Cancer Research Inc.. - 1538-7445. ; 62:15, s. 4398-4405
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Differential gene expression analysis, using high-density microarray chips, demonstrated 300-400 genes to be deregulated in mantle cell lymphomas (MCLs) compared with normal B-cell populations. To investigate the significance of this genetic signature in lymphoma etiology and diagnostics, we selected 90 annotated genes involved in a number of cellular functions for further analysis. Our findings demonstrated a normal gene expression of CCR7, which indicated a normal homing to primary follicles, which was in contrast to other receptors for B-cell trafficking, such as a significant down-regulation for CXCR5 and CCR6, as well as down-regulation of IL4R involved in differentiation. This indicated that the malignant transformation of a normal B cell could have appeared during the transition of a primary follicle to a germinal center, i.e., after an initial B-cell activation. Genes involved in blockage of antiproliferative signals in normal cells were also deregulated, e.g., gene expression of TGFbeta2 and Smad3 was suppressed in MCLs. Furthermore, lymphoproliferative signal pathways were active in MCLs compared with normal B cells, because genes encoding, e.g., IL10Ralpha and IL18 were up-regulated, as were oncogenes like Bcl-2 and MERTK. Genes encoding receptors for different neurotransmitters mediating B-cell stimulation, such as norepinephrine and cannabinoids were also up-regulated, again illustrating deregulation of a complex network of genes involved in growth and differentiation. Furthermore, hierarchical cluster analysis revealed two subpopulations of MCLs, which indicates that despite the homogeneous and strong overexpression of cyclin D1, further subtyping might be possible.
57.
  • Elit, L, et al. (författare)
  • Familial and hormonal risk factors for papillary serous uterine cancer
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Gynaecological Oncology. - SOG Canada.. - 0392-2936. ; 23:3, s. 187-190
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: To identify genetic and non-genetic risk factors for papillary serous uterine cancer. Methods: A case-control study was conducted. Case women with papillary serous uterine cancer were compared with two control groups: 1) women with endometrioid uterine cancer and 2) healthy women with no past history of cancer. Cases and controls were matched for age (within two years) and ethnic group. All study subjects completed a questionnaire addressing family history. The cases and healthy controls were assessed for factors associated with estrogen exposure. Results: The risks of breast cancer (RR 1.84, Cl 1.03-331) and of prostate cancer (RR 2.21, CI 0.77-6.37) were higher among the relatives of patients with papillary serous uterine cancer, than among relatives of those with endometrioid uterine cancer. Other significant risk factors included weight at 18 years (p = 0.04) and the use of estrogen replacement therapy (p = 0.04). Conclusion: Relatives of women with papillary serous cancer of the uterus had an increased risk of breast and prostate cancer. Hormonal exposure also increases the risk for this cancer. These Findings suggest that predisposing genetic factors, possibly related to hormone metabolism, may be common to the three forms of cancer.
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58.
  • Elmula, Imad, et al. (författare)
  • Chromosomal aberrations in benign and malignant Bilharzia-associated bladder lesions analyzed by comparative genomic hybridization.
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: BMC Cancer. - BioMed Central (BMC). - 1471-2407. ; 2:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Bilharzia-associated bladder cancer (BAC) is a major health problem in countries where urinary schistosomiasis is endemic. Characterization of the genetic alterations in this cancer might enhance our understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms of the disease but, in contrast to nonbilharzia bladder cancer, BAC has rarely been the object of such scrutiny. In the present study, we aimed to characterize chromosomal imbalances in benign and malignant post-bilharzial lesions, and to determine whether their unique etiology yields a distinct cytogenetic profile as compared to chemically induced bladder tumors. METHODS: DNAs from 20 archival paraffin-embedded post-bilharzial bladder lesions (6 benign and 14 malignant) obtained from Sudanese patients (12 males and 8 females) with a history of urinary bilharziasis were investigated for chromosomal imbalances using comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). Subsequent FISH analysis with pericentromeric probes was performed on paraffin sections of the same cases to confirm the CGH results. RESULTS: Seven of the 20 lesions (6 carcinomas and one granuloma) showed chromosomal imbalances varying from 1 to 6 changes. The most common chromosomal imbalances detected were losses of 1p21-31, 8p21-pter, and 9p and gain of 19p material, seen in three cases each, including the benign lesion. CONCLUSION: Most of the detected imbalances have been repeatedly reported in non-bilharzial bladder carcinomas, suggesting that the cytogenetic profiles of chemical- and bilharzia-induced carcinomas are largely similar. However, loss of 9p seems to be more ubiquitous in BAC than in bladder cancer in industrialized countries.
59.
  • Enblad, G, et al. (författare)
  • Patients above sixty years of age with Hodgkin's lymphoma treated with a new strategy
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Acta Oncologica. - Taylor & Francis. - 1651-226X. ; 41:7-8, s. 659-667
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In the Swedish National Care Programme for Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) a less intensive chemotherapy regimen with individualized dosing (LVPP/OEPA) was introduced in 1989. In total, 139 patients, 77 between 1985 and 1988 and 62 between 1989 and 1992, were studied. Mean ages were 72 and 71 years, respectively. One hundred and nineteen patients were treated with curative intention, 63 (82%) between 1985 and 1988 vs. 56 (90%) between 1989 and 1992 (p = 0.11). All patients (13 vs. 20) treated with radiotherapy only achieved a complete remission (CR). The CR rates (67% vs. 65%) for patients treated with 6-8 cycles of chemotherapy were also similar in the two time periods. The 5-year survival rate was 45% in the period 1985-1988 and 48% in 1989-1992. The survival of elderly HL patients was thus not improved from 1985-1988 to 1989-1992. Thus efforts to improve the chemotherapy regimen with individualized dosing did not change the outcome. Many patients experienced myelosuppression and opportunistic infections that may have contributed to the poor treatment results.
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60.
  • Feng, Kang, et al. (författare)
  • All four members of the Ten-m/Odz family of transmembrane proteins form dimers.
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Journal of Biological Chemistry. - ASBMB. - 1083-351X. ; 277:29, s. 26128-26135
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Ten-m/Odz/teneurins are a new family of four distinct type II transmembrane molecules. Their extracellular domains are composed of an array of eight consecutive EGF modules followed by a large globular domain. Two of the eight modules contain only 5 instead of the typical 6 cysteine residues and have the capability to dimerize in a covalent, disulfide-linked fashion. The structural properties of the extracellular domains of all four mouse Ten-m proteins have been analyzed using secreted, recombinant molecules produced by mammalian HEK-293 cells. Electron microscopic analysis supported by analytical ultracentrifugation data revealed that the recombinant extracellular domains of all Ten-m proteins formed homodimers. SDS-PAGE analysis under nonreducing conditions as well as negative staining after partial denaturation of the molecules indicated that the globular COOH-terminal domains of Ten-m1 and -m4 contained subdomains with a pronounced stability against denaturing agents, especially when compared with the homologous domains of Ten-m2 and -m3. Cotransfection experiments of mammalian cells with two different extracellular domains revealed that Ten-m molecules have also the ability to form heterodimers, a property that, combined with alternative splicing events, allows the formation of a multitude of molecules with different characteristics from a limited set of genes.
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