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Träfflista för sökning "hsv:(MEDICIN OCH HÄLSOVETENSKAP) hsv:(Klinisk medicin) hsv:(Cancer och onkologi) srt2:(2000-2004);srt2:(2004)"

Sökning: hsv:(MEDICIN OCH HÄLSOVETENSKAP) hsv:(Klinisk medicin) hsv:(Cancer och onkologi) > (2000-2004) > (2004)

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41.
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42.
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43.
  • Bardi, G, et al. (författare)
  • Tumor karyotype predicts clinical outcome in colorectal cancer patients
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Oncology. - American Society of Clinical Oncology. - 1527-7755. ; 22:13, s. 2623-2634
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose To investigate the prognostic value of the overall karyotypic features and specific chromosome aberrations in colorectal cancer (CRC). Patients and Methods Cytogenetic features of 150 primary CRCs investigated at the time of surgery were correlated with patient survival by univariate and multivariate analyses, using classical clinicopathologic parameters as covariates. Results In univariate analysis, in addition to tumor grade and clinical stage, structural aberrations as well as rearrangements of chromosomes 8 and 16 were significantly correlated with shorter overall survival. Karyotypic complexity, rearrangements of chromosomes 8 and 16, and loss of chromosome 4 were significantly correlated with shorter disease-free survival. In multivariate analysis, in addition to tumor grade, the type of chromosome aberrations (structural or numerical), ploidy, and loss of chromosome 18 came across as independent prognostic factors in the group of all patients. In the subset of patients with stage I and II carcinomas, none of the clinicopathologic variables could independently predict patient survival, whereas the presence of structural chromosomal aberrations was the only independent predictor of poor prognosis. In the subset of patients with stage III carcinomas, the presence of structural changes of chromosome 8 was a stronger independent predictor of prognosis than was tumor grade. Conclusion Cytogenetic tumor features are valuable predictors of prognosis in CRC patients. The tumor karyotype should therefore be taken into account in the clinical management of patients with this disease, especially for patients having cancers of the early or intermediate stages I, II, and III.
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44.
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45.
  • Bengtsson, Therese (författare)
  • Functional analysis of the alpha10beta1 integrin
  • 2004
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Popular Abstract in Swedish Brosk är en speciell typ av vävnad, som bl.a. finns på våra ledytor, där det fungerar som ett stötdämpande och skyddande lager för benet. Broskets viktiga egenskaper framstår klart vid sjukdomar, som artros, där brosket på ledytor har förstörts och benet blottläggs, vilket resulterar i en permanent smärta. Brosk produceras av den enda celltyp som finns i broskvävnaden; kondrocyten. Dessa celler producerar en bindväv som är unik för brosk och innehåller olika sorters kollagener och proteoglykaner, vilka bildar ett rikt nätverk. Brosk binder stora mängder vatten, och detta resulterar i en vävnad som klarar av att motstå hård belastning samt även kan fördela denna över en större yta. Det finns glest med celler i brosk, med dessa celler är oerhört viktiga då de upprätthåller balansen av uppbyggnad och nedbrytning av molekyler i detta nätverk. Kondrocyter har inte direkt kontakt med varandra utan kommunicerar med varandra, och med omgivningen, via bl.a. speciella molekyler på cellytan som kallas integriner. Den största delen av integrinet finns utanför cellen och kan binda till molekyler i omgivningen, men en del av integrinet går genom cellens membran och in till cellens insida, där den kommunicerar med cellens inre. På så sätt bildar integrinet en länk mellan cellen och dess omgivning och kan förmedla signaler mellan dessa. Jag har i min avhandling studerat ett speciellt integrin, a10b1 integrinet, som till största delen finns på kondrocyters cellyta. a10b1 integrinet binder till kollagen, som utgör stommen i broskvävnaden. I det första arbetet isolerade vi genen som kodar för a10b1 integrinet i mus och studerade dess uppbyggnad. Denna kunskap behövdes för att i nästa steg kunna konstruera en mus, som saknade genen för a10 integrinet. När vi studerade kondrocyter som uttryckte a10b1 fann vi två olika former av a10 proteinet, både i människa och i mus. Vad detta har för biologisk betydelse vet vi inte. För att förstå funktionen av a10b1 integrinet utvecklade vi, i det andra arbete, en s.k. ”knock-out” (KO) mus. Detta innebar a10-integrin genen förändrades, så att a10b1 integrinet inte kunde produceras. Möss utan a10b1 integrinet ser normala ut, men har något kortare ben än vanliga möss. Orsaken till detta beror sannolikt på att kondrocyter utan a10b1 integrinet inte delar sig lika ofta som normala kondrocyter gör. Möss utan a10-integrinet har även en defekt organisation i broskets tillväxtzon. Dessutom verkar integrinet ha betydelse för produktionen av ett korrekt extracellulärt matrix, eftersom KO mössen har tunnare kollagen fibrer i brosket än normalt. Genom denna mus-modell kunde vi visa att a10b1 integrinet har en viktig funktion i brosk som inte kan ersättas av de andra kollagen-bindande integrinerna. I det tredje arbetet studerades de kollagen-bindande integrinerna i led hos mus, i syfte att kunna upptäcka om någon kompensation sker i mössen utan a10b1 integrinet. Undersökningen gjordes vid två olika tidpunkter, hos nyfödda möss och möss som var två månader gamla. I denna studie visade vi att a10b1 integrinet verkade vara det dominerande och kanske det enda kollagen-bindande integrinet i tillväxtplattan i vuxna möss. De andra kollagen-bindande integrinerna, a1, a2 and a11 fanns däremot på kondrocyter i ledbrosket på ytan av leden och kan sannolikt kompensera för avsaknaden av a10.
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46.
  • Beral, Valerie, et al. (författare)
  • Breast cancer and abortion: collaborative reanalysis of data from 53 epidemiological studies, including 83?000 women with breast cancer from 16 countries
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: The Lancet. - Elsevier. - 1474-547X. ; 363:9414, s. 1007-1016
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer has brought together the worldwide epidemiological evidence on the possible relation between breast cancer and previous spontaneous and induced abortions. METHODS: Data on individual women from 53 studies undertaken in 16 countries with liberal abortion laws were checked and analysed centrally. Relative risks of breast cancer--comparing the effects of having had a pregnancy that ended as an abortion with those of never having had that pregnancy--were calculated, stratified by study, age at diagnosis, parity, and age at first birth. Because the extent of under-reporting of past induced abortions might be influenced by whether or not women had been diagnosed with breast cancer, results of the studies--including a total of 44000 women with breast cancer--that used prospective information on abortion (ie, information that had been recorded before the diagnosis of breast cancer) were considered separately from results of the studies--including 39000 women with the disease--that used retrospective information (recorded after the diagnosis of breast cancer). FINDINGS: The overall relative risk of breast cancer, comparing women with a prospective record of having had one or more pregnancies that ended as a spontaneous abortion versus women with no such record, was 0.98 (95% CI 0.92-1.04, p=0.5). The corresponding relative risk for induced abortion was 0.93 (0.89-0.96, p=0.0002). Among women with a prospective record of having had a spontaneous or an induced abortion, the risk of breast cancer did not differ significantly according to the number or timing of either type of abortion. Published results on induced abortion from the few studies with prospectively recorded information that were not available for inclusion here are consistent with these findings. Overall results for induced abortion differed substantially between studies with prospective and those with retrospective information on abortion (test for heterogeneity between relative risks: chi2(1) =33.1, p<0.0001). INTERPRETATION: Pregnancies that end as a spontaneous or induced abortion do not increase a woman's risk of developing breast cancer. Collectively, the studies of breast cancer with retrospective recording of induced abortion yielded misleading results, possibly because women who had developed breast cancer were, on average, more likely than other women to disclose previous induced abortions.
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47.
  • Berglund, Mattias, 1972- (författare)
  • Molecular Characterization of Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma and Aspects of Transformation
  • 2004
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Lymphomas are a heterogeneous group of neoplasias originating from B- or T-lymphocytes. In this thesis, we determined the genetic and immunophenotypic characterization of DLBCL and their prognostic impact. Moreover, genomic alterations associated with the transformation to DLBCL from Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and follicular lymphoma (FL) were elucidated. In order to outline the impact of cytogenetic as well as immunophenotypic prognostic markers in DLBCL, we firstly studied a series of 54 DLBCL tumors using comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and we identified several frequently occurring chromosomal imbalances. Loss of 22q was more often found in the diagnostic tumors with a more advanced clinical stage, while gain of 18q21 was more commonly identified in relapses. Secondly, we correlated the expression patterns of CD10, bcl-6, IRF-4 and bcl-2 with clinical parameters in a series of 173 de novo DLBCL patients. Patients with a germinal center (GC) phenotype displayed a better survival than the non-GC group. Expression of bcl-6 and CD10 was correlated with a better survival while bcl-2 expression was associated with a poor prognosis.In approaching the HL transformation, two novel B-cell lines (U-2932 and U-2940), derived from patients with DLBCL following HL, were characterized. Interestingly, a translocation with materials from 2q and 7q as well as loss of material on 6q was found in both cell lines. For FL transformation, we assessed chromosomal alterations in a panel of 28 DLBCL patients with a previous history of FL. The DLBCL tumors displayed more chromosomal imbalances compared to FL tumors. Loss of 6q16-21 and gain of 7pter-q22 were more commonly found in the DLBCL counterparts, suggesting the chromosomal location of putative genes that may be involved in the transformation process.
48.
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49.
  • Boman, Krister K, et al. (författare)
  • Life after cancer in childhood : social adjustment and educational and vocational status of young-adult survivors
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology (Print). - 1077-4114 .- 1536-3678. ; 26:6, s. 354-62
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p><strong>PURPOSE:</strong> To evaluate the long-term social effect of illness and its treatment on young-adult survivors of pediatric cancer by addressing a selection of general social adjustment criteria.</p><p><strong>METHODS:</strong> In a cross-sectional case-control study, 30 young-adult survivors of childhood cancer were compared with (1). controls with no history of serious illness, matched by sex, age, and geographic area of residence, and (2). general population norms on the subject of educational and vocational factors, habitation, family/partner relationships, parenthood, and leisure activities.</p><p><strong>RESULTS:</strong> The educational status of survivors was similar to that of controls, although a smaller proportion of the patients expressed concrete plans for future vocational or educational advancement. Survivors had less frequently entered higher education compared with general population norms. A longer duration of treatment was related to a lower estimated socioeconomic level, and poor psychological coping with the illness experience was associated with the fact that they were still living with their parents, a shorter education, and a lower socioeconomic level.</p><p><strong>CONCLUSIONS:</strong> The social, vocational, and educational adjustment of relapse-free survivors from childhood cancer appears as only moderately, if at all, negatively affected by the illness and treatment history. However, the treatment intensity and particularly the survivors' coping with their illness experience may influence their ability to achieve long-term social goals. These findings suggest that special attention should be given to matters concerning education and partner relationships at long-term follow-up of pediatric cancer patients.</p>
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50.
  • Boman, Krister K, et al. (författare)
  • Serious illness in childhood : the different threats of cancer and diabetes from a parent perspective
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Journal of Pediatric Surgery Case Reports. - 0022-3476 .- 2213-5766. ; 145:3, s. 373-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p><strong>OBJECTIVES:</strong> To compare the incidence of disease-related distress symptoms in parents of children with cancer and diabetes.</p><p><strong>STUDY DESIGN:</strong> A total of 675 parents of patients with cancer, patients with diabetes, and control subjects were assessed for 11 distress symptom clusters. Patient and control parent mean differences were tested by 2-tailed t tests; illness groups were compared by means of analysis of variance. Distress variations as a function of time since diagnosis were examined by regression analysis.</p><p><strong>RESULTS:</strong> The distress levels of patient parents exceeded those of control parents for global distress ( P &lt;.0001) and for most symptom subcategories. Distress levels of parents of patients with cancer (CP) significantly exceeded those of parents of patients with diabetes (DP) in anxiety ( P &lt;.0001), physical and psychologic distress ( P &lt;.0001), depression ( P &lt;.005), and loneliness ( P &lt;.05). Levels in DP matched those of CP in uncertainty, loss of control/the patient, self-esteem, disease-related fear, and sleep disturbances. Distress levels were lower in CP most distant in time from diagnosis, whereas DP showed a reversed trend.</p><p><strong>CONCLUSIONS:</strong> Parental distress patterns in childhood illness depend on illness type and time passed since diagnosis. Symptom profiles verify the need for psychosocial attention at the initial shock after the cancer diagnosis and indicate long-term consequences for many parents. In pediatric diabetes, the persistence or intensification of distress over time is of specific clinical relevance.</p>
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