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  • Choung, Rok Seon, et al. (författare)
  • Community-Based Study of Celiac Disease Autoimmunity Progression in Adults
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Gastroenterology. - 1528-0012 .- 0016-5085. ; 158:1, s. 151-159
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background & Aims: Celiac disease can develop at any age, but outcomes of adults with positive results from serologic tests for tissue transglutaminase antibodies (tTGA) without endoscopic determination of celiac disease (called celiac autoimmunity) have not been thoroughly evaluated. We investigated the proportion of adults with celiac autoimmunity at a community medical center and their progression to celiac disease. Methods: We analyzed waste blood samples from a community clinic from 15,551 adults for tTGA and, if titer results were above 2 U/mL, for endomysial antibody. The blood samples had been collected at 2 time points (median interval, 8.8 years) from 2006 through 2017. We collected data from the clinic on diagnoses of celiac disease based on duodenal biopsy analysis. Results: Of the serum samples collected at the first time point, 15,398 had negative results for tTGA, and 153 had positive results for tTGA (>4 U/mL). Based on medical records, 6 individuals received a diagnosis of celiac disease, for a cumulative incidence of celiac disease diagnosis of 0.06% (95% confidence interval, 0.01–0.11). Forty-nine (0.32%) individuals with a negative result from the first serologic test for tTGA had a positive result from the second test. Among the 153 adults who were tTGA positive at the first time point, 31 (20%) had a subsequent diagnosis of celiac disease, 81 (53%) remained positive for tTGA without a clinical diagnosis of celiac disease, and 41 (27%) had negative test results for tTGA at the second time point. Higher initial tTGA titers, female sex, and a history of hypothyroidism and autoimmune disease were associated with increased risks of subsequent diagnosis of celiac disease. Interestingly, adults whose first blood sample had a positive test result but second blood sample had a negative result for tTGA were older, had lower-than-average initial tTGA titer results, and had a higher mean body mass index than adults whose blood samples were positive for tTGA at both time points and adults later diagnosed with celiac disease. Conclusions: In an analysis of serum samples collected from a community clinic an average of 8.8 years apart, we found that fewer than 1% of adults with negative results from an initial test for tTGA have a positive result on a second test. Of adults with positive results from the test for tTGA, only 20% are later diagnosed with celiac disease; the remaining individuals maintain persistent increases in tTGA without diagnoses of celiac disease or have negative results from second tests.
  • Ehrstedt, Christoffer, et al. (författare)
  • Clinical characteristics and late effects in CNS tumours of childhood : Do not forget long term follow-up of the low grade tumours
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: European journal of paediatric neurology. - 1090-3798 .- 1532-2130. ; 20:4, s. 580-587
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Aim: To investigate clinical characteristics and late effects of CNS tumours in childhood with a special focus on low-grade tumours, especially low-grade astrocytoma and glib neuronal tumours. Methods: A retrospective population based study was performed at Uppsala University Children's Hospital, a tertiary referral centre for children with CNS tumours. Patients were identified from the National Brain Tumour Registry and the National Epilepsy Surgery Registry. Hospital medical records were analysed for patients with a follow up of &gt;= 5 years after diagnosis. A re-evaluation of the neuro-pathological diagnosis was performed. Results: A total of 193 patients (age 0-17.99 years) during a twelve-year period (1995-2006) were included; 149 survived &gt;= 5 years. Three larger subgroups could be identified: astrocytic, embryonal and glioneuronal tumours. A supratentorial location was found in 52%. Medical late effects were mainly neurological and endocrinological, affecting 81% and 26% of surviving patients. Cognitive late effects were a frequent finding in the whole group but also in low-grade astrocytoma and glioneuronal tumours (53% and 67%). Thirty per cent had some kind of pedagogic support in school. Conclusion: Late effects are common in long-term survivors of CNS tumours in childhood. Low-grade astrocytoma and glioneuronal tumours are no exception, and the findings support the need for long-term follow up.</p>
  • Khassebaf, Jasmine, et al. (författare)
  • Antibiotic susceptibility of Propionibacterium acnes isolated from orthopaedic implant-associated infections
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Anaerobe. - Elsevier. - 1075-9964 .- 1095-8274. ; 32, s. 57-62
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: Prosthetic joint infections (PJIs) caused by Propionibacterium acnes account for a larger proportion of the total number of PJIs than previously assumed and thus knowledge of the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of P. acnes is of great value in everyday clinical practice.</p><p><strong>Materials and methods</strong>: Using Etest, the present study investigated the susceptibility of 55 clinical isolates of P. acnes, obtained from orthopaedic implant-associated infections of the knee joint (n = 5), hip joint (n = 17), and shoulder joint (n = 33), to eight antimicrobial agents: benzylpenicillin, clindamycin, metronidazole, fusidic acid, doxycycline, moxifloxacin, linezolid and rifampicin. Synergy testing was also conducted, in which rifampicin was combined with each of the remaining seven antibiotics.</p><p><strong>Results</strong>: All isolates (n = 55) were susceptible to most of the antibiotics tested, with the exception of 100% resistance to metronidazole, five (9.1%) isolates displaying decreased susceptibility to clindamycin, and one (1.8%) to moxifloxacin. None of the antimicrobial agents investigated were synergistic with each other when combined and nine isolates were antagonistic for various antimicrobial combinations. The majority of the antimicrobial combinations had an indifferent effect on the isolates of P. acnes. However, the combination of rifampicin and benzylpenicillin showed an additive effect on nearly half of the isolates.</p><p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Almost all P. acnes, isolated from orthopaedic implant-associated infections, predominantly PJIs, were susceptible to the antibiotics tested, with the exception of complete resistance to metronidazole. Synergy test could not demonstrate any synergistic effect but additive effects were found when combining various antibiotics. Antagonistic effects were rare.</p>
  • Rasmussen, Gunlög, 1973-, et al. (författare)
  • Long term molecular epidemiology of methicillin-susceptible staphylococcus aureus bacteremia isolates in Sweden
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - San Francisco, USA : Public Library Science. - 1932-6203 .- 1932-6203. ; 9:12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Staphylococcus aureus is one of the major pathogens that causes bacteremia; therefore, it is important to understand the long-term molecular epidemiology of S. aureus bacteremia infections. In particular, little is known about the population structure of methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) compared to that of methicillin-resistant S. aureus. We investigated potential changes in the MSSA molecular epidemiology in Örebro County, Sweden, from 1980 through 2010. 400 MSSA bacteremia isolates, the first 100 isolated each decade from 1980 through 2010, were retrospectively identified and analyzed regarding assignment to clonal complexes (CCs), presence of virulence genes and antibiotic resistant determinants with DNA microarray-based genotyping. 24 different CCs were identified. Most isolates (80%) belonged to 6 predominant lineages. Of those, the number of isolates assigned to CC5 and CC15 increased, and those assigned to CC8, CC25, and CC30 decreased. The most prevalent clone, CC45, did not show a significant change in prevalence during the study period. A change in prevalence was observed for some of the virulence genes, mainly attributed with their association to certain CCs. With the exception of the common blaZ gene (encoding penicillinase), antibiotic resistance genes were only sporadically detected. In conclusion, the MSSA population structure was genetically diverse. We observed decadal changes in assignments to five predominant clones, and corresponding changes in the prevalence of some virulence genes linked to CC affiliation. In light of the restrictive antibiotics prescriptions and extensive infection control procedures in Sweden, antibiotic resistance genes were rarely detected and their prevalence unaffected during the study period.</p>
  • Skoglund, Kristofer, et al. (författare)
  • Decline in Self-reported Health (EQ-5D) over Time after Surgical Reconstruction of the Right Ventricular Outflow Tract: A Longitudinal Cohort Study of 103 Patients
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Congenital Heart Disease. - Wiley-Blackwell. - 1747-079X. ; 10:2, s. 54-59
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • ObjectivePatients with congenital heart disease may be operated with surgical reconstruction of the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT). Reintervention is common in this group of patients. The aim of this study was to examine longitudinal self-reported health measured by the EQ-5D questionnaire. DesignData were collected from the Swedish Registry of Congenital Heart Disease. EQ-5D, which measures health outcome, was introduced into the registry in 2005. All adult patients with previous surgical reconstruction of the RVOT who had EQ-5D data from their first and latest visit were analyzed. ResultsAmong 103 patients (65 male and 38 female), mean age 31 (range 19-78 years), the diagnoses were: tetralogy of Fallot (n=66); truncus, transpositions, and double outlet right ventricle (n=23); and Ross-operated congenital aortic valve disease (n=14). Time from first to latest visit was 3 years (range 1-7 years). Eighteen patients underwent 26 reinterventions in the observational period from the first to latest visit, including operations, percutaneous interventions, pacemaker implantations, and ablations. Health perception, mean EQ-5D visual analog scale, VAS, declined from 84.4 (standard deviation (SD)=14.6) to 78.6 (SD=18.3) at the latest visit, P=.001. The decline is almost exclusively seen in patients without reinterventions. Low EQ-VAS was associated with symptoms and New York Heart Association class II-IV. Patient-reported problems in the EQ-5D dimension usual activities were more common in the patients having reinterventions (25%) than those without reintervention (7%), P=.04. ConclusionIn this longitudinal cohort study of patients with previous surgical reconstruction of the RVOT, health perception declined over time. The decline was not observed in patients undergoing any additional interventions.
  • Gulyas, Miklos, et al. (författare)
  • COX-2 expression and effects of celecoxib in addition to standard chemotherapy in advanced non-small cell lung cancer.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Acta Oncologica. - 0284-186X .- 1651-226X. ; 57:2, s. 244-250
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Aim: Inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is proposed as a treatment option in several cancer types. However, in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), phase III trials have failed to demonstrate a benefit of adding COX-2 inhibitors to standard chemotherapy. The aim of this study was to analyze COX-2 expression in tumor and stromal cells as predictive biomarker for COX-2 inhibition.</p><p>Methods: In a multicenter phase III trial, 316 patients with advanced NSCLC were randomized to receive celecoxib (400 mg b.i.d.) or placebo up to one year in addition to a two-drug platinum-based chemotherapy combination. In a subset of 122 patients, archived tumor tissue was available for immunohistochemical analysis of COX-2 expression in tumor and stromal cells. For each compartment, COX-2 expression was graded as high or low, based on a product score of extension and intensity of positively stained cells.</p><p>Results: An updated analysis of all 316 patients included in the original trial, and of the 122 patients with available tumor tissue, showed no survival differences between the celecoxib and placebo arms (HR 1.01; 95% CI 0.81–1.27 and HR 1.12; 95% CI 0.78–1.61, respectively). High COX-2 scores in tumor (<em>n</em> = 71) or stromal cells (<em>n</em> = 55) was not associated with a superior survival outcome with celecoxib vs. placebo (HR =0.96, 95% CI 0.60–1.54; and HR =1.51; 95% CI 0.86–2.66), and no significant interaction effect between COX-2 score in tumor or stromal cells and celecoxib effect on survival was detected (<em>p</em> = .48 and .25, respectively).</p><p>Conclusions: In this subgroup analysis of patients with advanced NSCLC treated within the context of a randomized trial, we could not detect any interaction effect of COX-2 expression in tumor or stromal cells and the outcome of celecoxib treatment in addition to standard chemotherapy.</p>
  • Hammarsten, Ola, et al. (författare)
  • Evaluation of a Sensitive Copeptin Assay for Clinical Measurement
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: The Open Clinical Chemistry Journal. - 2588-7785. ; 5:1, s. 21-26
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Abstract: Background: Copeptin, a marker of vasopressin production, has been introduced for earlier diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction and other clinical emergencies. We evaluated the analytical performance of a new generation copeptin assay in an inter-laboratory trial. Methods: Precision, linearity range, carry-over contamination, the limit of blank and an inter-laboratory comparison trial for the copeptin US KRYPTOR assay were performed on the B·R·A·H·M·S KRYPTOR compact PLUS. Results: The intra-assay imprecision (CVs) was 12.6–2.2% and total imprecision over five days was 12.3-4.3% between 3.1 and 18.2 pmol/L. The assay had excellent linearity between 7-222 pmol/L. The limit of blank was 2.5 pmol/L and the limit of detection was 3.2 pmol/L, but was dependent on the analyte-free material used. No significant difference between sample type, such as serum or different types of plasma or reagent lots, was noted. The copeptin results remained unchanged upon five repeated freeze-thaw cycles. A set of patient samples with a mean copeptin concentration of 2.1-61 pmol/L run at two separate sites showed close correlation (r2=0.99, slope=1.01, intercept=0.35), indicating comparable results across laboratories. Conclusion: The new ultrasensitive copeptin KRYPTOR assay shows excellent inter-lab precision, opening up the possibility for international guidelines to exclude acute myocardial infarction.
  • Johannsson, Gudmundur, 1960-, et al. (författare)
  • Serum leptin concentration and insulin sensitivity in men with abdominal obesity.
  • 1998
  • Ingår i: Obesity research. - 1071-7323. ; 6:6, s. 416-21
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We have examined the association between generalized adiposity, abdominal adiposity, insulin sensitivity, and serum levels of leptin in a cross-sectional study of abdominally obese men.Thirty men, 48 to 66 years of age with a body mass index (BMI) of between 25 kg/m2 and 35 kg/m2 and a waist hip ratio of >0.95, were included in the study. Serum leptin concentration was measured using radioimmunoassay. Total body fat percentage was determined from total body potassium, abdominal adiposity was measured by computed tomography, and the glucose disposal rate (GDR) was measured during an euglycemic, hyperinsulinemic glucose clamp.Significant correlations were found between serum leptin concentration and BMI, percentage body fat, abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue, serum insulin, GDR, and 24-hour urinary-free cortisol. In a multiple regression analysis, it was shown that abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue, GDR, and BMI explained 72% of the variability of serum leptin concentration. GDR demonstrated an independent inverse correlation with serum leptin concentration.In abdominally obese men with insulin resistance, it was demonstrated that most of the individual variability in serum leptin concentration was explained by the amount of subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue, insulin sensitivity, and BMI.
  • Muslimovic, Aida, et al. (författare)
  • Calibrators for Clinical Measurements of Phosphorylated H2AX in Patient Cells by Flow Cytometry
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: The Open Clinical Chemistry Journal. - 2588-7785. ; 5:1, s. 33-39
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Abstract: Agents that induce DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), such as ionizing radiation, are frequently used in cancer therapy. H2AX is rapidly phosphorylated in response to DSBs and serves as a way to measure the extent of DSBs induced in patient cells. We have previously reported a flow cytometry-based method for measuring H2AX phosphorylation in pa-tient cells undergoing radiotherapy. To be able to implement measurement of H2AX phosphorylation in clinical practice, we have characterized calibrators for the flow cytometry analysis based on phosphopeptide-coated beads and fixed cells. The calibrator beads and fixed cells lost less than 11% of the signal after storage for 40 days under optimal conditions and were able to correct for day-to-day variation in method performance.
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