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11.
  • Khoshnood, Ardavan (författare)
  • Prehospital Diagnosis and Oxygen Treatment in ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction
  • 2017
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • IntroductionPaper I: An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was constructed to identify ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) and predict the need for Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI). Paper II, III and IV: Studies suggest that O2 therapy may be harmful in STEMI patients. We therefore conducted the SOCCER study to evaluate the effects of O2 therapy in STEMI patients.MethodsPaper I: 560 ambulance ECGs sent to the Cardiac Care Unit (CCU), was together with the CCU physicians interpretation and decision of conducting an acute PCI or not collected, and compared with the interpretation and PCI decision of the ANN. Paper II, III, IV: Normoxic (≥94%) STEMI patients accepted for acute PCI were in the ambulance randomized to standard care with 10 L/min O2 or room air. A subset of the patients underwent echocardiography for determination of the Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction (LVEF) and the Wall Motion Score Index (WMSI). All patients had a Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging (CMRI) to evaluate Myocardial area at Risk (MaR), Infarct Size (IS) and Myocardial Salvage Index (MSI).ResultsPaper I: The area under the ANN’s receiver operating characteristics curve for STEMI detection as well as predicting the need of acute PCI were very good.Paper II, III, IV: No significant differences could be shown in discussing MaR, MSI or IS between the O2 group (n=46) and the air group (n=49). Neither could any differences be shown for LVEF and WMSI at the index visit as well after six months between the O2 group (n=46) and the air group (n=41)ConclusionsPaper I: The results indicate that the number of ECGs sent to the CCU could be reduced with 2/3 as the ANN would safely identify ECGs not being STEMI.Paper II, III, IV: The results suggest that it is safe to withhold O2 therapy in normoxic, stable STEMI patients.
12.
  • Brandt, Lennart, et al. (författare)
  • Myelography in the late postoperative period in patients subjected to anterior cervical decompression and fusion
  • 1993
  • Ingår i: Acta Neurochirurgica. - Springer. - 0001-6268. ; 122:1-2, s. 97-101
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • During a 13 year period, 286 patients with cervical disc herniation and/or spondylotic spurs, were subjected to anterior decompression and vertebral interbody fusion with autologous bone. Twenty patients were re-admitted in the late postoperative period due to recurrent radicular symptoms and/or signs of myelopathy. In these patients myelography was performed again. In 14 patients spinal cord compression and/or nerve root involvement at a new level was visualized. At the operated level, however, the myelograms demonstrated a smooth anterior wall in the spinal canal. The series confirms the safety, effectiveness and reliability of the Cloward procedure in achieving long term spinal cord and nerve root decompression, and a solid vertebral interbody fusion.
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13.
  • Hadimeri, Ursula (författare)
  • Factors affecting the physical characteristics of arterio-venous fistula in patients with renal failure
  • 2019
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p><strong>Background and Purpose</strong></p><p>A patent access is vital for a dialysis patient. The arterio-venous fistula (AVF), the most important access for haemodialysis (HD), is frequently affected by extensive complications such as stenosis and occlusions.</p><p><strong>Study I: </strong>To investigate whether the dimensions of AVFs used for performing haemodialysis were affected by the original disease.</p><p><strong>Study II: </strong>To investigate if the diameter of the distal radiocephalic fistula could influence left ventricular variables in stable haemodialysis patients.</p><p><strong>Study III</strong>: To investigate whether a single Far Infrared (FIR) light treatment could alter blood velocity, AVF diameter or inflammatory markers.</p><p><strong>Study IV: </strong>To evaluate in what extent the renal diagnosis and radiological interventions affected the dysfunction of AVF and results of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA).</p><p><strong>Materials and methods</strong></p><p><strong>Study I: </strong>The lumen diameter of the AVF was studied by ultrasound in 19 patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and in 19 control patients. The monitoring was performed along the forearm part of the vein, the maximal diameter was measured. The diameters of the two needle insertion sites were also measured.</p><p><strong>Study II: </strong>Nineteen patients were investigated with echocardiography, using M-mode recordings and measurements in the 2D image. Ultrasound and doppler ultrasound were performed. Transsonic measurements were performed after the ultrasound investigation. Measurements of the diameter of the AVF were performed in four locations. Heart variables were analysed regarding left ventricular (LV) criteria.</p><p><strong>Study III: </strong>Thirty patients with native AVF in the forearm were included. Each patient was his/her own control. Ultrasound examinations of the AVF diameter and blood flow velocity were performed before and after a single Far Infrared light (FIR) treatment.</p><p><strong>Study IV: </strong>522 radiological investigations and endovascular treatments between January 1, 2006 and December 31, 2014 were analysed in 174 patients, retrospectively. All investigations had been performed due to clinical suspicion of impaired AVF function. All stenoses were evaluated and the number, degree, length, location and relation to anastomosis were recorded. After PTA the remaining stenoses were evaluated again and complications were recorded.</p><p><strong>Results</strong></p><p><strong>Study I: </strong>The diameter of the AVF at the maximal site in patients with ADPKD was significantly wider than that for the control patients.</p><p><strong>Study II: </strong>A larger AVF mean and maximal diameter worsened left ventricular characteristics.</p><p><strong>Study III: </strong>A single FIR treatment resulted in a significant increase in blood velocity over the AV fistula from a mean of 2.1±1.0 m/s to 2.3±1.0 m/s. The diameter of the arterialized vein became wider, i.e. 0.72±0.02 to 0.80±0.02 cm. The increase in fistula blood velocity correlated positively with baseline serum-urate and the increase in venous diameter correlated positively with the baseline plasma orosomucoid concentration.</p><p><strong>Study IV: </strong>The degree of AVF stenosis before PTA correlated significantly with the degree of remaining stenosis after intervention. Arterial stenosis was significantly more frequent among patients with diabetic nephropathy and interstitial nephritis. A shorter life span between PTAs was related to diabetic nephropathy.</p><p><strong>Conclusions</strong></p><p><strong>Study I: </strong>The receiving veins of AVF in patients with ADPKD have an abnormality that causes a greater than normal dilatation in response to the arterialization.</p><p><strong>Study II: </strong>The maximal diameter of the distal AVF seems to be a sensitive marker of LV impairment in stable haemodialysis patients.</p><p><strong>Study III: </strong>A single FIR treatment increased AVF blood velocity and vein diameter. Thus, one FIR treatment can help maturation of AVF in the early postoperative course.</p><p><strong>Study IV: </strong>Repeated PTA was performed significantly more often in patients with diabetic nephropathy. Clinically significant stenosis should be dilated as soon as possible. Occlusion of the AVF should be thrombolyzed and/or dilated when diagnosed.</p>
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14.
  • Burgu, Berk, et al. (författare)
  • Pelvic reduction during pyeloplasty for antenatal hydronephrosis: does it affect outcome in ultrasound and nuclear scan postoperatively?
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Urology. - 1527-9995. ; 76:1, s. 169-74
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To compare ultrasound (US) scan and nuclear renography findings in patients who underwent pyeloplasty with and without pelvic reduction in a randomized prospective study.A total of 42 patients, all prenatally diagnosed with unilateral hydronephrosis, were included. Hydronephrosis was confirmed postnatally. Twenty patients were randomly selected to undergo pyeloplasty with pelvic reduction and 22 underwent pelvis-sparing pyeloplasty. Patients were evaluated with mercaptoacetyltriglycine-3 scans on the sixth month and US scans on the first, third, and sixth months, postoperatively. Mean follow-up was 37 +/- 5.6 weeks. Statistical analyses were performed using chi-square test and significance was set as P <.05. Power analyses were performed by the NCSS-PASS program. Power value of 0.84 was calculated for a sample size of 42.The anteroposterior pelvic diameter decreased significantly in the pelvic reduction group compared with pelvis-sparing group in the first- and third-month US scans. However, the difference was not significant in the sixth month. The improvements in the US findings for the pelvis-sparing group match with those of the pelvic reduction group later in the postoperative period. Pelvic reduction significantly improved the renal washout time (T(1/2)) in mercaptoacetyltriglycine-3 renography when compared with pyeloplasty group without reduction at postoperative sixth month. Differential renal function was found to be unaffected from pelvic reduction.Resolution of anteroposterior diameter in US scan is more prominent in the pelvic reduction group at earlier stages of the postoperative period. Although T(1/2) decreases more prominently in the pelvic reduction group, the utility of this procedure is still indecisive. This feature can reveal possible surgical failures earlier and strengthen the values of US and renography postoperatively.
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15.
  • Norgren, Lars, et al. (författare)
  • Immune response to collagen impregnated Dacron double velour grafts for aortic and aorto-femoral reconstructions
  • 1990
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Vascular Surgery. - Elsevier. - 0950-821X. ; 4:4, s. 379-384
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This study presents 20 patients, randomised to receive either a collagen-treated or an ordinary Dacron graft for aortic reconstructions, and the results of a skin-prick test, blood parameters and ELISA for anti-collagen antibodies as well as NMR pictures during a 6 week follow-up period. Forty per cent (4/11) of those receiving a collagen impregnated graft had a significantly increased titre of antibodies and NMR revealed in two out of 11 patients either a slightly increased amount of fluid or fibrosis around the graft, both collagen impregnated. No differences were found between the graft groups concerning body temperature and leucocyte or platelet counts. The skin-prick test for collagen was negative in all cases.
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16.
  • Steineck, Gunnar, 1952-, et al. (författare)
  • Contouring pudendal nerves.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Acta oncologica (Stockholm, Sweden). - 1651-226X. ; 57:4, s. 438-439
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)
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17.
  • Telli, Onur, et al. (författare)
  • Is top-down vs bottom-up radiological evaluation after febrile urinary tract infection really less stressful for the child and family? Challenging the dogma.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: The Journal of urology. - 1527-3792. ; 193:3, s. 958-62
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We evaluated whether stress levels in children and parents during radiological evaluation after febrile urinary tract infection are really lower using the top-down approach, where (99m)technetium dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scintigraphy is used initially, than the bottom-up approach, where voiding cystourethrography is initially performed and repeated examinations are easier for all.We prospectively evaluated 120 children 3 to 8 years old. Pain ratings were obtained using the Faces Pain Scale-Revised, and conversation during the procedure was evaluated using the Child-Adult Medical Procedure Interaction Scale-Revised by 2 independent observers. To evaluate parental anxiety, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory form was also completed. Following a documented febrile urinary tract infection children were randomized to the top-down or bottom-up group. A third group of 44 children undergoing repeat voiding cystourethrography and their parents were also evaluated.Child ratings of pain using the Faces Pain Scale-Revised were not significantly different between the top-down group following (99m)technetium dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scintigraphy (2.99 on a scale of 10) and the bottom-up group following voiding cystourethrography (3.21). Also the Faces Pain Scale-Revised was not significantly different in the repeat voiding cystourethrography group (3.35). On the Child-Adult Medical Procedure Interaction Scale-Revised there was negative correlation between child coping and child distress, as well as rate of child distress and adult coping promoting behavior. Parental state anxiety scores were significantly less in the top-down and repeat voiding cystourethrography groups than in the bottom-up group.Although the top-down approach and repeat voiding cystourethrography cause less anxiety for caregivers, these values do not correlate to pain scale in children. This finding might be due to lack of appropriate evaluation tools of pediatric pain and anxiety. However, the theory that the top-down approach is less invasive, and thus less stressful, requires further research. The Child-Adult Medical Procedure Interaction Scale-Revised data indicate that influences in adult-child interaction are bidirectional.
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18.
  • Velickaite, Vilma, et al. (författare)
  • Cognitive function in very old men does not correlate to biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: BMC Geriatrics. - 1471-2318 .- 1471-2318. ; 17:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p><strong>BACKGROUND:</strong> The Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain displays atrophy with amyloid-β (Aβ) and tau deposition, whereas decreased Aβ42 and increased tau are measured in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The aim of this study was to relate cognitive performance to the degree of brain atrophy, CSF biomarker levels and neuropathology in a cohort of aged men.</p><p><strong>METHODS:</strong> Fifty-eight 86-92-year-old men from the Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men (ULSAM) cohort underwent cognitive testing, brain computed tomography and lumbar puncture. Atrophy was graded with established scales. Concentrations of CSF Aβ42, t-tau and p-tau were measured by ELISA. Thirteen brains were examined post mortem.</p><p><strong>RESULTS:</strong> Forty-six of the individuals were considered non-demented, whereas twelve were diagnosed with dementia, either at baseline (n = 4) or during follow-up (n = 8). When comparing subjects with and without dementia, there were no differences in the degree of atrophy, although the mini mental state examination (MMSE) scoring correlated weakly with the degree of medial temporal atrophy (MTA) (p = 0.04). Moreover, the CSF biomarker levels did not differ significantly between healthy (n = 27) and demented (n = 8) subjects (median values 715 vs 472 pg/ml for Aβ42, 414 vs 427 pg/ml for t-tau and 63 vs 60 pg/ml for p-tau). Similarly, there were no differences in the biomarker levels between individuals with mild (n = 24) and severe (n = 11) MTA (median values 643 vs 715 pg/ml for Aβ42, 441 vs 401 pg/ml for t-tau and 64 vs 53 pg/ml for p-tau). Finally, the neuropathological changes did not correlate with any of the other measures.</p><p><strong>CONCLUSION:</strong> In this cohort of aged men only a weak correlation could be seen between cognitive performance and MTA, whereas the various neuroradiological, biochemical and neuropathological measures did not correlate with each other. Thus, AD biomarkers seem to be less informative in subjects of an advanced age.</p>
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19.
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20.
  • Björkman-Burtscher, Isabella, et al. (författare)
  • Proton MR spectroscopy and preoperative diagnostic accuracy: an evaluation of intracranial mass lesions characterized by stereotactic biopsy findings
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: AJNR. - American Society of Neuroradiology. - 1936-959X. ; 21:1, s. 84-93
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: MR imaging has made it easier to distinguish among the different types of intracranial mass lesions. Nevertheless, it is sometimes impossible to base a diagnosis solely on clinical and neuroradiologic findings, and, in these cases, biopsy must be performed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hypothesis that proton MR spectroscopy is able to improve preoperative diagnostic accuracy in cases of intracranial tumors and may therefore obviate stereotactic biopsy. METHODS: Twenty-six patients with intracranial tumors underwent MR imaging, proton MR spectroscopy, and stereotactic biopsy. MR spectroscopic findings were evaluated for the distribution pattern of pathologic spectra (NAA/Cho ratio < 1) across the lesion and neighboring tissue, for signal ratios in different tumor types, and for their potential to improve preoperative diagnostic accuracy. RESULTS: Gliomas and lymphomas showed pathologic spectra outside the area of contrast enhancement while four nonastrocytic circumscribed tumors (meningioma, pineocytoma, metastasis, and germinoma) showed no pathologic spectra outside the region of enhancement. No significant correlation was found between different tumor types and signal ratios. MR spectroscopy improved diagnostic accuracy by differentiating infiltrative from circumscribed tumors; however, diagnostic accuracy was not improved in terms of differentiating the types of infiltrative or circumscribed lesions. CONCLUSION: MR spectroscopy can improve diagnostic accuracy by differentiating circumscribed brain lesions from histologically infiltrating processes, which may be difficult or impossible solely on the basis of clinical or neuroradiologic findings.
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