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Träfflista för sökning "hsv:(MEDICIN OCH HÄLSOVETENSKAP) hsv:(Klinisk medicin) hsv:(Cancer och onkologi) srt2:(2000-2004);srt2:(2002)"

Sökning: hsv:(MEDICIN OCH HÄLSOVETENSKAP) hsv:(Klinisk medicin) hsv:(Cancer och onkologi) > (2000-2004) > (2002)

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  • Hegardt, Cecilia, et al. (författare)
  • Rapid caspase-dependent cell death in cultured human breast cancer cells induced by the polyamine analogue N-1,N-11-diethylnorspermine
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Biochemistry. - Wiley-Blackwell. - 0014-2956. ; 269:3, s. 1033-1039
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The spen-nine analogue N-1,N-11-diethylnorspermine (DENSPM) efficiently depletes the cellular pools of putrescine, spermidine and spermine by down-regulating the activity of the polyamine biosynthetic enzymes and up-regulating the activity of the catabolic enzyme spermidine/spermine N-1-acetyltransferase (SSAT). In the breast cancer cell line L56Br-Cl. treatment with 10 muM DENSPM induced SSAT activity 60 and 240-fold at 24 and 48 h after seeding. respectively, which resulted in polyamine depletion. Cell proliferation appeared to be totally inhibited and within 48 h of treatment, there was an extensive apoptotic response. Fifty percent of the cells were found in the sub-G(1) region, as determined by flow cytometry, and the presence of apoptotic nuclei was morphologically assessed by fluorescence microscopy. Caspase-3 and caspase-9 activities were significantly elevated 24 h after seeding, At 48 h after seeding, caspase-3 and caspase-9 activities were further elevated and at this time point a significant activation of caspase-8 was also found. The DENSPM-induced cell death was dependent on the activation of the caspases as it was inhibited by the general caspase inhibitor Z-Val-Ala-Asp fluoromethyl ketone. The results are discussed in the fight of the L56Br-Cl cells containing mutated BRCA1 and p53, two genes involved in DNA repair.
  • Hemminki, Kari, et al. (författare)
  • Cancer risks in childhood and adolescence among the offspring of immigrants to Sweden
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Cancer. - Nature Publishing Group. - 0007-0920. ; 86:9, s. 8-1414
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We used the nation-wide Swedish Family-Cancer Database to analyse the risk of nervous system tumours, leukaemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in age groups 0-4 and 0-19 years among Swedish-born offspring of immigrants. The study included 850 000 individuals with an immigrant background, including European, Asian and American parents. We calculated standardised incidence ratios for the above three malignancies using Swedish offspring as a reference. Subjects were grouped by region or by selected countries of parental origin. No group differed significantly from Swedes in the occurrence of nervous system neoplasm or leukaemia. Offspring of Yugoslav fathers (SIR 2.27) and Turkish parents were at increased risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The highest risk was noted for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma among young offspring (0-4 years) of two Turkish parents (6.87). The currently available limited data on rates for childhood non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in these countries do not explain the risk in the offspring of immigrants. Yugoslavs and Turks are recent immigrant groups to Sweden, and their offspring have been subject to much population mixing, perhaps leading to recurring infections and immunological stimulation, which may contribute to their excess of lymphomas.
  • Hemminki, Kari, et al. (författare)
  • Cancer risks in first-generation immigrants to Sweden
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - John Wiley and Sons Inc.. - 0020-7136. ; 99:2, s. 28-218
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We used the nationwide Swedish Family-Cancer Database to analyse cancer risks in 613,000 adult immigrants to Sweden. All the immigrants had become parents in Sweden and their median age at immigration was 24 years for men and 22 years for women. We calculated standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for 18 cancer sites using native Swedes as a reference. Data were also available from compatriot marriages. All cancer was decreased by 5% and 8% for immigrant men and women, respectively. However, most of the male increase was due to lung cancer for which male immigrants showed a 41% excess. Among individual cancer sites and immigrant countries, 110 comparisons were significant, 62 showing protection and 48 an increased risk. Most of the differences between the rates in immigrants and Swedes could be ascribed to the variation of cancer incidence in the indigenous populations. Some high immigrant SIRs were 5.05 (n = 6, 95% CI 1.82-11.06) for stomach cancer in Rumanian women and 2.41 (41, 1.73-3.27) for lung cancer in Dutch men. At some sites, such as testis, prostate, skin (melanoma), kidney, cervix and nervous system, the SIRs for immigrants were decreased; in some groups of immigrants SIRs were about 0.20. The highest rates for testicular cancer were noted for Danes and Chileans. Women from Yugoslavia and Turkey had an excess of thyroid tumours. All immigrant groups showed breast, endometrial and ovarian cancers at or below the Swedish level but the differences were no more than 2-fold.
  • Hemminki, K, et al. (författare)
  • Cancer risks in Nordic immigrants and their offspring in Sweden
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Cancer. - Elsevier. - 0959-8049. ; 38:18, s. 34-2428
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Numerous migrant studies on cancer have been carried out, but little data are available on cancer incidence upon inter-European migration. We used the nationwide Swedish Family-Cancer Database to analyse cancer risk among Nordic immigrants and their offspring in Sweden. The parental population had entered Sweden in their 20s and they had become parents in Sweden. Finns were the largest immigrant group including approximately 183,000 parents and 278,000 offspring. We calculated the standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) and 90 or 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for 26 cancer sites using native Swedes as a reference. Cancers in the first generation immigrants followed the rates in the countries of origin, reaching high SIRs for tobacco-related, cervical and testicular cancer among Danes and for stomach cancer among Finns. Only a few cancers, such as cervical cancer was increased in the second generation. At many sites, particularly among the Finns, protection was observed in the first generation. At three sites, breast, ovary and urinary bladder, where plausible evidence for protection was found even among offspring, this was not reinforced among the offspring of compatriot parents, which is inconsistent with heritable effects. Protection against melanoma was strongest among the offspring of compatriots, but the contribution of cultural factors cannot be excluded. As the parents immigrated to Sweden in their 20s, their cancer pattern, including habits and life style, appeared to be set before that age because the differences to Swedes persisted even in cancers that predominate in old age. Immigrant populations would appear to be attractive subjects to study etiological factors of cancer at sites where causes remain poorly understood, such as testicular cancer.
  • Hemminki, Kari, et al. (författare)
  • Cancer risks in second-generation immigrants to Sweden
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - John Wiley and Sons Inc.. - 0020-7136. ; 99:2, s. 37-229
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We used the nationwide Swedish Family-Cancer Database to analyze cancer risks in Sweden-born descendants of immigrants from European and North American countries. Our study included close to 600,000 0-66-year-old descendants of an immigrant father or mother. We calculated standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for 17 cancer sites using native Swedes as a reference. All cancer was marginally below the Swedish incidence in offspring of immigrant origin. Decreased SIRs were observed for breast cancer among Norwegian descendants, melanoma among descendants of Hungarian fathers and ovarian and bladder cancer among descendents of Finnish mothers, all consistent with the difference in cancer incidence between Swedes and the indigenous populations. Cervical cancer was increased in daughters of Danish men, whereas thyroid cancer and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were in excess in offspring of parents of Yugoslav and Asian descent. Even these results agreed with the high incidence rates in parents compared to Swedes, except that for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma other explanations are needed; these may be related to immune malfunction. Comparison of the results between the first- and the second-generation immigrants suggest that the first 2 decades of life are important in setting the pattern for cancer development in subsequent life. Birth in Sweden sets the Swedish pattern for cancer incidence, irrespective of the nationality of descent, while entering Sweden in the 20s is already too late to influence the environmentally imprinted program for the cancer destiny.
  • Hemminki, Kari, et al. (författare)
  • Cancer risks in twins : results from the Swedish family-cancer database
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - John Wiley and Sons Inc.. - 0020-7136. ; 99:6, s. 8-873
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Twin studies on cancer have addressed two general questions, one about the possible carcinogenic effects of twinning and the second about heritable effects of cancer. The first question is answered by comparing the occurrence of cancer in twins to that in singletons; the second is answered in probandwise analysis of monozygotic twins compared to dizygotic twins or siblings. We used the nationwide Swedish Family-Cancer Database on 10.2 million individuals and 62,574 0-66-year-old twins to calculate standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for all main cancer compared to cancer in singletons. In probandwise analysis, the SIR was calculated for the co-twin of an affected twin. The overall risk of cancer in same or opposite sex twins was at the level of the risk for singletons. Testicular cancer was increased among same sex twins and all twins to an SIR of 1.43. Melanoma was decreased in these groups of twins to an SIR of 0.84. Some other cancer sites were increased or decreased in some groups of twins, but none in all twins. The SIR of breast cancer was 1.01 and 1.04 in same and opposite sex twins, respectively. Probandwise analysis showed increased risks for Hodgkin's disease in males and breast cancer and childhood acute lymphoid leukemia among females. The data on this unselected population of twins suggest that twinning per se is not a risk factor of cancer. However, because twins are smaller than singletons at birth, some possible effects could be masked by such differences. In utero hormonal exposures may be related to the risk of testicular cancer. The protective effects in melanoma may be due to socioeconomic factors.
  • Hemminki, K., et al. (författare)
  • Molecular epidemiology of VHL gene mutations in renal cell carcinoma patients relation to dietary and other factors
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Carcinogenesis. - Oxford, United Kingdom : Oxford University Press. - 0143-3334. - 0143-3334 (Print) 0143-3334 (Linking) ; 23:5, s. 809-815
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Carcinogenic chemicals act through DNA damage and mitogenic effects. No established mechanism explains the cancer preventive effects, if any, of food items, such as vegetables and fruit. If such data were available, preferably on tumor-initiating genes, the evidence for the protective effects would become stronger. The von Hipple-Lindau (VHL) gene is the tumor suppressor gene predisposing to both sporadic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and von Hippel-Lindau disease. We have earlier analyzed VHL mutations in RCCs from 102 Swedish patients identified in a case-control study and here examine associations between patient characteristics, including dietary habits and mutations, considering the type of mutation. The results are given as odds ratios (OR), separately for smokers and all patients. In univariate analysis, consumption of vegetables and citrus fruit decreased the frequency of VHL mutations among smokers and citrus fruit among all patients. In multivariate analysis of smokers' characteristics, welding fumes showed a risk of 5.63 for multiple VHL mutations. In smokers, citrus fruit decreased the OR of GC to AT mutations to 0.13 and that of multiple mutations to 0.17; vegetables decreased the OR for single mutations to 0.22. Among all subjects, welding fumes were a risk factor and citrus fruit a protective factor. Additionally, an intake of selenium protected against multiple mutations. The present results provide evidence that the intake of vegetables, selenium and particularly of citrus fruit protects the renal VHL gene from mutational insults that may be endogenous or common in a population. Even though most of the associations are biologically plausible, and vegetables and fruit were an a priori hypothesis, fortuitous results cannot be ruled out in this relatively small study.
  • Hemminki, Kari, et al. (författare)
  • Time trends in the incidence of cervical and other genital squamous cell carcinomas and adenocarcinomas in Sweden, 1958-1996
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology. - Elsevier. - 0301-2115. ; 101:1, s. 9-64
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: We wanted to examine reasons for the different incidence trends for cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC, declining) and adenocarcinoma (increasing).METHODS: The Swedish Family-Cancer Database on 9.6 million individuals was used to derive incidence trends between 1958 and 1996. Cervical cancers were compared to vaginal and vulvar cancers.RESULTS: A total of 15405 invasive cervical SCCs and 1920 adenocarcinomas were identified. The incidence of SCCs decreased and that of adenocarcinoma increased during the study period, with similar trends among the in situ forms. The incidence of in situ vaginal and vulvar SCC increase 22-fold, whereas, invasive SCC and adenocarcinoma remained unchanged. The age-incidence curves for adenocarcinoma resembled those for SCC before screening, suggesting similar clinical course.CONCLUSIONS: The data suggest that the increase in the incidence of adenocarcinoma is related to an increasing prevalence of human papilloma virus (HPV) infection in female genitals, perhaps in addition to other factors. The increase is not seen in SCC because of effective screening.
  • Hindorf, Cecilia, et al. (författare)
  • Time dependence of the activity concentration ratio of red marrow to blood and implications for red marrow dosimetry.
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Cancer. - John Wiley and Sons Inc.. - 1097-0142. ; 94:4 Suppl, s. 1235-1239
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The method for red marrow dosimetry in radioimmunotherapy, in the absence of specific activity uptake in red marrow, is based on the activity measured in the blood or plasma. The activity concentration ratio of red marrow to blood is then assumed to be constant. The aim of the current study was to determine whether this ratio varies with time after injection. METHODS: Measurements were carried out with both animals and patients.Tumor-bearing rats were intravenously injected with iodine-131-, iodine-125-, indium-111-, or rhenium-188-labeled BR96, a chimeric immunoglobulin G1 monoclonal antibody. (All were chelate-labeled, except for iodine-131, which was iodogen-labeled.) Measurements were made of the activity concentration in blood and bone marrow at different points in time after injection, and the ratio of activity concentration in red marrow and blood as a function of time postinjection (RMBLR[t)]) was calculated. For patients treated with iodine-131-labeled monoclonal antibody (LL2, Immunomedics Inc., Morris Plains, NJ; anti-CD22; immunoglobulin G2 isotype of mouse origin), blood samples were drawn and scintillation camera images taken at different times after injection. The red marrow activity concentration in the sacrum was determined by activity quantification from regions of interest. The activity concentration in blood was also measured. The RMBLR(t) was calculated based on these data. RESULTS: For both patients and rats, the RMBLR(t) was increased 72 hours after injection. Furthermore, it was found that the use of a constant RMBLR can lead to an over- or underestimation of the absorbed dose in bone marrow. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate the difficulty in using fixed values of the activity concentration ratio of red marrow to blood for dosimetry.
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