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Träfflista för sökning "hsv:(MEDICIN OCH HÄLSOVETENSKAP) hsv:(Klinisk medicin) hsv:(Klinisk laboratoriemedicin) "

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  • Wigren, Maria, et al. (författare)
  • Lymphocytes in atherosclerosis
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Clinica Chimica Acta. - : Elsevier. - 0009-8981. ; 413:19-20, s. 1562-1568
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • It is well established that atherosclerosis is caused by an inflammatory process in the arterial intima. However, it is only in recent years that it has become clear that this inflammation is modulated by immune responses against plaque antigens. These antigens are primarily believed to be modified self-antigens such as oxidized LDL. The immune system is challenged to determine whether these antigens should be regarded self and tolerated or non-self and eliminated. The latter will result in plaque development while the first will be protective. T cells are key effectors of both types of responses. An activation of regulatory T cells inhibits auto-reactive T effector cells and is anti-inflammatory. In contrast, if Th1 cells become activated in the plaque this is associated with increased inflammation and disease progression. The role of B cells in atherosclerosis remains to be clarified but some species of athero-protective antibodies have been identified. The elucidation of role of immune system in atherosclerosis has revealed new targets for intervention and both vaccines and antibody-based therapies are presently in or due to enter clinical testing. (c) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Wikberg, Maria L., et al. (författare)
  • Plasma miRNA can detect colorectal cancer, but how early?
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Cancer Medicine. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 2045-7634 .- 2045-7634. ; 7:5, s. 1697-1705
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of deaths worldwide but has a good prognosis if detected early. The need for efficient, preferable non‐ or minimally invasive, inexpensive screening tools is therefore critical. We analyzed 12 miRNAs in pre‐ and postdiagnostic plasma samples to evaluate their potential as CRC screening markers. We used a unique study design with two overlapping cohorts, allowing analysis of pre‐ and postdiagnostic samples from 58 patients with CRC and matched healthy controls. Plasma concentrations of miR‐15b, ‐16, ‐18a, ‐19a, 21, ‐22, ‐25, ‐26a, ‐29c, ‐142‐5p, ‐150, and ‐192 were measured by semi‐quantitative real‐time PCR. Concentrations of miR‐18a, ‐21, ‐22, and ‐25 in plasma from patients with CRC were significantly altered compared to healthy controls. Combined as a multimarker panel, they detected CRC with an AUC of 0.93. Furthermore, levels of these three miRNAs also showed different levels in the prediagnostic case samples close to diagnosis. Only miR‐21‐levels were elevated several years before diagnosis. Plasma levels of miR‐18a, ‐21, ‐22, and ‐25 show promise as screening biomarkers for CRC. However, based on our unique analysis of prediagnostic and postdiagnostic samples from the same patients, we conclude that circulating miRNAs elevated at diagnosis may not automatically be suitable for CRC screening, if the increase occurs too close to clinical diagnosis.
  • Wilbe, Maria (författare)
  • MuSK : a new target for lethal fetal akinesia deformation sequence (FADS).
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of Medical Genetics. - 0022-2593 .- 1468-6244. ; 52:3, s. 195-202
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Fetal akinesia deformation sequence syndrome (FADS, OMIM 208150) is characterised by decreased fetal movement (fetal akinesia) as well as intrauterine growth restriction, arthrogryposis, and developmental anomalies (eg, cystic hygroma, pulmonary hypoplasia, cleft palate, and cryptorchidism). Mutations in components of the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) pathway have previously been associated with FADS.METHODS AND RESULTS: We report on a family with recurrent fetal loss, where the parents had five affected fetuses/children with FADS and one healthy child. The fetuses displayed no fetal movements from the gestational age of 17 weeks, extended knee joints, flexed hips and elbows, and clenched hands. Whole exome sequencing of one affected fetus and the parents was performed. A novel homozygous frameshift mutation was identified in muscle, skeletal receptor tyrosine kinase (MuSK), c.40dupA, which segregated with FADS in the family. Haplotype analysis revealed a conserved haplotype block suggesting a founder mutation. MuSK (muscle-specific tyrosine kinase receptor), a component of the AChR pathway, is a main regulator of neuromuscular junction formation and maintenance. Missense mutations in MuSK have previously been reported to cause congenital myasthenic syndrome (CMS) associated with AChR deficiency.CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first report showing that a mutation in MuSK is associated with FADS. The results support previous findings that CMS and/or FADS are caused by complete or severe functional disruption of components located in the AChR pathway. We propose that whereas milder mutations of MuSK will cause a CMS phenotype, a complete loss is lethal and will cause FADS.
  • Wu, Ping Chun, et al. (författare)
  • ABO genotyping with next-generation sequencing to resolve heterogeneity in donors with serology discrepancies
  • Ingår i: Transfusion. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1537-2995. ; 58:9, s. 2232-2242
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: ABO subtypes are characterized by the alteration of antigens present and their expression levels on red blood cells and many are linked to genetic changes in the ABO gene. Weakened expression of antigens should be identified to prevent transfusion reactions or ABO-incompatible transplantations. Genotyping can be applied to identify subtypes to complement serologic testing. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has shown to provide sensitive and accurate genotyping results as well as valuable cis/trans information. Here we took advantage of NGS and applied it to resolve serology discrepancies in ABO typing.STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: In this study, we customized capture probes targeting the entire ABO gene and sequenced on MiSeq Illumina. The subtype-causing variants were identified, and cis/trans association to ABO alleles was determined. The results from NGS, serology, and Sanger sequencing were compared.RESULTS: Four control samples typed A, B, O, and AB were correctly genotyped. Of 24 serologically discrepant samples, subtype-causing variations were found in 20 cases, with two unresolved and two identified as weakening of ABO antibody in reverse. The types of variations include 17 known subtype alleles, one novel variant, one novel large deletion, and one microchimerism. Haplotypes encompassing Exons 6 and 7 of ABO were reconstructed in 17 of the 20 samples.CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated a full coverage of ABO by capture-based panel, phasing analysis with NGS in ABO genotyping resolved heterogeneity with novel allele and microchimerism findings. This approach provided a more precise method for subtyping and thereby leading to safer transfusion.
  • Wu, Ping Chun, et al. (författare)
  • Genotyping and serotyping profiles showed weak Jka presentation for previously typed as Jknull donors
  • Ingår i: Vox Sanguinis. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1423-0410. ; 114:3, s. 268-274
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Kidd blood group system consists of two major antigens: Jka and Jkb . Both the antigens are absent in individuals typed as Jknull and may develop clinically significant anti-Jk3 antibody. Screening donors for provision of Jknull blood is an ongoing task for blood centres with Jknull blood units kept frozen for specific requirements. In 2016, we discovered a previously typed Jknull donor to be Jka weak positive. Therefore, a study was conducted for our donors to verify Jknull status and to reinforce our typing protocol.MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this experiment, donors previously typed and screened as Jknull were tested with four antisera of Jka and Jkb , and each with gel card for serology testing. Sequence analysis was performed for SLC14A1 gene for the detection of JKnull and weak alleles for genetic testing.RESULTS: Among the 30 samples, four were serologically identified as Jk(a+w ) and genotypically identified as heterozygous for the JK*01W.01 allele. The other 26 were confirmed to be Jknull with JK*02N.01 as the most frequent allele. None of JK*B weak alleles were detected, but three were identified as false positives in the tube method. Gel card gave great accuracy for Jkb detection, but failed to give consistent results for weak Jka .CONCLUSION: By combining the tube method and gel card method in serology, along with complementary genetic testing, the possibility of misinterpreting weak Jka expression was eliminated, and we were able to provide Jknull blood for safe clinical transfusion.
  • Wärnberg, Fredrik, et al. (författare)
  • Long-Term Outcome After Retro-Areolar Versus Peri-Tumoral Injection of Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles (SPIO) for Sentinel Lymph Node Detection in Breast Cancer Surgery.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Annals of Surgical Oncology. - 1068-9265 .- 1534-4681. ; 26:5, s. 1247-1253
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: SPIO is effective in sentinel node (SN) detection. No nuclear medicine department is needed, and no allergic reactions have occurred. This study aimed to compare retro-areolar and peri-tumoral SPIO injections regarding skin staining, detection rates and number of SNs.METHODS: Data on staining size, intensity and cosmetic outcome (0-5; 0 = no problem) were collected by telephone interviews with 258 women undergoing breast conservation. SN detection and the number of SNs were prospectively registered in 332 women.RESULTS: After retro-areolar and peri-tumoral injections, 67.3% and 37.8% (p < 0.001) developed skin staining, with remaining staining in 46.2 vs. 9.4% after 36 months (p < 0.001). Initial mean size was 16.3 vs. 6.8 cm (p < 0.001) and after 36 months, 6.6 vs. 1.8 cm2 (p < 0.001). At 75.1% of 738 interviews, staining was reported paler. After retro-areolar injections, cosmetic outcome scored worse for 2 years. The mean (median) scores were 1.3(0) vs. 0.5(0) points, and 0.2(0) vs. 0.1(0) points, at 12 and 36 months, respectively. Overall detection rates were 98.3% and 97.4% (p = 0.43) and the number of SNs 1.35 vs. 1.57 (p = 0.02) after retro-areolar and peri-tumoral injections. Injection, regardless of type, 1-27 days before surgery increased detection rates with SPIO, 98.0% vs. 94.2% (p = 0.06) ,and SN numbers, 1.56 vs. 1.27 (p = 0.003).CONCLUSION: SPIO is effective and facilitates planning for surgery. Peri-tumoral injection reduced staining with a similar detection rate. Staining was not considered a cosmetic problem among most women. Injecting SPIO 1-27 days before surgery increased the detection rate by 3.8% and increased the number of SNs by 0.3.
  • Yu, Hui, et al. (författare)
  • Programmed Cell Death Ligand 1 Expression in Resected Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Clinical Lung Cancer. - 1525-7304 .- 1938-0690.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Recently, anti-programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) and anti-programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) immunotherapies have yielded promising outcomes for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and led to great interest in applying these agents to treat resectable early-stage NSCLC. The objective of our study was to evaluate PD-L1 protein expression in resectable early-stage NSCLC specimens from a large Northern European cohort, examine the relationship to clinical characteristics, and demonstrate the prognostic role in resected NSCLC.MATERIALS AND METHODS: A large cohort of 875 NSCLC tumors consisted of 337 patients from Sweden and 538 patients from Norway was studied. All the patients had undergone pulmonary resection, and most patients had had early-stage NSCLC. PD-L1 protein expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry using the Dako PD-L1 22C3 pharmDx kit. The tumor proportion score for PD-L1 protein expression was compared with comprehensive demographic and clinicopathologic data.RESULTS: The overall prevalence of PD-L1 protein expression in the resectable NSCLC cohort was 9.5% at a tumor proportion score cutoff of ≥ 50%. Stage I NSCLC had lower PD-L1 expression compared with that of the other stages (P = .0012). PD-L1 expression correlated with wild-type EGFR gene expression (P = .0156) and mutated KRAS gene expression (P = .0004). No significant association was found between PD-L1 expression and mortality after multivariable adjustment for clinical characteristics, although the survival curves showed PD-L1 expression significantly correlated with a poor prognosis in the total NSCLC cohort and in the adenocarcinoma subgroup.CONCLUSION: PD-L1 expression in the present large cohort of resectable NSCLC was relatively low compared with data from clinical trials of advanced NSCLC. PD-L1 expression correlated positively with tumor stage, wild-type EGFR, and KRAS mutation. PD-L1 expression was not found as an independent prognostic factor in the present study. These findings could be important in the future when evaluating the role of anti-PD-1/PD-L1 immunotherapy in the setting of neoadjuvant or adjuvant trials for early-stage resectable NSCLC.
  • Zeppa, Pio, et al. (författare)
  • Announcement : The International System for Reporting Lymph Node Cytopathology
  • Ingår i: Acta Cytologica. - : Karger. - 0001-5547. ; 64:4, s. 299-305
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Fine needle aspiration biopsy cytopathology (FNAC) of lymph nodes is a very common, inexpensive, and rapid diagnostic procedure and can lead to the accurate and timely diagnosis of one of the wide range of pathological processes that involve lymph nodes. These diagnoses include specific reactive processes, specific infections such as tuberculosis, metastatic carcinomas and melanomas, and some lymphomas. The FNAC effectively triages the lymph node material, but the initial diagnosis often requires ancillary testing as a second diagnostic step to make a specific diagnosis, such as the particular infectious agent, the type of lymphoma or Hodgkin lymphoma, or the specific type of metastatic malignancy. An international group of cytopathologists have begun the process of developing a system for the standardized reporting of lymph node FNAC. The group is addressing the pre-analytical issues related to the FNAC, including the role of clinical information and the use of ultrasound, and developing a structure of reporting categories based on the cytopathological findings linked to management recommendations. The basis of the system is the integration of the FNAC with the clinical setting, imaging, and ancillary tests that utilize the FNAC material, to produce a final report that will enhance patient care.
  • Zetterling, Maria, et al. (författare)
  • Prognostic markers for survival in patients with oligodendroglial tumors; a single-institution review of 214 cases
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - 1932-6203 .- 1932-6203. ; 12:11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: In the 2016 WHO classification, the diagnosis of oligodendroglioma has been restricted to IDH mutated, 1p19q codeleted tumors (IDHmut-codel). IDHmut oligoastrocytoma is now classified either as oligodendroglioma or astrocytoma based on presence of 1p19q codeletion. There is growing evidence that this molecular classification more closely reflects patient outcome. Due to the strong association between IDHmut-codel with oligodendroglial morphology, the additional impact of these markers on prognostic accuracy is largely unknown. Our aim was to assess the prognostic impact of IDHmut-codel in an unselected cohort of morphologically classified oligodendroglial tumors.METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review of oligodendroglial tumors (WHO grade II and III) operated since 1983. A total of 214 tumors were included, and molecular information was available for 96 tumors. The prognostic impact of IDHmut-codel together with clinical parameters was analyzed by multivariate Cox regression.RESULTS: IDHmut-codel was registered in 64 tumors while for 150 tumors the molecular profile was negative for IDHmut-codel, unknown or incomplete. Comparison between the two groups showed that patients with IDHmut-codel tumors were younger (42 vs. 48 years), had more frequent frontal tumor location (48 vs. 33%) and presented more often with seizures (72 vs. 51%) and no signs of neurological impairment (14 vs. 30%) than patients harboring tumors with unknown or incomplete molecular profile. Multivariate survival analysis identified young age (HR 1.78 ≥ 40 years), the absence of neurological deficits or personality changes (HR 0.57), frontal tumor location (HR 0.64) and the presence of IDHmut-codel (HR 0.50) as independent predictors for longer survival, whereas tumor grade was not.CONCLUSION: In this unselected single-institution cohort, the presence of IDHmut-codel was associated with more beneficial clinical parameters and was identified as an independent prognostic factor. We conclude that the classical oligodendroglioma genotype provides additional prognostic data beyond clinical characteristics, morphology and tumor grade.
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