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Träfflista för sökning "hsv:(MEDICIN OCH HÄLSOVETENSKAP) hsv:(Klinisk medicin) hsv:(Cancer och onkologi) srt2:(2000-2004);srt2:(2003)"

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81.
  • Glimelius, B, et al. (författare)
  • A systematic overview of radiation therapy effects in rectal cancer
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Acta Oncologica. - Taylor & Francis. - 1651-226X. ; 42:5-6, s. 476-492
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A systematic review of radiation therapy trials in several turnout types was performed by The Swedish Council of Technology Assessment in Health Care (SBU). The procedures for evaluation of the scientific literature are described separately (Acta Oncol 2003; 42: 357-365). This synthesis of the literature on radiation therapy for rectal cancer is based on data from 42 randomized trials and 3 meta-analyses. Moreover, data from 36 prospective studies, 7 retrospective studies and 17 other articles were used. A total of 131 scientific articles are included, involving 25351 patients. The results were compared with those of a similar overview from 1996 including 15 042 patients. The conclusions reached can be summarized thus: The results after rectal cancer surgery have improved during the past decade. It is likely that local failure rates after 5 years of follow-up at hospitals adopting the TME-concept (TME=total mesorectal excision) have decreased from about 28% to 10-15%. Preoperative radiotherapy at biological effective doses above 30 Gy decreases the relative risk of a local failure by more than half (50-70%). Postoperative radiotherapy decreases the risk by 30-40% at doses that generally are higher than those used preoperatively. There is strong evidence that preoperative radiotherapy is more effective than postoperative. There is moderate evidence that preoperative radiotherapy significantly decreases the local failure rate (from 8% to 2% after 2 years) also with TME. There is strong evidence that preoperative radiotherapy improves survival (by about 10%). There is no evidence that postoperative radiotherapy improves survival. There is some indication that survival is prolonged when postoperative radiotherapy is combined with concomitant chemotherapy. Preoperative radiotherapy at adequate doses can be given with low acute toxicity. Higher, and unacceptable acute toxicity has been seen in some preoperative radiotherapy trials using suboptimal techniques. Postoperative radiotherapy can also be given with acceptable acute toxicity. The long-term consequences of radiotherapy appear to be limited with adequate radiation techniques, although they have been less extensively studied. Longer follow-up periods are needed before firm conclusions can be drawn. Peroperative radiotherapy, preferably preoperative since it is more effective, is routinely recommended for most patients with rectal cancer since it can substantially decrease the risk of a local failure and increases survival. In a primarily non-resectable turnout, preoperative radiotherapy can cause tumour regression allowing subsequent radical surgery This therapy is routinely indicated. Whether radiochemotherapy is more efficient than radiotherapy alone is not clear, since the results of four small randomized trials are partly conflicting. Preoperative radiotherapy, frequently combined with chemotherapy, has been used to increase the chances of sphincter-preserving surgery in low-lying tumours. The literature is inconclusive with respect to how frequently this occurs. Radiotherapy frequently produces symptom relief in patients with rectal cancer not amendable to surgery.
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82.
  • Glimelius, Bengt, et al. (författare)
  • A systematic overview of radiation therapy effects in rectal cancer.
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Acta oncologica (Stockholm, Sweden). - 0284-186X. ; 42:5-6, s. 476-92
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A systematic review of radiation therapy trials in several tumour types was performed by The Swedish Council of Technology Assessment in Health Care (SBU). The procedures for evaluation of the scientific literature are described separately (Acta Oncol 2003; 42: 357-365). This synthesis of the literature on radiation therapy for rectal cancer is based on data from 42 randomized trials and 3 meta-analyses. Moreover, data from 36 prospective studies, 7 retrospective studies and 17 other articles were used. A total of 131 scientific articles are included, involving 25 351 patients. The results were compared with those of a similar overview from 1996 including 15 042 patients. The conclusions reached can be summarized thus: The results after rectal cancer surgery have improved during the past decade. It is likely that local failure rates after 5 years of follow-up at hospitals adopting the TME-concept (TME = total mesorectal excision) have decreased from about 28% to 10-15%. Preoperative radiotherapy at biological effective doses above 30 Gy decreases the relative risk of a local failure by more than half (50-70%). Postoperative radiotherapy decreases the risk by 30-40% at doses that generally are higher than those used preoperatively. There is strong evidence that preoperative radiotherapy is more effective than postoperative. There is moderate evidence that preoperative radiotherapy significantly decreases the local failure rate (from 8% to 2% after 2 years) also with TME. There is strong evidence that preoperative radiotherapy improves survival (by about 10%). There is no evidence that postoperative radiotherapy improves survival. There is some indication that survival is prolonged when postoperative radiotherapy is combined with concomitant chemotherapy. Preoperative radiotherapy at adequate doses can be given with low acute toxicity. Higher, and unacceptable acute toxicity has been seen in some preoperative radiotherapy trials using suboptimal techniques. Postoperative radiotherapy can also be given with acceptable acute toxicity. The long-term consequences of radiotherapy appear to be limited with adequate radiation techniques, although they have been less extensively studied. Longer follow-up periods are needed before firm conclusions can be drawn. Peroperative radiotherapy, preferably preoperative since it is more effective, is routinely recommended for most patients with rectal cancer since it can substantially decrease the risk of a local failure and increases survival. In a primarily non-resectable tumour, preoperative radiotherapy can cause tumour regression allowing subsequent radical surgery. This therapy is routinely indicated. Whether radiochemotherapy is more efficient than radiotherapy alone is not clear, since the results of four small randomized trials are partly conflicting. Preoperative radiotherapy, frequently combined with chemotherapy, has been used to increase the chances of sphincter-preserving surgery in low-lying tumours. The literature is inconclusive with respect to how frequently this occurs. Radiotherapy frequently produces symptom relief in patients with rectal cancer not amendable to surgery.
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83.
  • Gonzalez, CA, et al. (författare)
  • Smoking and the risk of gastric cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - John Wiley and Sons Inc.. - 0020-7136. ; 107:4, s. 629-634
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Smoking has recently been recognised as causally associated with the development of gastric cancer (GC). However, evidence on the effect by sex, duration and intensity of smoking, anatomic subsite and cessation of smoking is limited. Our objective was to assess the relation between tobacco use and GC incidence in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). We studied data from 521,468 individuals recruited from 10 European countries taking part in the EPIC study. Participants completed lifestyle questionnaires that included questions on lifetime consumption of tobacco and diet in 1991-1998. Participants were followed until September 2002, and during that period 305 cases of stomach cancer were identified. After exclusions, 274 were eligible for the analysis, using the Cox proportional hazard model. After adjustment for educational level, consumption of fresh fruit, vegetables and preserved meat, alcohol intake and body mass index (BMI), there was a significant association between cigarette smoking and gastric cancer risk: the hazard ratio (HR) for ever smokers was 1.45 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.08-1.94). The HR of current cigarette smoking was 1.73 (95% CI = 1.06-2.83) in males and 1.87 (95% CI = 1.12-3.12) in females. Hazard ratios increased with intensity and duration of cigarette smoked. A significant decrease of risk was observed after 10 years of quitting smoking. A preliminary analysis of 121 cases with identified anatomic site showed that current cigarette smokers had a higher HR of GC in the cardia (HR = 4.10) than in the distal part of the stomach (HR = 1.94). In this cohort, 17.6 % (95% CI = 10.5-29.5 %) of GC cases may be attributable to smoking. Findings from this large study support the causal relation between smoking and gastric cancer in this European population. Stomach cancer should be added to the burden of diseases caused by smoking. (C) 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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84.
  • Greimel, E, et al. (författare)
  • An international field study of the reliability and validity of a disease-specific questionnaire module (the QLQ-OV28) in assessing the quality of life of patients with ovarian cancer.
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990). - 0959-8049. ; 39:10, s. 1402-8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This study defines the psychometric properties of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) quality of life (QOL) questionnaire designed to measure the QOL of patients with ovarian cancer. The ovarian cancer module (EORTC QLQ-OV28) was developed to supplement the EORTC QLQ-C30. The core questionnaire and the QLQ-OV28 were prospectively administered to 368 ovarian cancer patients after they had been treated with radical or debulking surgery followed by chemotherapy. The QLQ-OV28 module assesses abdominal/gastrointestinal symptoms, peripheral neuropathy, other chemotherapy side-effects, hormonal/menopausal symptoms, body image, attitude to disease/treatment and sexual functioning. Questionnaires were well accepted by patients, baseline compliance rates were 86%, 72% provided a second assessment, less than 3% of the items had missing data. Multi-trait scaling analyses confirmed the hypothesised scales. All hypothesised scales exhibited good psychometric properties. These results support the clinical and psychometric validity of the EORTC QLQ-OV28 module as a supplement to the EORTC QLQ-C30.
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85.
  • Gruvberger, Sofia, et al. (författare)
  • Expression profiling to predict outcome in breast cancer: the influence of sample selection
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Breast Cancer Research. - BioMed Central (BMC). - 1465-5411. ; 5:1, s. 23-26
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Gene expression profiling of tumors using DNA microarrays is a promising method for predicting prognosis and treatment response in cancer patients. It was recently reported that expression profiles of sporadic breast cancers could be used to predict disease recurrence better than currently available clinical and histopathological prognostic factors. Having observed an overlap in those data between the genes that predict outcome and those that predict estrogen receptor- status, we examined their predictive power in an independent data set. We conclude that it may be important to define prognostic expression profiles separately for estrogen receptor--positive and estrogen receptor--negative tumors.
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