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Träfflista för sökning "hsv:(MEDICIN OCH HÄLSOVETENSKAP) hsv:(Klinisk medicin) hsv:(Radiologi och bildbehandling) "

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  • Brondén, Björn, et al. (författare)
  • The kinetics of lipid micro-emboli during cardiac surgery studied in a porcine model.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Cardiovascular Journal. - Taylor & Francis. - 1651-2006. ; 42, s. 411-416
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective. To study the kinetics of lipid micro-emboli during cardiac surgery. Design. Eleven pigs were studied. Seven of these were put on extracorporeal circulation. A shed blood phantom consisted of blood, saline and radioactive triolein was added to the circuit. Both venous and arterial blood samples were taken at short intervals. Four animals were used to study renal kinetics without extracorporeal circulation. The same kind of shed blood phantom was infused into the ascending aorta. Samples were taken from the renal artery and vein. All samples were analyzed for radioactivity by scintillation counting. Results. A median 130-fold increase in radioactivity was seen in the blood and was quickly eliminated. Systemic first-pass wedging was found to be 62%. The first-pass elimination in the kidney was 77%. No radioactivity was found in urine. Conclusions. This study shows that the turnover of lipid micro-emboli is fast, and that the majority of the emboli are trapped on their first passage through the capillary system. No evidence was found of a renal excretion of these lipid emboli.
  • Bø, Hans Kristian, et al. (författare)
  • Intraoperative 3D ultrasound-guided resection of diffuse low-grade gliomas: radiological and clinical results.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of neurosurgery. - 1933-0693. ; 132:2, s. 518-529
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVEExtent of resection (EOR) and residual tumor volume are linked to prognosis in low-grade glioma (LGG) and there are various methods for facilitating safe maximal resection in such patients. In this prospective study the authors assess radiological and clinical results in consecutive patients with LGG treated with 3D ultrasound (US)-guided resection under general anesthesia.METHODSConsecutive LGGs undergoing primary surgery guided with 3D US between 2008 and 2015 were included. All LGGs were classified according to the WHO 2016 classification system. Pre- and postoperative volumetric assessments were performed, and volumetric results were linked to overall and malignant-free survival. Pre- and postoperative health-related quality of life (HRQoL) was evaluated.RESULTSForty-seven consecutive patients were included. Twenty LGGs (43%) were isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)-mutated, 7 (14%) were IDH wild-type, 19 (40%) had both IDH mutation and 1p/19q codeletion, and 1 had IDH mutation and inconclusive 1p/19q status. Median resection grade was 93.4%, with gross-total resection achieved in 14 patients (30%). An additional 24 patients (51%) had small tumor remnants < 10 ml. A more conspicuous tumor border (p = 0.02) and lower University of California San Francisco prognostic score (p = 0.01) were associated with less remnant tumor tissue, and overall survival was significantly better with remnants < 10 ml (p = 0.03). HRQoL was maintained or improved in 86% of patients at 1 month. In both cases with severe permanent deficits, relevant ischemia was present on diffusion-weighted postoperative MRI.CONCLUSIONSThree-dimensional US-guided LGG resections under general anesthesia are safe and HRQoL is preserved in most patients. Effectiveness in terms of EOR appears to be consistent with published studies using other advanced neurosurgical tools. Avoiding intraoperative vascular injury is a key factor for achieving good functional outcome.
  • Corell, Alba, et al. (författare)
  • The clinical significance of the T2-FLAIR mismatch sign in grade II and III gliomas: a population-based study.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: BMC cancer. - 1471-2407. ; 20:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The T2-FLAIR mismatch sign is an imaging finding highly suggestive of isocitrate dehydrogenase mutated (IDH-mut) 1p19q non-codeleted (non-codel) gliomas (astrocytomas). In previous studies, it has shown excellent specificity but limited sensitivity for IDH-mut astrocytomas. Whether the mismatch sign is a marker of a clinically relevant subtype of IDH-mut astrocytomas is unknown.We included histopathologically verified supratentorial lower-grade gliomas (LGG) WHO grade II-III retrospectively during the period 2010-2016. In the period 2017-2018, patients with suspected LGG radiologically were prospectively included, and in this cohort other diagnoses than glioma could occur. Clinical, radiological and molecular data were collected. For clinical evaluation we included all patients with IDH-mut astrocytomas. In the 2010-2016 cohort DNA methylation analysis with Infinium MethylationEPIC BeadChip (Illumina) was performed for patients with an IDH-mut astrocytoma with available tissue. We aimed to examine the association of the T2-FLAIR mismatch sign with clinical factors and outcomes. Additionally, we evaluated the diagnostic reliability of the mismatch sign and its relation to methylation profiles.Out of 215 patients with LGG, 135 had known IDH-mutation and 1p19q codeletion status. Fifty patients had an IDH-mut astrocytoma and 12 of these (24.0%) showed a mismatch sign. The sensitivity and specificity of the mismatch sign for IDH-mut detection were 26.4 and 97.6%, respectively. There were no differences between patients with an IDH-mut astrocytoma with or without mismatch sign when grouped according to T2-FLAIR mismatch sign with respect to baseline characteristics, clinical outcomes and methylation profiles. The overall interrater agreement between neuroradiologist and clinical neurosurgeons for the T2-FLAIR mismatch sign was significant when all 215 MRI examination assessed (κ = 0.77, p < 0.001, N = 215).The T2-FLAIR mismatch sign in patients with an IDH-mut astrocytoma is not associated with clinical presentation or outcome. It seems unlikely that the IDH-mut astrocytomas with mismatch sign represent a specific subentity. Finally, we have validated that the T2-FLAIR mismatch sign is a reliable and specific marker of IDH-mut astrocytomas.
  • Forssell-Aronsson, Eva, 1961-, et al. (författare)
  • Indium-111 activity concentration in tissue samples after intravenous injection of indium-111-DTPA-D-Phe-1-octreotide.
  • 1995
  • Ingår i: Journal of nuclear medicine : official publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine. - 0161-5505. ; 36:1, s. 7-12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Indium-111 activity concentrations in human tumor and normal tissue samples were determined at 24, 48 and 120 hr after i.v. injection of 111In-DTPA-D-Phe-1-octreotide. Fourteen patients were included in the study. Seven patients had medullary thyroid carcinoma, four had midgut carcinoid tumors, two had endocrine pancreatic tumors and one had chronic pancreatitis.
  • Ge, Chenjie, et al. (författare)
  • Enlarged Training Dataset by Pairwise GANs for Molecular-Based Brain Tumor Classification
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: IEEE Access. - 2169-3536. ; 8:1, s. 22560-22570
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper addresses issues of brain tumor subtype classification using Magnetic Resonance Images (MRIs) from different scanner modalities like T1 weighted, T1 weighted with contrast-enhanced, T2 weighted and FLAIR images. Currently most available glioma datasets are relatively moderate in size, and often accompanied with incomplete MRIs in different modalities. To tackle the commonly encountered problems of insufficiently large brain tumor datasets and incomplete modality of image for deep learning, we propose to add augmented brain MR images to enlarge the training dataset by employing a pairwise Generative Adversarial Network (GAN) model. The pairwise GAN is able to generate synthetic MRIs across different modalities. To achieve the patient-level diagnostic result, we propose a post-processing strategy to combine the slice-level glioma subtype classification results by majority voting. A two-stage course-to-fine training strategy is proposed to learn the glioma feature using GAN-augmented MRIs followed by real MRIs. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme, experiments have been conducted on a brain tumor dataset for classifying glioma molecular subtypes: isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) mutation and IDH1 wild-type. Our results on the dataset have shown good performance (with test accuracy 88.82%). Comparisons with several state-of-the-art methods are also included.
  • Grände, Per-Olof, et al. (författare)
  • Segmental cerebral vasoconstriction: successful treatment of secondary cerebral ischaemia with intravenous prostacyclin.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Cephalalgia. - Wiley-Blackwell. - 0333-1024. ; 30:7, s. 890-895
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We describe a 23-year-old male patient who presented with spontaneous intermittent and increasing attacks of severe, left-sided thunderclap headache combined with rapidly progressive muscle weakness and dysphasia, including gradual loss of consciousness. Subsequent CT, MRI and DSA showed progressive brain ischaemia and oedema within the left cerebral hemisphere with strict ipsilateral segmental arterial vasoconstriction. Despite extensive medical care, including steroids, the patient deteriorated rapidly. However, the clinical course changed dramatically within 15 h after the start of an intravenous infusion of prostacyclin at a dose of 0.9 ng/kg/min, with an almost complete recovery of consciousness and speech. In addition the pathophysiological alterations seen on magnetic resonance (imaging and digital) subtraction angiography including diffusion-weighted imaging and apparent diffusion coefficient maps shortly before prostacyclin treatment were clearly reduced when the patient was examined 3-4 days later and he continued to recover thereafter. Although not fully compatible, our case had several clinical characteristics and radiological findings reminiscent of those of the 'segmental reversible vasoconstriction syndrome', sometimes called the Call-Fleming syndrome.
  • Johansson, Björn (författare)
  • Opacification of anterior part of hydrophilic acrylic IOL or a prelenticular inflammatory membrane?
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of cataract and refractive surgery. - Philadelphia : Elsevier. - 0886-3350 .- 1873-4502. ; 38:6, s. 1115-1116
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>In their recent case report, Park and Chuck<sup>1</sup> describe the bilateral appearance of an opacification at the plane of the anterior surface of the hydrophilic acrylic Akreos MI60 intraocular lens (IOL) (Bausch &amp; Lomb). The patient's general history of diabetes mellitus, proliferative retinopathy, and iris rubeosis explains the limited pupil dilation preventing visualization of the capsulorhexis opening in their slitlamp images.</p>
  • Lundberg, Peter, et al. (författare)
  • Increased bile excretion of Gd-EOB-DTPA in diffuse liver disease : mechanistic modeling of qDCE-MRI in patients with severe fibro-sis
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Magnetic Resonance Materials in Physics, Biology and Medicine. - Springer. - 0968-5243 .- 1352-8661. ; 29:1, s. S272-S273
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Introduction</p><p>Over the past decades, several different non-invasive methods for staging hepatic fibrosis have been proposed. One such method is dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) using the contrast agent (CA) Gd-EOB-DTPA. Gd-EOB-DTPA is liver specific, which means that it is taken up specifically by the hepatocytes via the OATP3B1/B3 transporters and excreted into the bile via the MRP2 transporter. Several studies have shown that DCE-MRI and Gd-EOBDTPA can separate patients with advanced (F3-F4) from mild (F0-F2) hepatic fibrosis by measuring the signal intensity, where patients with advanced fibrosis have a lower signal intensity than the mild fibrosis cases.1 However, none of the studies up to date have been able to differentiate if the reduced signal intensity in the liver is because of an decreased uptake of CA or an increased excretion. Analyzing the DCE-MRI data with mechanistic mathematical modelling has the possibility of investigating such a differentiation.</p><p>Subjects and methods</p><p>88 patients with diffuse liver disease were examined using DCE-MRI (1.5 T Philips Achieva, two-point Dixon, TR=6.5 ms, TE=2.3/4.6 ms, FA=13) after a bolus injection of Gd-EOB-DTPA, followed by a liver biopsy. Regions of interest were placed within the liver, spleen and veins and a whole-body mechanistic pharmacokinetic model2 was fitted to the data. The fitted parameters in the model correspond to the rate of CA transport between different compartments, <em>e.g. </em>hepatocytes, blood plasma, and bile (Fig. 1).</p><p>Results</p><p>As can be seen in Fig. 2, the parameter corresponding to the transport of CA from the blood plasma to the hepatocytes, kph, is lower for patients with advanced fibrosis (p=0.01). Fig. 3 shows that the parameter corresponding to the CA excretion into the bile, khb, is higher for patients with advanced fibrosis (p&lt;0.01).</p><p>Discussion/Conclusion</p><p>This work shows that the decreased signal intensity in DCE-MRI images in patients with advanced fibrosis depends on <em>both </em>a decreased uptake of CA in the hepatocytes and an increased excretion into the bile. Similar results have also been observed in a rat study3. In that study, rats with induced cirrhosis had a higher MRP2-activity than the healthy control rats.</p><p>References</p><p>1Norén et al: Eur. Radiol, 23(1), 174-181, 2013.</p><p>2Forsgren et al: PloS One, 9(4): e95700, 2014.</p><p>3Tsuda &amp; Matsui: Radiol, 256(3): 767-773, 2010.</p>
  • Maeder, Philippe P, et al. (författare)
  • Colloid cysts of the third ventricle: correlation of MR and CT findings with histology and chemical analysis
  • 1990
  • Ingår i: AJNR. - American Society of Neuroradiology. - 1936-959X. ; 11:3, s. 575-581
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Eight patients with colloid cysts of the third ventricle were examined with CT and MR. In six, surgical resection was performed and the material was subjected to histologic evaluation; the concentrations of trace elements were determined by particle-induced X-ray emission. Stereotaxic aspiration was performed in two. The investigation showed that colloid cysts are often iso- or hypodense relative to brain on CT (5/8), but sometimes have a center of increased density. Increased density did not correlate with increased concentration of calcium or other metals but did not correlate with high cholesterol content. Colloid cysts appear more heterogeneous on MR (6/8) than on CT (3/8), despite a homogeneous appearance at histology. High signal on short TR/TE sequences is correlated with a high cholesterol content. A marked shortening of the T2 relaxation time is often noticed in the central part of the cyst. Analysis of trace elements showed that this phenomenon is not related to the presence of metals with paramagnetic effects. Our analysis of the contents of colloid cysts does not support the theory that differing metallic concentrations are responsible for differences in MR signal intensity or CT density. We did find that increased CT density and high MR signal correlated with high cholesterol content.
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