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  • Björnsdotter Åberg, Malin, et al. (författare)
  • Evaluation of Quantified Social Perception Circuit Activity as a Neurobiological Marker of Autism Spectrum Disorder
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: JAMA psychiatry. - AMER MEDICAL ASSOC. - 2168-6238. ; 73:6, s. 614-621
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • IMPORTANCE Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is marked by social disability and is associated with dysfunction in brain circuits supporting social cue perception. The degree to which neural functioning reflects individual-level behavioral phenotype is unclear, slowing the search for functional neuroimaging biomarkers of ASD. OBJECTIVE To examine whether quantified neural function in social perception circuits may serve as an individual-level marker of ASD in children and adolescents. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS The cohort study was conducted at the Yale Child Study Center and involved children and adolescents diagnosed as having ASD and typically developing participants. Participants included a discovery cohort and a larger replication cohort. Individual-level social perception circuit functioning was assessed as functional magnetic resonance imaging brain responses to point-light displays of coherent vs scrambled human motion. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Outcome measures included performance of quantified brain responses in affected male and female participants in terms of area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), sensitivity and specificity, and correlations between brain responses and social behavior. RESULTS Of the 39 participants in the discovery cohort aged 4 to 17 years, 22 had ASD and 30 were boys. Of the 75 participants in the replication cohort aged 7 to 20 years, 37 had ASD and 52 were boys. A relative reduction in social perception circuit responses was identified in discovery cohort boys with ASD at an AUC of 0.75 (95% CI, 0.52-0.89; P = .01); however, typically developing girls and girls with ASD could not be distinguished (P = .54). The results were confirmed in the replication cohort, where brain responses were identified in boys with ASD at an AUC of 0.79 (95% CI, 0.64-0.91; P amp;lt; .001) and failed to distinguish affected and unaffected girls (P = .82). Across both cohorts, boys were identified at an AUC of 0.77 (95% CI, 0.64-0.86) with corresponding sensitivity and specificity of 76% each. Additionally, brain responses were associated with social behavior in boys but not in girls. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Quantified social perception circuit activity is a promising individual-level candidate neural marker of the male ASD behavioral phenotype. Our findings highlight the need to better understand effects of sex on social perception processing in relation to ASD phenotype manifestations.
  • Fäldt, Roger, et al. (författare)
  • Prevalence of thyroid hormone abnormalities in elderly patients with symptoms of organic brain disease.
  • 1996
  • Ingår i: Aging (Milan, Italy)1989-01-01+01:002001-01-01+01:00. - Kurtis. - 0394-9532. ; 8:5, s. 347-357
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Analysis of the serum concentrations of free thyroid hormones (fT3, fT4) and thyrotropin (TSH) in 173 psychogeriatric patients (94 females and 79 males, mean age 79 +/- 8 years) disclosed that the hormone levels were related to sex, psychiatric diagnosis, medication and the presence of nonthyroid illness (NTI). Subnormal concentrations of thyroid hormones and/or TSH were found in 25% of the patients. In addition, fT3 and fT4 concentrations were significantly lower (p < 0.05 and p < 0.001, respectively) in demented males compared with demented females although the levels were within the reference limits. Strongly negative correlations between fT3 and age (p < 0.001), and between fT3 and the sedimentation rate (SR) (p < 0.01) were found in demented but not in non-demented patients. These correlations were most pronounced in (age) or restricted to (SR) demented males. In addition, the correlation between fT3 and Hb was strongly positive (p < 0.001) in demented as well as in nondemented patients, particularly in males. The concentration of fT4 was positively correlated to Hb in demented males (p < 0.001), whereas TSH concentration was positively correlated to Hb in demented females (p < 0.05). The results show that TSH is not sufficient as the sole screening assay for evaluation of possible thyroid dysfunction in psychogeriatric patients. In addition, central (hypothalamic?) hypothyroidism may be present in a substantial amount of psychogeriatric patients, as we found an adequate TSH response to exogenous thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) also in patients with decreased fT3/fT4 and no signs of non thyroid diseases. Furthermore, there was an apparent lack of correlation between thyroid hormone levels and dementia (or subgroups of dementia), even though thyroid hormone abnormalities seemed to be rather common in frontotemporal dementia (38%) and non specified dementia (36%).
  • Hesse, Camilla, et al. (författare)
  • The N-terminal domain of α-dystroglycan is released as a 38kDa protein and is increased in cerebrospinal fluid in patients with Lyme neuroborreliosis.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Biochemical and biophysical research communications. - 1090-2104. ; 412:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • α-Dystroglycan is an extracellular adhesion protein that is known to interact with different ligands. The interaction is thought to stabilize the integrity of the plasma membrane. The N-terminal part of α-dystroglycan may be proteolytically processed to generate a small 38kDa protein (α-DG-N). The physiological significance of α-DG-N is unclear but has been suggested to be involved in nerve regeneration and myelination and to function as a potential biomarker for neurodegenerative and neuromuscular diseases. In this report we show that α-DG-N is released into different body fluids, such as lachrimal fluid, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), urine and plasma. To investigate the significance of α-DG-N in CSF we examined the levels of α-DG-N and known neurodegenerative markers in CSF from patients diagnosed with Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) and healthy controls. In untreated acute phase LNB patients, 67% showed a significant increase of CSF α-DG-N compared to healthy controls. After treatment with antibiotics the CSF α-DG-N levels were normalized in the LNB patients.
  • Lundin, Cecilia, et al. (författare)
  • Combined oral contraceptive use is associated with both improvement and worsening of mood in the different phases of the treatment cycle-A double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Psychoneuroendocrinology. - 0306-4530. ; 76, s. 135-143
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: Ever since the introduction of combined oral contraception (COC), one of the major reasons for discontinuing the pill use has been mood-related side effects. Moreover, women who discontinue the pill turn to less effective methods whereby the probability of an unintended conception increases. Approximately 4-10% of COC users complain of depressed mood, irritability or increased anxiety, but drug-related causality has been difficult to prove. Given the lack of randomized controlled trials in this area, we aimed to prospectively estimate the severity of adverse mood in COC users that would be as representative of general users as possible. Methods: This investigator-initiated, multi-center, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study included 202 healthy women. Women were randomized to a COC (1.5 mg estradiol and 2.5 mg nomegestrolacetate) or placebo for three treatment cycles. Main outcome measure was the Daily Record of Severity of Problems (DRSP), which was filled out daily during one baseline cycle and the final treatment cycle. Results: Results from 84 women in the COC group and 94 women in the placebo group were analysed. COC use was associated with small, but statistically significant, increases in mean anxiety (0.22; 95% CI: 0.07-0.37, p = 0.003), irritability (0.23; 95% CI: 0.07-0.38, p = 0.012), and mood swings scores (0.15; 95% CI: 0.00-0.31, p = 0.047) during the intermenstrual phase, but a significant premenstrual improvement in depression (-0.33; 95% CI: -0.62 to -0.05, p = 0.049). Secondary analyses showed that women with previous adverse hormonal contraceptive experience reported significantly greater mood worsening in the intermenstrual phase in comparison with healthy women, p amp;lt;0.05. The proportion of women who reported a clinically relevant mood deterioration did not differ between those allocated to COC (24.1%) or placebo (17.0%), p = 0.262. Conclusion: COC use is associated with small but statistically significant mood side effects in the inter menstrual phase. These findings are driven by a subgroup of women who clearly suffer from COC-related side effects. However, positive mood effects are noted in the premenstrual phase and the proportion of women with clinically relevant mood worsening did not differ between treatment groups. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Minthon, Lennart, et al. (författare)
  • Somatostatin and neuropeptide Y in cerebrospinal fluid: correlations with severity of disease and clinical signs in Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal dementia
  • 1997
  • Ingår i: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders. - Karger. ; 8:4, s. 232-239
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Alzheimer's disease (AD) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) are the most common types of progressive neurodegenerative disorder in our catchment area. The distribution of cortical degeneration in FTD is mainly the reverse of that in AD, while there are both differences and similarities in the clinical characteristics. Somatostatin and neuropeptide Y (NPY) are neuropeptides with a widespread distribution in the human cerebral cortex. Somatostatin is involved in the regulation of hormone release from the anterior pituitary and may act as a neurotransmitter-modulator. NPY is a potent anxiolytic neuropeptide. Somatostatin and NPY coexist in the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia and in amygdaloid complexes. The present study of AD (n = 34) and FTD (n = 22) analyses the cerebrospinal-fluid (CSF) levels of somatostatin-like immunoreactivity and NPY-like immunoreactivity and correlates their levels to 54 different clinical items, such as restlessness, anxiety, irritability and depression. The CSF levels of the two neuropeptides somatostatin and NPY were significantly correlated in FTD (p < 0.02), but not in AD. Several significant correlations to the clinical signs were found: in AD disorientation and dyspraxia, and in FTD agitation, irritability and restlessness. Somatostatin showed a significant negative correlation with severity of dementia in AD (p < 0.013).
  • Minthon, Lennart, et al. (författare)
  • Tacrine treatment modifies cerebrospinal fluid neuropeptide levels in Alzheimer's disease
  • 1994
  • Ingår i: Dementia. - Karger. - 1741-2684. ; 5:6, s. 295-301
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Biochemical and histochemical studies have demonstrated a widespread deficit in the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease (DAT). Multiple disturbances in several transmitter systems have been found. The most consistent neurochemical changes in DAT are reductions in the cholinergic system. The major pharmacological approach today in DAT is based on the cholinergic theory assuming that acetylcholine has a major cortical impact on cognitive processes. Tetrahydroaminoacridine (THA, tacrine) is a centrally active reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. A large number of trials have been performed in patients with DAT. This article was to evaluate whether THA treatment induced neuropeptide alteration in DAT before and after 1 year on oral THA treatment.
  • Fält, Elisabet, et al. (författare)
  • Agreement between mothers', fathers', and teachers' ratings of behavioural and emotional problems in 3-5-year-old children
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - 1932-6203 .- 1932-6203. ; 13:11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), a valid and reliable instrument for measuring children's mental health, is available in parent- and teacher versions, making it an ideal tool for assessing behavioural and emotional problems in young children. However, few studies have evaluated inter-parent agreement on the SDQ, and in most studies on SDQ agreement, parent scores are either provided by only one parent or have been combined into one parent score. Furthermore, studies on SDQ inter-rater agreement usually only reflect degree of correlation, leaving the agreement between measurements unknown. The aim of the present study was therefore to examine both degree of correlation and agreement between parent and teacher SDQ reports, in a community sample of preschool-aged children in Sweden.Methods: Data were obtained from the Children and Parents in Focus trial. The sample comprised 4,46 children 3-5-years-old. Mothers, fathers and preschool teachers completed the SDQ as part of the routine health check-ups at Child Health Centres. Inter-rater agreement was measured using Pearson correlation coefficient and intraclass correlation (ICC).Results: Results revealed poor/fair agreement between parent and teacher ratings (ICC 0.25-0.54) and good/excellent agreement between mother and father ratings (ICC 0.66-0.76). The highest level of agreement between parents and teachers was found for the hyperactivity and peer problem subscales, whereas the strongest agreement between parents was found for the hyperactivity and conduct subscales.Conclusions: Low inter-rater agreement between parent and teacher ratings suggests that information from both teachers and parents is important when using the SDQ as a method to identify mental health problems in preschool children. Although mothers and fathers each provide unique information about their child's behaviour, good inter-parent agreement indicates that a single parent informant may be sufficient and simplify data collection.
  • Näslund, Jakob, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors on rating-scale-assessed suicidality in adults with depression
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Psychiatry. - 0007-1250 .- 1472-1465. ; 212:3, s. 148-154
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have been claimed to elicit or aggravate suicidal ideation. Aims To explore the effect of SSRIs on the suicidality item of the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD). Method We undertook a patient-level mega-analysis of adults with depression participating in industry-sponsored studies of sertraline, paroxetine or citalopram, comparing patients on an SSRI (n = 5681) with those on placebo (n = 2581) with respect to HRSD-rated suicidality. Separate analyses were conducted for young adults (age 18-24; n = 537) and adults (age = 25; n = 7725). Results Among adults, the reduction in mean rating of suicidality was larger and the risk for aggravation of suicidality lower in patients receiving an SSRI from week 1 and onwards. In young adults, SSRI treatment neither reduced nor increased suicidality ratings relative to placebo at the end-point. Conclusions The net effect of SSRIs on suicidality appears beneficial in people above the age of 24 and neutral in those aged 18-24.
  • Eriksson, Erik M, et al. (författare)
  • Participation in a Swedish cervical cancer screening program among women with psychiatric diagnoses: a population-based cohort study.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: BMC public health. - 1471-2458. ; 19:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In Sweden, organized screening programs have significantly reduced the incidence of cervical cancer. For cancers overall, however, women with psychiatric diagnoses have lower survival rates than other women. This study explores whether women with psychiatric diagnoses participate in cervical cancer screening programs to a lesser extent than women on average, and whether there are disparities between psychiatric diagnostic groups based on grades of severity.
  • Blomqvist, My, et al. (författare)
  • Experiences of dental care and dental anxiety in adults with autism spectrum disorder
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Autism Research and Treatment. - New York, USA : Hindawi Publishing Corporation. - 2090-1925. ; 2014
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Dental anxiety is associated with previous distressing dental experiences, such as lack of understanding of the dentist intentions, perceptions of uncontrollability and experiences of pain during dental treatment. People with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are impaired in building flexible predictions and expectations, which is very much needed during a dental visit. The aims of the study were to investigate if people with ASD have more negative dental experiences and a higher level of dental anxiety compared to a matched control group. Forty-seven adults with ASD and of normal intellectual performance, and 69 age- and sex-matched typically developing controls completed questionnaires on previous dental experiences and dental anxiety, the Dental Anxiety Scale, and the Dental Beliefs Survey. The ASD group experienced pain during dental treatments more often than the controls and 22% had repeatedly experienced being forced to dental treatment they were not prepared for, compared to 3% of the controls. A higher level of dental anxiety was reported by the ASD group. Dental treatment and methods for supporting the communication with patients with ASD need to be developed, in order to reduce the negative dental experiences and dental anxiety in people with ASD.
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