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Träfflista för sökning "hsv:(MEDICIN OCH HÄLSOVETENSKAP) hsv:(Klinisk medicin) hsv:(Cancer och onkologi) srt2:(2000-2004)"

Sökning: hsv:(MEDICIN OCH HÄLSOVETENSKAP) hsv:(Klinisk medicin) hsv:(Cancer och onkologi) > (2000-2004)

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  • Ahlgren, Johan, 1960- (författare)
  • Studies on Prediction of Axillary Lymph Node Status in Invasive Breast Cancer
  • 2002
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among females in Sweden. Axillary lymph-node dissection is a standard procedure in the management of breast cancer, aiming at obtaining prognostic information for adjuvant therapy decisions. Axillary dissection entails considerable morbidity. The aims of this study were to establish more selective surgical approaches and to investigate angiogenesis, a potential predictor for lymph-node metastases and prognosis.Clinical nodal status, tumour size and S-phase were associated with nodal metastases in cohort of 1145 women. The proportion of nodal metastases was 13% in the subgroup with the lowest risk.In a study from two registries, 675 and 1035 breast cancers ≤10 mm diagnosed by screening mammography had nodal metastases in 6,5% and 7%, respectively. Clinically detected cancers had a risk of 16% and 14%, respectively.In a study on 415 women, a 5-node biopsy of the axilla had a sensitivity of 97,3% and a false negative rate of 2,7% in comparison with axillary dissection.Six sections from 21 breast cancers were analysed for microvessel density (MVD). The inter-section variation contributed more to the total variance than inter-tumour variation, 45,0% and 37,3%, respectively.In a cohort of 315 women, breast cancers with high MVD more frequently had p53 mutations (27,1%) compared with cases with low MVD (18,4%). This difference was not statistically significant (p=0,075). p53 mutations were associated with a worse outcome, whereas MVD was not.In conclusion, women with screening detected ≤10 mm breast cancers have a low risk of lymph node metastases and some may not need axillary dissection in the future. The 5-node biopsy could be an alternative to axillary dissection. MVD is associated with methodological weaknesses and routine use is not recommended.
  • Akre [Fall], Katja, 1971-, et al. (författare)
  • Aspirin and risk for gastric cancer : a population-based case-control study in Sweden
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Cancer. - Edinburgh, United Kingdom : Churchill Livingstone. - 0007-0920 .- 1532-1827. ; 84:7, s. 965-8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • While aspirin and other non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are associated with gastric mucosal damage, they might reduce the risk for gastric cancer. In a population-based case-control study in 5 Swedish counties, we interviewed 567 incident cases of gastric cancer and 1165 controls about their use of pain relievers. The cases were uniformly classified to subsite (cardia/non-cardia) and histological type and information collected on other known risk factors for gastric cancer. Helicobacter pylori serology was tested in a subset of 542 individuals. Users of aspirin had a moderately reduced risk of gastric cancer compared to never users; odds ratio (OR) adjusted for age, gender and socioeconomic status was 0.7 (95% CI = 0.6-1.0). Gastric cancer risk fell with increasing frequency of aspirin use (P for trend = 0.02). The risk reduction was apparent for both cardia and non-cardia tumours but was uncertain for the diffuse histologic type. No clear association was observed between gastric cancer risk and non-aspirin NSAIDs or other studied pain relievers. Our finding lends support to the hypothesis that use of aspirin reduces the risk for gastric cancer.
  • Akre [Fall], Katja, 1971-, et al. (författare)
  • Risk for gastric cancer after antibiotic prophylaxis in patients undergoing hip replacement
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Cancer Research. - Birmingham, USA : American Asoociation for Cancer Research. - 0008-5472 .- 1538-7445. ; 60:22, s. 6376-80
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Despite strong evidence of an association between Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer, the benefit of eradicating H. pylori infection is unknown. Our aim was to test the hypothesis that exposure to high doses of antibiotics reduces risk for gastric cancer via possible eradication of H. pylori We conducted a nationwide case-control study nested in a cohort of 39,154 patients who underwent hip replacement surgery between 1965 and 1983. Such patients frequently receive prophylactic antibiotic treatment. During follow-up through 1989, we identified 189 incident cases of gastric cancer. For each case, three controls were selected from the cohort. Exposure data were abstracted from hospital records. Blood samples from a separate cohort undergoing hip replacement surgery were analyzed for anti-H. pylori IgG before and after surgery. Both long-term antibiotic treatment before surgery [odds ratio (OR), 0.3; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.1-0.7] and prophylactic antibiotic treatment (OR, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.5-1.1) conferred a reduction in gastric cancer risk. The reduction appeared stronger after 5 years (OR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.3-1.2) than during shorter follow-up after hip replacement (OR, 0.8; 95% CI, 0.4-1.7). There was an apparent decrease in risk with increasing body weight-adjusted doses of antibiotics (P = 0.13). However, the rate of H. pylori antibody disappearance was not strikingly higher in the cohort of patients undergoing hip replacement than in a control cohort. Our findings provide indirect support for the hypothesis that treatment with antibiotics at a relatively advanced age reduces the risk of gastric cancer.
  • Akre, O, et al. (författare)
  • Body size and testicular cancer
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. - 0027-8874 .- 1460-2105. ; 92:13, s. 1093-1096
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)
  • Albertsson, Maria (författare)
  • Chemoradiotherapy of esophageal cancer.
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Acta Oncologica. - : Taylor & Francis. - 1651-226X. ; 41:2, s. 118-123
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)
  • Alexandrie, A K, et al. (författare)
  • CYP1A1 and GSTM1 polymorphisms affect urinary 1-hydroxypyrene levels after PAH exposure
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Carcinogenesis. - : Oxford University Press. - 0143-3334 .- 1460-2180. ; 21:4, s. 669-676
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Certain human biotransformation enzymes have been implicated in the formation and scavenging of the ultimate reactive metabolites, the diolepoxides, from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In the present study, performed on aluminum smelter workers, we have analyzed airborne PAH, the pyrene metabolite 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) in urine, and genotypes for biotransformation enzymes involved in PAH metabolism. The aim was to evaluate the correlation between external exposure and biomarkers of exposure and to investigate to what extent genetic polymorphism in metabolic enzymes can explain interindividual variation in urinary 1-OHP levels. DNA was prepared from blood samples from 98 potroom workers and 55 controls and altogether eight polymorphisms in the CYP1A1, mEH, GSTM1, GSTP1 and GSTT1 genes were analyzed. The 1-OHP excretion was found to correlate significantly (P 100-fold) and univariate and multivariate regression analyses were used to find the variables that could determine differences in excretion. The variation could, to some degree, be explained by differences in exposure to airborne particulate-associated PAHs, the use of personal respiratory protection devices, smoking habits and genetic polymorphisms in the cytochrome P450 1A1, GSTM1 and GSTT1 enzymes. The part of the variance that could be explained by differences in biotransformation genotypes seemed to be of the same order of magnitude as the variance explained by differences in exposure. In the control group as well as in the occupationally exposed group, the highest 1-OHP levels were observed in individuals carrying the CYP1A1 Ile/Val genotype who were also of the GSTM1 null genotype. The results show that urinary 1-OHP is a sensitive indicator of recent human exposure to PAHs and that it may also to some extent reflect the interindividual variation in susceptibility to PAHs.
  • Allander, S V, et al. (författare)
  • Gastrointestinal stromal tumors with KIT mutations exhibit a remarkably homogeneous gene expression profile
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Cancer Research. - : American Association for Cancer Research Inc.. - 1538-7445. ; 61:24, s. 8624-8628
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), the most common mesenchymal tumors of the digestive tract, are believed to arise from the interstitial cells of Cajal. GISTs are characterized by mutations in the proto-oncogene KIT that lead to constitutive activation of its tyrosine kinase activity. The tyrosine kinase inhibitor STI571, active against the BCR-ABL fusion protein in chronic myeloid leukemia, was recently shown to be highly effective in GISTs. We used 13,826-element cDNA microarrays to define the expression patterns of 13 KIT mutation-positive GISTs and compared them with the expression profiles of a group of spindle cell tumors from locations outside the gastrointestinal tract. Our results showed a remarkably distinct and uniform expression profile for all of the GISTs. In particular, hierarchical clustering of a subset of 113 cDNAs placed all of the GIST samples into one branch, with a Pearson correlation >0.91. This homogeneity suggests that the molecular pathogenesis of a GIST results from expansion of a clone that has acquired an activating mutation in KIT without the extreme genetic instability found in the common epithelial cancers. The results provide insight into the histogenesis of GIST and the clinical behavior of this therapeutically responsive tumor.
  • Allard, P, et al. (författare)
  • Caudate nucleus dopamine D-2 receptors in vascular dementia
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders. - : Karger. - 1420-8008 .- 1421-9824. ; 14:1, s. 22-25
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Caudate nucleus dopamine (DA) D-2 receptors were studied in patients with vascular dementia (VaD) and in a control group using [H-3]raclopride as a radioligand. There was no significant difference in the number of DA D-2 receptors in the VaD group as compared with controls. The binding affinity was significantly lower in the VaD group. When the VaD group was subdivided into subjects with or without neuroleptic treatment, there were no differences in the numbers of receptors as compared with controls, and the significant differences in binding affinity remained for both VaD subgroups. The present results are. discussed with reference to the previous finding of a reduced density of caudate nucleus DA uptake sites in the same VaD group and to results from studies on DA D-2 receptors in Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Copyright (C) 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • Alonso, A, et al. (författare)
  • VHY, a novel myristoylated testis-restricted dual specificity protein phosphatase related to VHX
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Journal of Biological Chemistry. - : ASBMB. - 1083-351X. ; 279:31, s. 32586-32591
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The human DUSP15 gene encodes an uncharacterized 235-amino acid member of the subfamily of small dual specificity protein phosphatases related to the Vaccinia virus VH1 phosphatase. Similar to VHR-related MKPX (VHX) (DUSP22), the predicted protein has an N-terminal myristoylation recognition sequence, and we show here that both are indeed modified by the attachment of a myristate to Gly-2. In recognition of this relatedness to VHX, we refer to the DUSP15-encoded protein as VH1-related member Y (VHY). We report that VHY is expressed at high levels in the testis and barely detectable levels in the brain, spinal cord, and thyroid. A VHY-specific antiserum detected a protein with an apparent molecular mass of 26 kDa, and histochemical analysis showed that VHY was readily detectable in pachytene spermatocytes (midstage of meiotic division I) and round spermatids and weakly in Leydig cells ( somatic cells outside of the seminiferous tubules). When expressed in 293T or NIH-3T3 cells, VHY was concentrated at the plasma membrane with some staining of vesicular structures in the Golgi region. Mutation of the myristoylation site Gly-2 abrogated membrane location. Finally, we demonstrate that VHY is an active phosphatase in vitro. We conclude that VHY is a new member of a subgroup of myristoylated VH1-like small dual specificity phosphatases.
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