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5281.
  • Åsberg, Jakob, 1978-, et al. (författare)
  • Reading comprehension, word decoding and spelling in girls with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD): performance and predictors.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders. - 1368-2822. ; 45:1, s. 61-71
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Difficulties with aspects of literacy are often seen in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD). The bases of the connections between these disorders and literacy difficulties are poorly understood. Furthermore, it is not clear if existing research is representative for girls. Aims: There were three aims: (1) to compare performance in reading comprehension, word decoding, and spelling in girls with ASD (n = 20), AD/HD (n = 36), and community girls with typical developing (girls; n = 54); (2) to assess rates of reading and writing disorders within groups; and (3) to examine the predictive value of measures of autistic and AD/HD symptomatology to reading comprehension in the whole girl sample. Methods & Procedures: Participants were aged between 8 and 17 years, and had a full scale IQ > 70. Standardized tests of literacy, oral vocabulary, and non-verbal ability were administered. Parent ratings of degree of autistic symptomatology and both parent and teacher ratings of AD/HD symptomatology were collected for all girls. Outcomes & Results: Girls with diagnosed ASD could not be separated significantly from typically developing girls or girls with AD/HD on average performance on any literacy test. However, among girls with ASD, 40% had at least one reading and writing disorder. Girls with AD/HD performed lower than typically developing girls in reading comprehension, word decoding, and spelling, and 56% had at least one reading and writing disorder. In regression analysis, using the total sample, both degrees of autistic and AD/HD symptomatology negatively contributed to the variance in reading comprehension after controlling for oral vocabulary, word decoding, and non-verbal ability. Whereas AD/HD contributed to the variance in reading comprehension once autistic symptomatology was controlled for, the opposite was not true. However, a large bivariate correlation between autistic and AD/HD symptomatology somewhat complicates the interpretation of that result. Conclusions & Implications: The findings highlight the importance of monitoring and supporting the literacy development in girls with ASD or AD/HD. Results from regression analyses suggested that word decoding and/or oral vocabulary training may not be sufficient for the girls fully to overcome difficulties in the important skill of reading comprehension.
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5282.
  • Åsberg, Jakob, 1978-, et al. (författare)
  • Social and individual aspects of classroom learning in students with Autism Spectrum Disorder: an action research pilot study on assessment.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Special Needs Education. - 1469-591X. ; 27:1, s. 115-127
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The current paper reports on the outcome of an ongoing action research project at a school for higher-functioning students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in Sweden. The overall aim of the study was to develop and evaluate a questionnaire that captures social and individual aspects of classroom learning suitable for use with students with ASD. Interview data is presented on the perceived utility of the questionnaire for understanding and planning classroom instruction for the children with ASD through the eyes of the students’ teachers and their parents, as assessed during an Individual Education Plan meeting. Further, teacher ratings obtained by means of the instrument were found to differentiate a group of students with ASD (n = 10) from a group of typically developing children matched with regard to grade year, word reading ability and receptive vocabulary (n = 10). Implications and future directions are discussed, as are limitations of this pilot study.
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5283.
  • Åsberg, Jakob, 1978-, et al. (författare)
  • Spelling Difficulties in School-Aged Girls With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Behavioral, Psycholinguistic, Cognitive, and Graphomotor Correlates
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Journal of Learning Disabilities. - 0022-2194 .- 1538-4780. ; 47:5, s. 424-434
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Writing difficulties are common among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but the nature of these difficulties has not been well studied. Here we relate behavioral, psycholinguistic, cognitive (memory/executive), and graphomotor measures to spelling skills in school-age girls with ADHD (n = 30) and an age-matched group of typically developed spellers (TYPSP, n = 35). When subdividing the ADHD group into those with poor (ADHDPSP, n = 19) and typical spelling (ADHDTYPSP, n = 11), the two subgroups did not differ with regard to inattentive or hyperactive–impulsive symptom severity according to parent or teacher ratings. Both ADHD subgroups also had equally severe difficulties in graphomotor control–handwriting and (parent ratings of) written expression as compared to the TYPSP group. In contrast, ADHDPSP had problems relative to ADHDTYPSP and TYPSP on phonological and orthographic recoding (choice tasks) and verbal memory (digit span) and were more likely to make commissions on a continuous performance task (CPT). Further analyses using the collapsed ADHD group showed that both digit span and the presence of CPT commissions predicted spelling performance independently of each other. Finally, results showed that phonological recoding skills mediated the association between digit span and spelling performance in ADHD. Theoretical and educational implications are discussed.
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5284.
  • Åsberg Johnels, Jakob, 1978-, et al. (författare)
  • A Hyperlexic-Like Reading Style Is Associated With Increased Autistic Features in Girls With ADHD.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of attention disorders. - 1557-1246. ; 23:8, s. 767-776
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Hyperlexic-like reading (defined as word decoding much better than comprehension) has been associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Here we study correlates of a hyperlexic-like reading style (HPL) in ADHD, a condition known to co-occur both with reading difficulties and ASD.We compared 10 girls with an ADHD diagnosis plus HPL with 26 with ADHD minus HPL.Girls with HPL scored marginally lower in reading comprehension but did not differ from non-HPL girls in IQ, vocabulary, or in the severity of ADHD ratings. However, in addition to scoring much better on word decoding, HPL readers also displayed higher levels of social-communication deficits on the ADOS-G and the ADI-R. Moreover, correlation analysis in the full sample revealed an association between increasing autistic features and word reading.The study underscores the heterogeneity of reading skills in ADHD, and shows the relevance of subclinic autistic features for understanding this variability.
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5285.
  • Åsberg Johnels, Jakob, 1978-, et al. (författare)
  • Autism and emotional face-viewing.
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Autism research : official journal of the International Society for Autism Research. - 1939-3806. ; 10:5, s. 901-910
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Atypical patterns of face-scanning in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may contribute to difficulties in social interactions, but there is little agreement regarding what exactly characterizes face-viewing in ASD. In addition, little research has examined how face-viewing is modulated by the emotional expression of the stimuli, in individuals with or without ASD. We used eye-tracking to explore viewing patterns during perception of dynamic emotional facial expressions in relatively large groups of individuals with (n = 57) and without ASD (n = 58) and examined diagnostic- and age-related effects, after subgrouping children and adolescents (≤18 years), on the one hand, and adults (>18 years), on the other. Results showed that children/adolescents with ASD fixated the mouth of happy and angry faces less than their typically developing (TD) peers, and conversely looked more to the eyes of happy faces. Moreover, while all groups fixated the mouth in happy faces more than in other expressions, children/adolescents with ASD did relatively less so. Correlation analysis showed a similar lack of relative orientation toward the mouth of smiling faces in TD children/adolescents with high autistic traits, as measured by the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ). Among adults, participants with ASD attended less to the eyes only for neutral faces. Our study shows that the emotional content of a face influences gaze behavior, and that this effect is not fully developed in children/adolescents with ASD. Interestingly, this lack of differentiation observed in the younger ASD group was also seen in younger TD individuals with higher AQ scores. Autism Res 2016. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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5286.
  • Åsberg Johnels, Jakob, 1978-, et al. (författare)
  • Narrative retelling in children with neurodevelopmental disorders: Is there a role for nonverbal temporal-sequencing skills?
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian journal of psychology. - 1467-9450. ; 54:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Oral narrative retelling is often problematic for children with communicative and neurodevelopmental disorders. However, beyond a suggested role of language level, little is known about the basis of narrative performance. In this study we examine whether oral narrative retelling might be associated not just with language level but also with skills related to nonverbal narrative temporal sequencing. A diagnostically heterogeneous sample of Swedish-speaking children with a full scale IQ >70 was included in the study (N = 55; age 6-9 years). Narrative retelling skills were measured using the three subscores from the bus story test (BST). Independent predictors included (1) temporal sequencing skills according to a picture arrangement test and (2) a language skills factor consisting of definitional vocabulary and receptive grammar. Regression analyses show that language skills predicted BST Sentence Length and Subordinate Clauses subscores, while both temporal sequencing and language were independently linked with the BST Information subscore. When subdividing the sample based on nonverbal temporal sequencing level, a significant subgroup difference was found only for BST Information. Finally, a principal component analysis shows that temporal sequencing and BST Information loaded on a common factor, separately from the language measures. It is concluded that language level is an important correlate of narrative performance more generally in this diagnostically heterogeneous sample, and that nonverbal temporal sequencing functions are important especially for conveying story information. Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed.
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5287.
  • Åsberg, Marie, et al. (författare)
  • Novel biochemical markers of psychosocial stress in women.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: PloS one. - 1932-6203. ; 4:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Prolonged psychosocial stress is a condition assessed through self-reports. Here we aimed to identify biochemical markers for screening and early intervention in women. METHODS: Plasma concentrations of interleukin (IL) 1-alpha, IL1-beta, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, interferon-gamma (INF-gamma), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), epidermal growth factor (EGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), total tri-iodothyronine (TT3), total thyroxine (TT4), prolactin, and testosterone were measured in: 195 women on long-term sick-leave for a stress-related affective disorder, 45 women at risk for professional burnout, and 84 healthy women. RESULTS: We found significantly increased levels of MCP-1, VEGF and EGF in women exposed to prolonged psychosocial stress. Statistical analysis indicates that they independently associate with a significant risk for being classified as ill. CONCLUSIONS: MCP-1, EGF, and VEGF are potential markers for screening and early intervention in women under prolonged psychosocial stress.
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5288.
  •  
5289.
  • Åslund, Cecilia, 1977- (författare)
  • Depression and Antisocial Behaviour in Adolescents Influence of Social Status, Shaming, and Gene-Environment Interaction
  • 2009
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis investigated (1) social status and shaming experiences in relation to aggressive behaviour and depression, and (2) gene-environment interactions between two genetic polymorphisms related to the serotonergic system – MAOA-VNTR and 5HTTLPR – and experiences of maltreatment in relation to delinquent behaviour and depression among adolescents.The four included studies are based on questionnaire data from the Survey of Adolescent Life in Vestmanland 2006 (SALVe-2006). A total of 5396 students in 9th (15-16 years old) grade of elementary school and 2nd (17-18 years old) grade of high school comprised the target population. The students in 2nd grade of high school also provided a saliva sample for gene extraction.There were strong associations between shaming experiences and both aggressive behaviour and depression. In addition, individuals who reported many shaming experiences and had either low or high social status had increased risks of physical aggression or depression, whereas medium social status seemed to have a protective effect.Gene-environment interactions were found between experiences of maltreatment and the MAOA-VNTR in relation to delinquent behaviour. Moreover, the direction of the gene-environment interaction differed depending on sex: boys with the short (S) variant of the MAOA-VNTR, in contrast to girls with the long (LL) variant, had the highest risk of delinquency in combination with maltreatment.Gene-environment interactions were also found between experiences of maltreatment and the 5HTTLPR in relation to depression among girls. The girls that were homozygous for the S allele (SS) had the highest risk of depression in combination with maltreatment. Among boys however, no gene-environment interaction was found between the 5HTTLPR and maltreatment in relation to depression.In conclusion, it is important to consider both genetic effects, and psychosocial factors such as social status, shaming experiences, and experiences of maltreatment when investigating different aspects of health and behaviour among adolescents.
5290.
  • Åslund, Cecilia, 1977-, et al. (författare)
  • Impact of the interaction between the 5HTTLPR polymorphism and maltreatment on adolescent depression. : A population-based study
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Behavior Genetics. - 0001-8244 .- 1573-3297. ; 39:5, s. 524-531
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Serotonin plays a central role in mood regulation and the development of depressive disorders. The present study investigated whether a functional polymorphism (5HTTLPR) of the serotonin transporter gene interacts with maltreatment in the prediction of depression. A cohort of 17-18 year old students (n=1482) anonymously completed the Survey of Adolescent Life and Health in Vestmanland 2006 and gave a saliva sample for DNA extraction. An association between maltreatment and adolescent depression was found independent of sex. When the whole population was analyzed, no main effect of 5HTTLPR in association with depression was found. When separated by sex, a significant main effect and a GxE interaction effect of the SS allele was found among girls. No gene main effect or GxE interaction effect was found among boys. The present study confirms previous findings of sex differences in interaction effects between the 5HTTLPR polymorphism and maltreatment in the prediction of adolescent depression.
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