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Träfflista för sökning "hsv:(MEDICIN OCH HÄLSOVETENSKAP) hsv:(Klinisk medicin) hsv:(Cancer och onkologi) srt2:(2000-2004);srt2:(2003)"

Sökning: hsv:(MEDICIN OCH HÄLSOVETENSKAP) hsv:(Klinisk medicin) hsv:(Cancer och onkologi) > (2000-2004) > (2003)

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51.
  •  
52.
  • Dahlén, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Clustering of deletions on chromosome 13 in benign and low-malignant lipomatous tumors
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - John Wiley and Sons Inc.. - 0020-7136. ; 103:5, s. 616-623
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Deletions and structural rearrangements of the long arm of chromosome 13 are frequently observed in benign and low-malignant lipomatous tumors, but nothing is known about their molecular genetic consequences. We assessed the karyotypes of 40 new and 22 previously published cases (35 ordinary lipomas, 15 spindle cell/pleomorphic lipomas, 2 myxolipomas, 1 angiomyxolipoma and 9 atypical lipomatous tumors) with chromosome 13-abnormalities, and found bands 13q12-22 to be frequently affected. Twenty-seven cases with structural abnormalities within this region were selected for breakpoint and deletion mapping by metaphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), using a set of 20 probes. Deletions were found in 23 of 27 cases. The remaining 4 cases had seemingly balanced rearrangements. The breakpoints were scattered but clustered to band 13q14, and in all cases with unbalanced abnormalities, a limited region within band 13q14 was partially or completely deleted. A deletion within band 13q14 was found together with a breakpoint on the other homologue in 5 cases, 4 of which could be tested further with regard to the status of the retinoblastoma (RB1)-gene. In all 4 cases, only 1 copy of the gene was deleted. In addition to the breaks and deletions in the vicinity of the RB1-locus, several other regions of 13q were recurrently affected, e.g., in the vicinity of the hereditary breast cancer (BRCA2; 13q12)- and lipoma HMGIC fusion partner (LHFP; 13q13)- genes. Our findings strongly indicate that deletion of a limited region (approximately 2.5 Mbp) within 13q14, distal to the RB1-locus, is of importance in the development of a subset of lipomatous tumors.
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53.
  • Dasu, Alexandru, et al. (författare)
  • Should single or distributed parameters be used to explain the steepness of tumour control probability curves?
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Physics in Medicine and Biology. - 0031-9155 .- 1361-6560. ; 48:3, s. 387-397
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Linear quadratic (LQ) modelling allows easy comparison of different fractionation schedules in radiotherapy. However, estimating the radiation effect of a single fractionated treatment introduces many questions with respect to the parameters to be used in the modelling process. Several studies have used tumour control probability (TCP) curves in order to derive the values for the LQ parameters that may be used further for the analysis and ranking of treatment plans. Unfortunately, little attention has been paid to the biological relevance of these derived parameters, either for the initial number of cells or their intrinsic radiosensitivity, or both. This paper investigates the relationship between single values for the TCP parameters and the resulting dose-response curve. The results of this modelling study show how clinical observations for the position and steepness of the TCP curve can be explained only by the choice of extreme values for the parameters, if they are single values. These extreme values are in contradiction with experimental observations. This contradiction suggests that single values for the parameters are not likely to explain reasonably the clinical observations and that some distributions of input parameters should be taken into consideration.</p>
  •  
54.
  • Daşu, Alexandru, et al. (författare)
  • Should single or distributed parameters be used to explain the steepness of tumour control probability curves?
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Physics in Medicine and Biology. - 0031-9155 .- 1361-6560. ; 48:3, s. 387-397
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Linear quadratic (LQ) modelling allows easy comparison of different fractionation schedules in radiotherapy. However, estimating the radiation effect of a single fractionated treatment introduces many questions with respect to the parameters to be used in the modelling process. Several studies have used tumour control probability (TCP) curves in order to derive the values for the LQ parameters that may be used further for the analysis and ranking of treatment plans. Unfortunately, little attention has been paid to the biological relevance of these derived parameters, either for the initial number of cells or their intrinsic radiosensitivity, or both. This paper investigates the relationship between single values for the TCP parameters and the resulting dose-response curve. The results of this modelling study show how clinical observations for the position and steepness of the TCP curve can be explained only by the choice of extreme values for the parameters, if they are single values. These extreme values are in contradiction with experimental observations. This contradiction suggests that single values for the parameters are not likely to explain reasonably the clinical observations and that some distributions of input parameters should be taken into consideration.</p>
  •  
55.
  •  
56.
  • Dasu, Alexandru, et al. (författare)
  • Theoretical simulation of tumour oxygenation and results from acute and chronic hypoxia
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Physics in Medicine and Biology. - 0031-9155 .- 1361-6560. ; 48:17, s. 2829-2842
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>The tumour microenvironment is considered to be responsible for the outcome of cancer treatment and therefore it is extremely important to characterize and quantify it. Unfortunately, most of the experimental techniques available now are invasive and generally it is not known how this influences the results. Non-invasive methods on the other hand have a geometrical resolution that is not always suited for the modelling of the tumour response. Theoretical simulation of the microenvironment may be an alternative method that can provide quantitative data for accurately describing tumour tissues. This paper presents a computerized model that allows the simulation of the tumour oxygenation. The model simulates numerically the fundamental physical processes of oxygen diffusion and consumption in a two-dimensional geometry in order to study the influence of the different parameters describing the tissue geometry. The paper also presents a novel method to simulate the effects of diffusion-limited (chronic) hypoxia and perfusion-limited (acute) hypoxia. The results show that all the parameters describing tissue vasculature are important for describing tissue oxygenation. Assuming that vascular structure is described by a distribution of inter-vessel distances, both the average and the width of the distribution are needed in order to fully characterize the tissue oxygenation. Incomplete data, such as distributions measured in a non-representative region of the tissue, may not give relevant tissue oxygenation. Theoretical modelling of tumour oxygenation also allows the separation between acutely and chronically hypoxic cells, a distinction that cannot always be seen with other methods. It was observed that the fraction of acutely hypoxic cells depends not only on the fraction of collapsed blood vessels at any particular moment, but also on the distribution of vessels in space as well. All these suggest that theoretical modelling of tissue oxygenation starting from the basic principles is a robust method that can be used to quantify the tissue oxygenation and to provide input parameters for other simulations.</p>
  •  
57.
  • Dasu, Alexandru, et al. (författare)
  • Theoretical simulation of tumour oxygenation and results from acute and chronic hypoxia
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Physics in Medicine and Biology. - 0031-9155 .- 1361-6560. ; 48:17, s. 2829-2842
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>The tumour microenvironment is considered to be responsible for the outcome of cancer treatment and therefore it is extremely important to characterize and quantify it. Unfortunately, most of the experimental techniques available now are invasive and generally it is not known how this influences the results. Non-invasive methods on the other hand have a geometrical resolution that is not always suited for the modelling of the tumour response. Theoretical simulation of the microenvironment may be an alternative method that can provide quantitative data for accurately describing tumour tissues.</p> <p>This paper presents a computerized model that allows the simulation of the tumour oxygenation. The model simulates numerically the fundamental physical processes of oxygen diffusion and consumption in a two-dimensional geometry in order to study the influence of the different parameters describing the tissue geometry. The paper also presents a novel method to simulate the effects of diffusion-limited (chronic) hypoxia and perfusion-limited (acute) hypoxia.</p> <p>The results show that all the parameters describing tissue vasculature are important for describing tissue oxygenation. Assuming that vascular structure is described by a distribution of inter-vessel distances, both the average and the width of the distribution are needed in order to fully characterize the tissue oxygenation. Incomplete data, such as distributions measured in a non-representative region of the tissue, may not give relevant tissue oxygenation.</p> <p>Theoretical modelling of tumour oxygenation also allows the separation between acutely and chronically hypoxic cells, a distinction that cannot always be seen with other methods. It was observed that the fraction of acutely hypoxic cells depends not only on the fraction of collapsed blood vessels at any particular moment, but also on the distribution of vessels in space as well.</p> <p>All these suggest that theoretical modelling of tissue oxygenation starting from the basic principles is a robust method that can be used to quantify the tissue oxygenation and to provide input parameters for other simulations.</p>
  •  
58.
  • Daşu, Alexandru, et al. (författare)
  • Theoretical simulation of tumour oxygenation and results from acute and chronic hypoxia
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Physics in Medicine and Biology. - 0031-9155 .- 1361-6560. ; 48:17, s. 2829-2842
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>The tumour microenvironment is considered to be responsible for the outcome of cancer treatment and therefore it is extremely important to characterize and quantify it. Unfortunately, most of the experimental techniques available now are invasive and generally it is not known how this influences the results. Non-invasive methods on the other hand have a geometrical resolution that is not always suited for the modelling of the tumour response. Theoretical simulation of the microenvironment may be an alternative method that can provide quantitative data for accurately describing tumour tissues. This paper presents a computerized model that allows the simulation of the tumour oxygenation. The model simulates numerically the fundamental physical processes of oxygen diffusion and consumption in a two-dimensional geometry in order to study the influence of the different parameters describing the tissue geometry. The paper also presents a novel method to simulate the effects of diffusion-limited (chronic) hypoxia and perfusion-limited (acute) hypoxia. The results show that all the parameters describing tissue vasculature are important for describing tissue oxygenation. Assuming that vascular structure is described by a distribution of inter-vessel distances, both the average and the width of the distribution are needed in order to fully characterize the tissue oxygenation. Incomplete data, such as distributions measured in a non-representative region of the tissue, may not give relevant tissue oxygenation. Theoretical modelling of tumour oxygenation also allows the separation between acutely and chronically hypoxic cells, a distinction that cannot always be seen with other methods. It was observed that the fraction of acutely hypoxic cells depends not only on the fraction of collapsed blood vessels at any particular moment, but also on the distribution of vessels in space as well. All these suggest that theoretical modelling of tissue oxygenation starting from the basic principles is a robust method that can be used to quantify the tissue oxygenation and to provide input parameters for other simulations.</p>
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59.
  •  
60.
  • Denmeade, SR, et al. (författare)
  • Prostate-specific antigen-activated thapsigargin prodrug as targeted therapy for prostate cancer
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. - Oxford University Press. - 1460-2105. ; 95:13, s. 990-1000
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Standard anti-proliferative chemotherapy is relatively ineffective against slowly proliferating androgen-independent prostate cancer cells within metastatic sites. In contrast, the lipophilic cytotoxin thapsigargin, which causes apoptosis by disrupting intracellular free Ca2+ levels, is effective against both proliferative and quiescent (i.e., G(0)-arrested) cells. However, thapsigargin's mechanism of action indicates that it is unlikely to be selective for cancer cells or prostate cells. Methods: We coupled a chemically modified form of thapsigargin, L12ADT, to a peptide carrier that is a substrate for the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) protease to produce a soluble, cell-impermeant latent prodrug that is specifically activated extracellularly within metastatic prostate cancer sites by PSA. We analyzed the kinetics of PSA hydrolysis of the prodrug, the in vitro cytoxicity of the prodrug against PSA-producing LNCaP human prostate cancer and PSA non-producing HCT-116 human colon cancer cells, and the in vivo pharmacokinetics of the prodrug in mice. We also analyzed antitumor efficacy of the prodrug in nude mice xenograft models of prostate cancer (using LNCaP cells) and renal carcinoma (using human SN12C cells). Results: The L12ADT peptide prodrug was hydrolyzed efficiently by PSA, was selectively toxic to PSA-producing prostate cancer cells in vitro, and was stable in human plasma. A single dose of 7 mg/kg resulted in a peak serum prodrug concentration of 15.4 +/- 1.1 muM and a half-life of approximately 2.8 hours. Over 24 hours, less than 0.5% of free L12ADT was observed in plasma. Levels of prodrug and liberated L12ADT in prostate cancer xenograft tumors were approximately eightfold and sixfold, respectively, higher than the in vitro LD(50)s. Prostate cancer xenograft tumors in mice treated with prodrug by intravenous administration were growth-inhibited without substantial host toxicity. Continuous subcutaneous prodrug administration in mice produced complete growth inhibition of established PSA-producing prostate cancer xenograft tumors but had no effect on PSA non-producing renal carcinoma xenograft tumors. Conclusion: Further development of PSA-activated thapsigargin prodrugs as therapy for metastatic prostate cancer is warranted.
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