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  • Kolstad, Arne, et al. (författare)
  • Molecular Monitoring after Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation and Preemptive Rituximab Treatment of Molecular Relapse; Results from the Nordic Mantle Cell Lymphoma Studies (MCL2 and MCL3) with Median Follow-Up of 8.5 Years
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Biology of blood and marrow transplantation. - ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. - 1083-8791 .- 1523-6536. ; 23:3, s. 428-435
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The main objectives of the present study were to monitor minimal residual disease (MRD) in the bone marrow of patients with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) to predict clinical relapse and guide preemptive treatment with rituximab. Among the patients enrolled in 2 prospective trials by the Nordic Lymphoma Group, 183 who had completed autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) and in whom an MRD marker had been obtained were included in our analysis. Fresh samples of bone marrow were analyzed for MRD by a combined standard nested and quantitative real-time PCR assay for Bcl-1/immunoglobulin heavy chain gene (IgH) and clonal IgH rear-rangements. Significantly shorter progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) was demonstrated for patients who were MRD positive pre-ASCT (54 patients) or in the first analysis post-ASCT (23 patients). The median PFS was only 20 months in those who were MRD-positive in the first sample post-ASCT, compared with 142 months in the MRD-negative group (P <.0001). OS was 75% at 10 years and median not reached in the MRD-negative group, compared with only 35 months in the MRD-positive group (P <.0001). Of the 86 patients (47%) who remained in continuous molecular remission, 73% were still in clinical remission after 10 years. For all patients, the median time from ASCT to first molecular relapse was 55 months, with a continuous occurrence of late molecular relapses. Fifty-eight patients who experienced MRD relapse received rituximab as preemptive treatment on 1 or more occasions, and in this group, the median time from first molecular relapse to clinical relapse was 55 months. In most cases, rituximab converted patients to MRD negativity (87%), but many patients became MRD-positive again later during follow-up (69%). By multivariate analysis, high-risk Mantle Cell Lymphoma International Prognostic Index score and positive MRD status pre-ASCT predicted early molecular relapse. In conclusion, preemptive rituximab treatment converts patients to MRD negativity and likely postpones clinical relapse. Molecular monitoring offers an opportunity to select some patients for therapeutic intervention and to avoid unnecessary treatment in others. MRD-positive patients in the first analysis post-ASCT have a dismal prognosis and thus are in need of novel strategies.
  • Le Gal, Kristell, et al. (författare)
  • Antioxidants can increase melanoma metastasis in mice.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Science Translational Medicine. - 1946-6242. ; 7:308
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Antioxidants in the diet and supplements are widely used to protect against cancer, but clinical trials with antioxidants do not support this concept. Some trials show that antioxidants actually increase cancer risk and a study in mice showed that antioxidants accelerate the progression of primary lung tumors. However, little is known about the impact of antioxidant supplementation on the progression of other types of cancer, including malignant melanoma. We show that administration of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) increases lymph node metastases in an endogenous mouse model of malignant melanoma but has no impact on the number and size of primary tumors. Similarly, NAC and the soluble vitamin E analog Trolox markedly increased the migration and invasive properties of human malignant melanoma cells but did not affect their proliferation. Both antioxidants increased the ratio between reduced and oxidized glutathione in melanoma cells and in lymph node metastases, and the increased migration depended on new glutathione synthesis. Furthermore, both NAC and Trolox increased the activation of the small guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) RHOA, and blocking downstream RHOA signaling abolished antioxidant-induced migration. These results demonstrate that antioxidants and the glutathione system play a previously unappreciated role in malignant melanoma progression.
  • Malmström, Annika, 1957- (författare)
  • Studies for Better Treatment of Patients with Glioma
  • 2019
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • In Sweden annually over 500 people will be diagnosed with the malignant brain tumor glioma. They are graded from I-IV. The majority are glioblastoma (grade IV) (GBM), these being the most aggressive type. Median survival for those treated with standard of care is expected to be around 15 months. This tumor will mainly affect those 60 years or older.The studies in this thesis focus on treatment of patients with malignant gliomas grade III and IV. The aim of the studies is to improve the care of glioma patients. Papers I and II explored different therapeutic options in randomized trials, to facilitate individualized treatment recommendations. Findings from studies I and II, together with additional trials, demonstrated the importance of analyzing the tumor marker O6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) methylation status for survival of GBM patients treated with Temozolomide (TMZ). The third paper investigated how the analysis of this marker is implemented internationally.The first study (paper I, Nordic trial) investigated treatment options for patients 60 years or older with GBM. The trial compared standard radiotherapy (SRT) over 6 weeks versus hypofractionated radiotherapy (HRT) over 2 weeks versus single agent TMZ administered in up to six 4 weekly cycles. In all, 342 patients were included in the trial. This study demonstrated that those randomized to TMZ had superior survival as compared to SRT. In addition, quality of life (QoL) data also suggested a better QoL for TMZ treatment than for radiotherapy. The benefit of TMZ treatment seemed to be limited to those with the tumor molecular marker MGMT methylated (inactivated).The second trial (paper II, Neoadjuvant trial) studied whether integrating TMZ treatment with SRT for patients younger than 60 years with GBM (grade IV) and astrocytoma grade III would confer a survival benefit, if administered postoperatively, before the start of SRT (neoadjuvant). TMZ was provided for 2-3 four weekly cycles followed by SRT to patients randomized to neoadjuvant treatment and was compared to postoperative SRT alone. Although this trial could not illustrate any advantage of delaying the start of SRT while administering TMZ for the study cohort in general, for those included as astrocytoma grade III the median survival was found to be superior by 5 years when randomized to neoadjuvant TMZ. This trial also confirmed the importance of MGMT promoter methylation for the efficacy of TMZ.The third study (paper III) investigated international practices for analyzing tumor MGMT promoter methylation status. MGMT analysis can be conducted by various laboratory methods, which in some cases can provide opposing results regarding the MGMT methylation status of the patient´s tumor. This can lead to incorrect treatment recommendations. To establish which methods and cut-offs that are regularly used to determine tumor MGMT status in the clinic, an international survey was provided to those working in the field. We also inquired about opinions regarding an international consensus on how MGMT should be tested. The 152 respondents reported several methodologies and different cut-off levels also for the same method. A majority of respondents warrant international guidelines.In conclusion, the results of the 2 randomized trials contribute to individualized treatment recommendations for patients affected by GBM or astrocytoma grade III. The results of the survey regarding analyses of MGMT clarify the current problematic situation. The request of the respondents regarding international guidelines might contribute to their future development, so that personalized treatment recommendations can be improved.
  • Mansouri, Larry, et al. (författare)
  • Frequent NFKBIE deletions are associated with poor outcome in primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Blood. - 0006-4971 .- 1528-0020. ; 128:23, s. 2666-2670
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We recently reported a truncating deletion in the NFKBIE gene, which encodes IκBϵ, a negative feedback regulator of NF-κB, in clinically aggressive chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Preliminary data indicate enrichment of NFKBIE aberrations in other lymphoid malignancies, hence we screened a large patient cohort (n=1460) diagnosed with different lymphoid neoplasms. While NFKBIE deletions were infrequent in follicular lymphoma, splenic marginal-zone lymphoma, and T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (<2%), slightly higher frequencies were seen in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, mantle cell lymphoma, and primary CNS lymphoma (3-4%). In contrast, a remarkably high frequency of NFKBIE aberrations (46/203 cases, 22.7%) was observed in primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma (PMBL) and Hodgkin lymphoma (3/11 cases, 27.3%). NFKBIE-deleted PMBL patients were more often therapy-refractory (P=.022) and displayed inferior outcome compared to wildtype patients (5-year survival: 59% vs. 78%; P=.034); however they appeared to benefit from radiotherapy (P=.022) and rituximab-containing regimens (P=.074). NFKBIEaberrations remained an independent factor in multivariate analysis (P=.003), also when restricting to immunochemotherapy-treated patients (P=.008). Whole-exome sequencing and gene expression-profiling verified the importance of NF-κB deregulation in PMBL. In summary, we identify NFKBIE aberrations as a common genetic event across B-cell malignancies and highlight NFKBIE deletions as a novel poor-prognostic marker in PMBL.
  • Mattsson, Niklas, et al. (författare)
  • 18F-AV-1451 and CSF T-tau and P-tau as biomarkers in Alzheimer's disease
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: EMBO Molecular Medicine. - Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd. - 1757-4676. ; 9, s. 1212-1223
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To elucidate the relationship between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) total-tau (T-tau) and phosphorylated tau (P-tau) with the tau PET ligand 18F-AV-1451 in Alzheimer's disease (AD), we examined 30 cognitively healthy elderly (15 with preclinical AD), 14 prodromal AD, and 39 AD dementia patients. CSF T-tau and P-tau were highly correlated (R = 0.92, P < 0.001), but they were only moderately associated with retention of 18F-AV-1451, and mainly in demented AD patients. 18F-AV-1451, but not CSF T-tau or P-tau, was strongly associated with atrophy and cognitive impairment. CSF tau was increased in preclinical AD, despite normal 18F-AV-1451 retention. However, not all dementia AD patients exhibited increased CSF tau, even though 18F-AV-1451 retention was always increased at this disease stage. We conclude that CSF T-tau and P-tau mainly behave as biomarkers of "disease state", since they appear to be increased in many cases of AD at all disease stages, already before the emergence of tau aggregates. In contrast, 18F-AV-1451 is a biomarker of "disease stage", since it is increased in clinical stages of the disease, and is associated with brain atrophy and cognitive decline.
  • Najafinobar, Neda, 1985-, et al. (författare)
  • ToF-SIMS mediated analysis of human lung tissue reveals increased iron deposition in COPD (GOLD IV) patients
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - 2045-2322. ; 9:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a debilitating lung disease that is currently the third leading cause of death worldwide. Recent reports have indicated that dysfunctional iron handling in the lungs of COPD patients may be one contributing factor. However, a number of these studies have been limited to the qualitative assessment of iron levels through histochemical staining or to the expression levels of iron-carrier proteins in cells or bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. In this study, we have used time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) to visualize and relatively quantify iron accumulation in lung tissue sections of healthy donors versus severe COPD patients. An IONTOF 5 instrument was used to perform the analysis, and further multivariate analysis was used to analyze the data. An orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) score plot revealed good separation between the two groups. This separation was primarily attributed to differences in iron content, as well as differences in other chemical signals possibly associated with lipid species. Further, relative quantitative analysis revealed twelve times higher iron levels in lung tissue sections of COPD patients when compared to healthy donors. In addition, iron accumulation observed within the cells was heterogeneously distributed, indicating cellular compartmentalization.
  • Nordström, Lena, et al. (författare)
  • SOX11 and TP53 add prognostic information to MIPI in a homogenously treated cohort of mantle cell lymphoma - a Nordic Lymphoma Group study.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Haematology. - Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd. - 0007-1048. ; 166:1, s. 98-108
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is an aggressive B cell lymphoma, where survival has been remarkably improved by use of protocols including high dose cytarabine, rituximab and autologous stem cell transplantation, such as the Nordic MCL2/3 protocols. In 2008, a MCL international prognostic index (MIPI) was created to enable stratification of the clinical diverse MCL patients into three risk groups. So far, use of the MIPI in clinical routine has been limited, as it has been shown that it inadequately separates low and intermediate risk group patients. To improve outcome and minimize treatment-related morbidity, additional parameters need to be evaluated to enable risk-adapted treatment selection. We have investigated the individual prognostic role of the MIPI and molecular markers including SOX11, TP53 (p53), MKI67 (Ki-67) and CCND1 (cyclin D1). Furthermore, we explored the possibility of creating an improved prognostic tool by combining the MIPI with information on molecular markers. SOX11 was shown to significantly add prognostic information to the MIPI, but in multivariate analysis TP53 was the only significant independent molecular marker. Based on these findings, we propose that TP53 and SOX11 should routinely be assessed and that a combined TP53/MIPI score may be used to guide treatment decisions.
  • Novakova, Lenka, et al. (författare)
  • Searching for neurodegeneration in multiple sclerosis at clinical onset: Diagnostic value of biomarkers.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: PloS one. - 1932-6203. ; 13:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Neurodegeneration occurs during the early stages of multiple sclerosis. It is an essential, devastating part of the pathophysiology. Tools for measuring the degree of neurodegeneration could improve diagnostics and patient characterization. Objective This study aimed to determine the diagnostic value of biomarkers of degeneration in patients with recent clinical onset of suspected multiple sclerosis, and to evaluate these biomarkers for characterizing disease course. Methods This cross-sectional study included 271 patients with clinical features of suspected multiple sclerosis onset and was the baseline of a prospective study. After diagnostic investigations, the patients were classified into the following disease groups: Patients with clinically isolated syndrome (n = 4) or early relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (early RRMS; n = 93); patients with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis with disease durations ≥2 years (established RRMS; n = 39); patients without multiple sclerosis, but showing symptoms (symptomatic controls; n = 89); and patients diagnosed with other diseases (n = 46). In addition, we included healthy controls (n = 51) and patients with progressive multiple sclerosis (n = 23). We analyzed six biomarkers of neurodegeneration: Cerebrospinal fluid neurofilament light chain levels; cerebral spinal fluid glial fibrillary acidic protein; cerebral spinal fluid tau; retinal nerve fiber layer thickness; macula volume; and the brain parenchymal fraction. Results Except for increased cerebral spinal fluid neurofilament light chain levels, median 670 ng/L (IQR 400-2110), we could not find signs of early degeneration in the early disease group with recent clinical onset. However, the intrathecal immunoglobin G production and cerebral spinal fluid neurofilament light chain levels showed diagnostic value. Moreover, elevated levels of cerebral spinal fluid glial fibrillary acidic protein, thin retinal nerve fiber layers, and low brain parenchymal fractions were associated with progressive disease, but not with the other phenotypes. Thin retinal nerve fiber layers and low brain parenchymal fractions, which indicated neurodegeneration, were associated with longer disease duration. Conclusions In clinically suspected multiple sclerosis, intrathecal immunoglobin G production and neurofilament light chain levels had diagnostic value. Therefore, these biomarkers could be included in diagnostic work-ups for multiple sclerosis. We found that the thickness of the retinal nerve fiber layer and the brain parenchymal fraction were not different between individuals that were healthy, symptomatic, or newly diagnosed with multiple sclerosis. This finding suggested that neurodegeneration had not reached a significant magnitude in patients with a recent clinical onset of multiple sclerosis.
  • Pedersen, Mette A., et al. (författare)
  • Focal skeletal FDG uptake indicates poor prognosis in cHL regardless of extent and first-line chemotherapy
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Haematology. - WILEY. - 0007-1048 .- 1365-2141. ; 186:3, s. 431-439
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • F-18-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) is used for staging classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) with high sensitivity for skeletal involvement. However, it is unclear whether a single bone lesion carries the same adverse prognosis as multifocal lesions and if this is affected by type of chemotherapy [ABVD (adriamycin, bleomycin, vincristine, dacarbazine) versus BEACOPP (bleomycin, etoposide, adriamycin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, procarbazine, prednisone)]. We reviewed the clinico-pathological and outcome data from 209 patients with newly diagnosed cHL staged by FDG-PET/CT. Patterns of skeletal/bone marrow uptake (BMU) were divided into 'low' and 'high' diffuse BMU (i.e. without focal lesions), and unifocal or multifocal lesions. Additional separate survival analysis was performed, taking type of chemotherapy into account. Forty patients (19 center dot 2%) had skeletal lesions (20 unifocal, 20 multifocal). The 3-year progression-free-survival (PFS) was 80% for patients with 'low BMU', 87% for 'high BMU', 69% for 'unifocal' and 51% for 'multifocal' lesions; median follow-up was 38 months. The presence of bone lesions, both uni- and multifocal, was associated with significantly inferior PFS (log rank P = 0 center dot 0001), independent of chemotherapy type. Thus, increased diffuse BMU should not be considered as a risk factor in cHL, whereas unifocal or multifocal bone lesions should be regarded as important predictors of adverse outcome, irrespective of the chemotherapy regimen used.
  • Pullerits, Rille, 1969-, et al. (författare)
  • High mobility group box protein 1-A prognostic marker for structural joint damage in 10-year follow-up of patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis.
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Seminars in arthritis and rheumatism. - 1532-866X. ; 46:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • High mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1) is an important pro-inflammatory mediator in adult rheumatoid arthritis. The diagnostic utility of HMGB1 in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) is still unclear. The aim was to examine whether serum HMGB1 levels are associated with inflammation, radiological disease progression, and long-term prognosis in JIA.We included 131 children with JIA from a population-based prevalence study; 38 of them were prospectively followed up for 10 years. Clinical and laboratory disease characteristics at study entry and after 10 years as well as radiological progression over 10 years were recorded. HMGB1 levels were analyzed by an ELISA.The HMGB1 levels were similar in children with different JIA subgroups and in children with established (53%) or newly diagnosed (47%) disease. HMGB1 levels did not differ between groups at entry into the study or at 10 years, by sex, or by the presence or absence of RF or ANA antibodies. HMGB1 levels at the study entry correlated with HMGB1 levels at 10 years and with blood neutrophil count. Most importantly, children with destructive arthritis at 10 years had a tendency toward higher HMGB1 levels at study entry (median 1.2 vs 0.6ng/ml, ns) and displayed 4-fold higher circulating HMGB1 levels (median 3.4 vs 0.8ng/ml, p = 0.0014) than children without radiological destructions.Our results suggest that HMGB1 is a marker of inflammatory activity in children with JIA. Higher serum HMGB1 levels are related to more destructive JIA and could be used as a negative prognostic marker at the disease start.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01905319. Registered July 16, 2013.
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