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Träfflista för sökning "hsv:(MEDICIN OCH HÄLSOVETENSKAP) hsv:(Klinisk medicin) hsv:(Klinisk laboratoriemedicin) "

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  • Dahlberg, Jenny, et al. (författare)
  • Ten years transmission of the new variant of Chlamydia trachomatis in Sweden : prevalence of infections and associated complications
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Sexually Transmitted Infections. - : BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. - 1368-4973 .- 1472-3263. ; 94:2, s. 100-104
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: In 2006, a new variant of Chlamydia trachomatis (nvCT) was discovered in Sweden. It has a deletion in the plasmid resulting in failed detection by the single target systems from Abbott and Roche used at that time, whereas the third system used, from Becton Dickinson (BD), detects nvCT. The proportion of nvCT was initially up to 65% in counties using Abbott/Roche systems. This study analysed the proportion of nvCT from 2007 to 2015 in four selected counties and its impact on chlamydia-associated complications.METHODS: C. trachomatis-positive specimens collected from 2007 to 2015 were analysed by a specific PCR to identify nvCT cases. Genotyping was performed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and ompA sequencing. Ectopic pregnancy and pelvic inflammatory disease records were extracted from the national registers.RESULTS: In total, 5101 C. trachomatis-positive samples were analysed. The nvCT proportion significantly decreased in the two counties using Roche systems, from 56% in 2007 to 6.5% in 2015 (p<0.001). In the two counties using BD systems, a decrease was also seen, from 19% in 2007 to 5.2% in 2015 (p<0.001). Fifteen nvCT cases from 2015 and 102 cases from 2006 to 2009 had identical MLST profiles. Counties using Roche/Abbott systems showed higher mean rates of ectopic pregnancy and pelvic inflammatory disease compared with counties using BD systems.CONCLUSIONS: The nvCT proportion has decreased in all counties and converged to a low prevalence irrespective of previous rates. Genotyping showed that nvCT is clonal and genetically stable. Failing detection only marginally affected complication rates.
  • Dahlin, Joakim S., et al. (författare)
  • KIT signaling is dispensable for human mast cell progenitor development
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: ; 130:16, s. 1785-1794
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Human hematopoietic progenitors are generally assumed to require stem cell factor (SCF) and KIT signaling during differentiation for the formation of mast cells. Imatinib treatment, which inhibits KIT signaling, depletes mast cells in vivo. Furthermore, the absence of SCF or imatinib treatment prevents progenitors from developing into mast cells in vitro. However, these observations do not mean that mast cell progenitors require SCF and KIT signaling throughout differentiation. Here, we demonstrate that circulating mast cell progenitors are present in patients undergoing imatinib treatment. In addition, we show that mast cell progenitors from peripheral blood survive, mature, and proliferate without SCF and KIT signaling in vitro. Contrary to the prevailing consensus, our results show that SCF and KIT signaling are dispensable for early mast cell development.
  • Dzierżyńska, Maria, et al. (författare)
  • Synthesis and SAR Studies of Antibacterial Peptidyl Derivatives Based upon the Binding Site of Human Cystatin C
  • Ingår i: Protein and Peptide Letters. - : Bentham Science Publishers. - 0929-8665. ; 26:6, s. 423-434
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Antibacterial peptidyl derivative - Cystapep 1, was previously found to be active both against antibiotic-resistant staphylococci and streptococci as well as antibiotic-susceptible strains of these species. Therefore, it is a promising lead compound to search for new antimicrobial peptidomimetics.OBJECTIVES: We focused on identifying structural elements that are responsible for the biological activity of Cystapep 1 and its five analogues. We tried to find an answer to the question about the mechanism of action of the tested compounds. Therefore we have investigated in details the possibility of interacting these compounds with biological membrane mimetics.METHODS: The subject compounds were synthesized in solution, purified and characterized by HPLC and mass spectrometry. Then, the staphylococci susceptibility tests were performed and their cytotoxicity was established. The results of Cystapep 1 and its analogues interactions with model target were examined using the DSC and ITC techniques. At the end the spatial structures of the tested peptidomimetics using NMR technique were obtained.RESULTS: Antimicrobial and cytotoxicity tests show that Cystapep 1 and its peptidomimetic V are good drug candidates. DSC and ITC studies indicate that disruption of membrane is not the only possible mechanism of action of Cystapep 1-like compounds. For Cystapep 1 itself, a multi-step mechanism of interaction with a negatively charged membrane is observed, which indicates other processes occurring alongside the binding process. The conformational analysis indicated the presence of a hydrophobic cluster, composed of certain side chains, only in the structures of active peptidomimetics. This can facilitate the anchoring of the peptidyl derivatives to the bacterial membrane.CONCLUSION: An increase in hydrophobicity of the peptidomimetics improved the antimicrobial activity against S. aureus, however there is no simple correlation between the biological activity and the strength of interactions of the peptidyl with bacterial membrane.
  • Edvardsson, Maria, 1972- (författare)
  • Circulating levels and assessment of clinical laboratory analytes, in >80-year-old, apparently healthy, moderately healthy, and frail individuals
  • 2019
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Blood samples are often used to investigate the possible presence of disease and to make treatment decisions. In the interpretation of the results, comparison either with previous values from the same individual or with a set of appropriate group-based reference intervals are used. Current reference intervals for common laboratory analytes are often based on measurements from apparently healthy persons aged 18–65 years. Age is accompanied by a general decline in organ functions and it is difficult to determine whether a change in levels of laboratory analytes in an elderly individual can be attributed to age alone, independent of environmental or disease processes. Frailty can be seen as a consequence of age-related multifactorial deterioration – physical, cognitive and sensory – resulting in vulnerability and lack of adaptability to internal stressors such as infection or new medication and/or external stressors such as fall at home. Consensus about the definition of “frail” and “frailty” is missing, both nationally and internationally, the question arises whether different definitions of “frailty” affect the interpretation of analytes when comparing different groups of elderly.The overarching aim of the thesis was to interpret and assess circulating levels of some clinical laboratory analytes in relation to conventional reference values in ≥80-year-old, “apparently healthy”, “moderately healthy”, and “frail” individuals. Data originated from other studies, in which blood samples were collected from individuals ≥80-year-old. Comparisons in Paper I of levels of some laboratory analytes, from 138 nursing home residents (NHRs), was made with blood from reference populations, both blood donor and the NORIP study. The results indicated differences for some immunological (complement factor 3 and 4, immunoglobulin G and M) and chemical analytes (alanine aminotransferase (ALT), phosphate, albumin, sodium, creatinine and urea), but no differences in levels occurred for aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyltransferase (γ-GT) or lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). It was unclear whether the differences were due to differences in age between the elderly and the reference populations or whether the elderly individuals had chronic diseases and were on medication. In Paper II, 569 individuals elderly individuals ≥80 years old were classified as “healthy”, “moderately healthy”, and “frail”, based on diseases, medications and physical and cognitive abilities. Statistical differences between the groups were found for the investigated analytes; albumin, ALT, AST, creatinine and γ-GT. In Paper IV, individuals from Paper II (n=569) were divided into two groups and thereafter divided into “apparently healthy”, “moderately healthy”, and “frail”. One group was subdivided into “apparently healthy”, “moderately healthy” and “frail” based on physical and cognitive abilities and the other group was divided based on the frailty index (FI). There was no statistical difference found between “apparently healthy” and “moderately healthy" groups, regardless of classification model used. Among “frail” individuals, differences in levels occurred for three out of the five investigated analytes: ALT, creatinine and g-GT, with lower levels occurring when the FI classification model was used. No differences in levels occurred for albumin or AST in “frail” individuals, regardless of classification model used. The aim of Paper III was to study whether 1-year changes in complete blood count (CBC) (including haemoglobin (Hb), red blood cell (RBC), erythrocyte volume fraction (EVF), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular Hb concentration (MCHC), white blood cell (WBC) and platelet count (PLT)), C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-1RA, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 are associated with survival in elderly NHRs aged >80 years. Elevated levels of CRP and IL-8 during 1-year follow-up were associated with reduced length of survival in elderly NHRs. Based on the present thesis it is clear that there is need for reference intervals that consider both age and health status in elderly individuals. A reasonable conclusion when interpreting levels of analytes in elderly individuals with disease or frailty is that individual evaluation based on the individual’s previous levels, is recommended.
  • Ehrstedt, Christoffer, et al. (författare)
  • Clinical characteristics and late effects in CNS tumours of childhood : Do not forget long term follow-up of the low grade tumours
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: European journal of paediatric neurology. - 1090-3798 .- 1532-2130. ; 20:4, s. 580-587
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aim: To investigate clinical characteristics and late effects of CNS tumours in childhood with a special focus on low-grade tumours, especially low-grade astrocytoma and glib neuronal tumours. Methods: A retrospective population based study was performed at Uppsala University Children's Hospital, a tertiary referral centre for children with CNS tumours. Patients were identified from the National Brain Tumour Registry and the National Epilepsy Surgery Registry. Hospital medical records were analysed for patients with a follow up of >= 5 years after diagnosis. A re-evaluation of the neuro-pathological diagnosis was performed. Results: A total of 193 patients (age 0-17.99 years) during a twelve-year period (1995-2006) were included; 149 survived >= 5 years. Three larger subgroups could be identified: astrocytic, embryonal and glioneuronal tumours. A supratentorial location was found in 52%. Medical late effects were mainly neurological and endocrinological, affecting 81% and 26% of surviving patients. Cognitive late effects were a frequent finding in the whole group but also in low-grade astrocytoma and glioneuronal tumours (53% and 67%). Thirty per cent had some kind of pedagogic support in school. Conclusion: Late effects are common in long-term survivors of CNS tumours in childhood. Low-grade astrocytoma and glioneuronal tumours are no exception, and the findings support the need for long-term follow up.
  • Ehrstedt, Christoffer, et al. (författare)
  • Somatostatin receptor expression and mTOR pathway activation in glioneuronal tumours of childhood
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Seizure. - 1059-1311 .- 1532-2688. ; 76, s. 123-130
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: To investigate the expression of somatostatin receptors (SSTRs) and markers of mTOR pathway in paediatric glioneuronal tumours and correlate these findings with tumour type, BRAFV600E mutational status and clinical characteristics such as tumour location, seizure frequency and duration, and age.Method: 37 children and adolescents with a neuropathological diagnosis of glioneuronal tumour were identified over a 22-year period. Immunohistochemical analyses for SSTRs type 1, 2A, 3, 5 and ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM) and phosphorylated S6 (pS6), which are indicators of mTOR pathway activation, were performed in tumour specimens from 33 patients and evaluated using the immunoreactive score (IRS). The IRS were compared to tumour type, BRAFV600E status and clinical characteristics.Results: Ganglioglioma (GG) was the most frequently encountered subgroup (n = 27), followed by dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumour (DNET; n=4). GGs expressed SSTR2A and SSTR3 to a high extent, 56 % and 44 % respectively. Expression of SSTR2A was also found in DNETs. Signs of mTOR pathway activation were abundant in GGs, but only present in one DNET. No correlations with BRAFV600E presence or clinical characteristics were found.Conclusions: Expression of SSTRs and activation of mTOR pathway in paediatric glioneuronal tumour suggest that somatostatin analogues and mTOR inhibitors may have potential therapeutic implications in a subset of inoperable childhood glioneuronal tumours causing medically refractory epilepsy and/or tumour growth. Further clinical studies are warranted to validate these findings.
  • Elobeid, Adila (författare)
  • Altered proteins in the aging brain
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology. - : Oxford University Press. - 0022-3069 .- 1554-6578. ; 75:4, s. 316-325
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We assessed the prevalence of common altered brain proteins in 296 cognitively unimpaired subjects ranging from age 50 to 102 years. The incidence and the stage of hyperphosphorylated-tau (HP tau), beta-amyloid, alpha-synuclein (alpha S), and transactive response DNA (TDP) binding protein 43 (TDP43)-immunoreactivity (-IR) increased with age. HP tau-IR was observed in 98% of the subjects; the locus coeruleus was solely affected in 46%, and 79% of the subjects were in Braak stages a to II. beta-Amyloid was seen in 47% of subjects and the Thal phase correlated with the HP tau Braak stage and age. Intermediate Alzheimer disease-related pathology (ADRP) was seen in 12%; 52% of the subjects with HP tau-IR fulfilled criteria for definite primary age-related tauopathy (PART). The incidence of concomitant pathology (alpha S, TDP43) did not differ between those with PART and those with ADRP but the former were younger. TDP43-IR was observed in 36%; the most frequently affected region was the medulla; alpha S-IR was observed in 19% of subjects. In 41% of the subjects from 80 to 89 years at death, 3 altered proteins were seen in the brain. Thus, altered proteins are common in the brains of cognitively unimpaired aged subjects; this should be considered while developing diagnostic biomarkers, particularly for identifying subjects at early stages of neurodegenerative diseases.
  • Emilsson, Kent, 1963-, et al. (författare)
  • The relation between mitral annulus motion and left ventricular ejection fraction in atrial fibrillation.
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Clinical Physiology. - 0144-5979 .- 1365-2281. ; 20:1, s. 44-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Mitral annulus motion (MAM) has recently been introduced as an index of left ventricular function. Previous studies have shown a good agreement between MAM (mm) x 5 and ejection fraction in middle-aged and elderly patients. These studies only included patients with sinus rhythm, while patients with atrial fibrillation were excluded. In the present study, MAM was reduced in patients with atrial fibrillation while ejection fraction (EF) did not differ from age-matched control patients with sinus rhythm. The 'conversion factor' (EF/MAM) was 7.2 in the group with atrial fibrillation and 5. 1 in controls with sinus rhythm. This difference must be taken into account when MAM is used to estimate left ventricular function in patients with atrial fibrillation. Patients with atrial fibrillation had lower stroke volume and higher heart rate than patients with sinus rhythm. A decreased systolic long-axis shortening was found (P<0.005) compared to patients with sinus rhythm, but no difference in short-axis diameter shortening.
  • Figueira, Joao, et al. (författare)
  • NMR analysis of the human saliva metabolome distinguishes dementia patients from matched controls
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Molecular Biosystems. - 1742-206X .- 1742-2051. ; 12:8, s. 2562-2571
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Saliva is a biofluid that is sensitive to metabolic changes and is straightforward to collect in a non-invasive manner, but it is seldom used for metabolite analysis when studying neurodegenerative disorders. We present a procedure for both an untargeted and targeted analysis of the saliva metabolome in which nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is used in combination with multivariate data analysis. The applicability of this approach is demonstrated on saliva samples selected from the 25 year prospective Betula study, including samples from dementia subjects with either Alzheimer's disease (AD) or vascular dementia at the time of sampling or who developed it by the next sampling/assessment occasion five years later, and age-, gender-, and education-matched control individuals without dementia. Statistically significant multivariate models were obtained that separated patients with dementia from controls and revealed seven discriminatory metabolites. Dementia patients showed significantly increased concentrations of acetic acid (fold change (fc) = 1.25, p = 2 x 10(-5)), histamine (fc = 1.26, p = 0.019), and propionate (fc = 1.35, p = 0.002), while significantly decreased levels were observed for dimethyl sulfone (fc = 0.81, p = 0.005), glycerol (fc = 0.79, p = 0.04), taurine (fc = 0.70, p = 0.007), and succinate (fc = 0.62, p = 0.008). Histamine, succinate, and taurine are known to be important in AD, and acetic acid and glycerol are involved in related pathways. Dimethyl sulfone and propionate originate from the diet and bacterial flora and might reflect poorer periodontal status in the dementia patients. For these seven metabolites, a weak but statistically significant pre-diagnostic value was observed. Taken together, we present a robust and general NMR analysis approach for studying the saliva metabolome that has potential use for screening and early detection of dementia.
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