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Träfflista för sökning "hsv:(MEDICIN OCH HÄLSOVETENSKAP) hsv:(Klinisk medicin) hsv:(Radiologi och bildbehandling) "

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31.
  • Moller, K, et al. (författare)
  • Avanta versus Swanson silicone implants in the MCP joint--a prospective, randomized comparison of 30 patients followed for 2 years
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: J Hand Surg [Br]. - 0266-7681 (Print). ; 30:1, s. 8-13
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The results of Swanson and Avanta metacarpophalangeal joint arthroplasties in rheumatoid patients were compared in a prospective, randomized study of 30 patients (120 implants). At 2-year follow-up, grip strength was measured, hand function was assessed with the Sollerman test and the subjective outcome was determined with visual analogue scores. With both implants ulnar deviation and flexion deformities decreased, and there was no difference between the groups. The increase in range of motion was 7degrees greater with Avanta implants than with Swanson implants. Grip strength and hand function were unaltered but the visual analogue scales showed decreased pain levels and subjective improvements in hand function, grip strength and cosmesis. Twenty-four of 30 patients were satisfied. Fracture of the silicone spacer occurred with 12 Avanta (20%) and eight Swanson implants (13%), with a higher fracture frequency in men.
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32.
  • Mårtensson, Linda, et al. (författare)
  • A nonsurgical technique for blood access in extracorporeal affinity adsorption of antibodies in rats.
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Artificial Organs. - Wiley-Blackwell. - 0160-564X. ; 31:4, s. 312-316
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Monoclonal antibodies for targeting cytotoxic conjugates to tumor cells are currently being evaluated together with extracorporeal affinity adsorption. The aim of the adsorption was to reduce undesired side effects in normal organs and to increase the tumor-to-normal tissue ratios. This technique is also applicable to several other therapeutic areas such as immune-mediated disorders, that is, autoimmunity, allergy, and transplantation rejection. We describe an improved technique for extracorporeal affinity adsorption of radiolabeled biotinylated antibodies in rats. Blood access is established through the tail artery and tail vein, without surgical insertion of permanent catheters. This technique is simple, does not require surgery, and causes only minimal stress to the animals. In addition, experiments can be carried out on several animals simultaneously. This new technique is of considerable benefit for studying extracorporeal affinity adsorption in rats, as experiments can be carried out with negligible anatomical and physiological interventions, compared to previously used techniques.
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33.
  • Nilsson, Daniel, 1973-, et al. (författare)
  • [New possibilitys in surgery for brain tumors with intraoperative MRI]. Intraoperativ MRT ger nya möjligheter för neurokirurgi.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Läkartidningen. - 1652-7518. ; 116
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In surgery for brain tumors, the main challenge is to resect the tumor completely without causing injury to surrounding structures. Intraoperative MRI can provide updated information on remaining tumor and the relationship to critical brain structures. We report our initial experiences from an intraoperative 3 T MRI suite from a surgical, radiological and anesthesiological perspective. The technique has been useful in treating pediatric brain tumor patients, pituitary tumors, low-grade gliomas and epilepsy surgery patients. Image quality has been comparable to conventional diagnostic MRI and there have been no adverse events from the technique. Team-based training and simulation are key factors to manage this complex technical environment and make intraoperative MRI into a routine procedure.
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34.
  • Nittby, Henrietta, et al. (författare)
  • Cognitive impairment in rats after long-term exposure to GSM-900 mobile phone radiation
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Bioelectromagnetics. - John Wiley and Sons Inc.. - 0197-8462. ; 29:3, s. 219-232
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Considering the frequent use of mobile phones, we have directed attention to possible implications on cognitive functions. In this study we investigated in a rat model the long-term effects of protracted exposure to Global System for Mobile Communication-900 MHz (GSM-900) radiation. Out of a total of 56 rats, 32 were exposed for 2 h each week for 55 weeks to radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation at different SAR levels (0.6 and 60 mW/kg at the initiation of the experimental period) emitted by a (GSM-900) test phone. Sixteen animals were sham exposed and eight animals were cage controls, which never left the animal house. After this protracted exposure, GSM-900 exposed rats were compared to sham exposed controls. Effects on exploratory behaviour were evaluated in the open-field test, in which no difference was seen. Effects on cognitive functions were evaluated in the episodic-like memory test. In our study, GSM exposed rats had impaired memory for objects and their temporal order of presentation, compared to sham exposed controls (P = 0.02). Detecting the place in which an object was presented was not affected by GSM exposure. Our results suggest significantly reduced memory functions in rats after GSM microwave exposure (P = 0.02).
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35.
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36.
  • Salford, Leif, et al. (författare)
  • The mammalian brain in the electromagnetic fields designed by man with special reference to blood-brain barrier function, neuronal damage and possible physical mechanisms
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: 22nd Nishinomiya-Yukawa Memorial Symposium - What is Life? The Next 100 Years of Yukawa's Dream,Kyoto, Japan,2007-10-15 - 2007-10-20. - PROGRESS THEORETICAL PHYSICS PUBLICATION OFFICE.
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Life oil earth was formed during billions of years, exposed to, and shaped by the original physical forces such as gravitation, cosmic irradiation, atmospheric electric fields and the terrestrial magnetism. The Schumann resonances at 7.4 Hz are all example of oscillations possibly important for life.(1)) The existing organisms are created to function in harmony with these forces. However, in the late 19th century mankind introduced the use of electricity, in the early 20th century long-wave radio and in the 1940-ies short-wave radio. High frequency RF was introduced in the 50-ies as FM and television and during the very last decades, microwaves of the modern communication society spread around the world. Today, however, one third of the world's population is owner of the microwave-producing mobile phones and an even larger number is exposed to the cordless RF emitting systems. To what; extent are all living organisms affected by these, almost everywhere present radio frequency fields? And what will be the effects of many years of continuing exposure? Since 1989 Our group has studied the effects upon the mammalian blood-brain barrier (BBB) in rats by non-thermal radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF). These have been shown to cause significantly increased leak-age of the rats' own blood albumin through the BBB of exposed rats, at energy levels of 1W/kg and below, as compared to non-exposed animals in a total series of about two thousand animals.(2)-6)) One remarkable observation is the fact that the lowest energy levels, with whole-body average power densities below 10mW/kg, give rise to the most pronounced albumin leakage. If mobile communication, even at extremely low energy levels, causes the users' own albumin to leak out through the BBB, also other unwanted and toxic molecules in the blood, may leak into the brain tissue and concentrate in and damage the neurons and glial cells of the brain. In later studies we have shown that a 2-h exposure to GSM 915 MHz, at non-thermal SAB-values of 0.2, 2 and 200 mW/kg, gives rise to significant neuronal damage, seen not only 50 days after the exposure 7) but also after 28 days but not after 14 days. Albumin extravasations and uptake into neurons was enhanced after 14 clays, but not after 28.(8)) in our continued research, also the non-thermal effects oil tissue structure and memory function of long-term exposure for 13 months are studied.(9)) We have also performed microarray analysis of brains from rats exposed to short term GSM both at 1,800 MHz and at 900MHz and have found significant effects upon gene expression of membrane associated genes as compared to control animals.(10),11)) Most of our findings support that living organisms are affected by the non-thermal radio frequency fields. Some other Studies agree while others find no effects. The mechanisms by which the EMFs may alter BBB permeability are not Well Understood. At low field strengths, the effects on body temperature are negligible and thus heating effects are not involved. A change in the physicochemical characteristics of membranes has been suggested as a cause.(12)) We have performed experiments to verify a quantum mechanical model for interaction with protein-bound ions. Our results show that controlled frequency and amplitude of ELF EM fields upon spinach plasma vesicles can steer transport over the membrane.(13)) This may be a first proof of a resonance phenomenon where appropriate levels of frequency and amplitude in the right combination have the potency to communicate with the biology of membranes and transport systems. Our study has prompted Lis to elaborate on magnetic resonance models; the Ion Cyclotron Resonance (ICR) model and the Ion Parametric Resonance (IPR) Model in an attempt to explain the occurrence of resonance frequencies. This is extensively described here under the heading: Mechanisms behind the effects of electromagnetical fields upon biology. We also bring forward the concept of solitons being active in membranes and DNA/RNA-transcription as a, possible mean to understand and prove the biological effects of EMF. The Nishinomiya-Yukawa International and Interdisciplinary Symposium 2007 raised the question: What is Life? An obvious and simple answer could be: It is DNA! The DNA strand can be looked upon as an antenna resonating in the microwave band 6GHz with its harmonics and subharmonics.(14)-18)) If this holds true, the dramatic situation might exist, that all living organisms have a receptor for the newly constructed and world-wide man-made microvaves, leading to a direct effect upon the function of DNA - in concordance with our experimental findings! Our generation invented the microwave emitters. We now have in imperative obligation to further investigate the links between EMF and biology in order to prevent possible detrimental effects of the microwaves.
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37.
  • Sundgren, P, et al. (författare)
  • Paragangliomas of the spinal canal
  • 1999
  • Ingår i: Neuroradiology. - Springer. - 1432-1920. ; 41:10, s. 788-794
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report the clinical MRI and histopathological features of five consecutive cases of spinal paraganglioma. Three intradural tumours were found in the typical location (two at the L4, one at the S2 level); one intradural extramedullary tumour arose at an unusual level, from the ventral C2 root, and one extradural tumour growing along the L5 nerve root sheath had an aggressive growth pattern with early, local paraspinal recurrence and, eventually, intradural metastatic spread. This type of growth pattern has not been described previously. Paragangliomas of the spinal canal are more common than previously thought and can be located anywhere along the spine, although the lumbosacral level is the most common. Their appearance on MRI can not distinguish them from other tumours in the spinal canal. Even though paragangliomas in general are benign and slowly growing their growth pattern can vary and be more aggressive, to the point of metastatic spread.
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38.
  • Sundgren, Pia, et al. (författare)
  • Value of conventional, and diffusion- and perfusion weighted MRI in the management of patients with unclear cerebral pathology, admitted to the intensive care unit
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Neuroradiology. - Springer. - 1432-1920. ; 44:8, s. 674-680
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of our retrospective study was to determine the extent to which diffusion- and perfusion- weighted MRI combined with conventional MRI could be helpful in the evaluation of intensive care unit (ICU) patients who have unknown or unclear cerebral pathology underlying a serious clinical condition. Twenty-one ICU patients with disparity between the findings on brain CT scan and their clinical status were studied. All patients underwent conventional MR and diffusion-weighted imaging and 14 also had MR perfusion studies. Abnormalities were present on diffusion-weighted imaging of 17 of the 21 patients and on perfusion-weighted studies of 7 of 14 patients. The MRI results changed the preliminary/working diagnosis in six patients. In eight other patients, MRI revealed additional pathology that had not been suspected clinically, and/or characterized more closely findings that had already been detected by CT or suspected clinically. MRI showed abnormalities in four of the five patients who had normal CT. MRI findings suggested a negative clinical outcome in all nine patients who subsequently died. MRI findings also suggested positive long-term outcome in five of nine patients who improved significantly as based on Glasgow and extended Glasgow outcome scales. In the three unconscious patients who had normal diffusion- and perfusion weighted imaging the clinical outcome was good. This study suggests that MRI in seriously ill ICU patients with unclear cerebral pathology can provide information that changes, characterizes, or supports diagnoses and/or prognoses and therefore facilitates further management.
39.
  • Toporski, Jacek, et al. (författare)
  • High-dose iodine-131-metaiodobenzylguanidine with haploidentical stem cell transplantation and posttransplant immunotherapy in children with relapsed/refractory neuroblastoma.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation. - Elsevier. - 1083-8791. ; 15:9, s. 1077-1085
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We evaluated the feasibility and efficacy of using high-dose iodine-131-metaiodobenzylguanidine ((131)I-MIBG) followed by reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) and transplantation of T cell-depleted haploidentical peripheral blood stem cells (designated haplo-SCT) to treat relapsing/refractory neuroblastoma (RRNB). Five RRNB patients were enrolled: 4 with relapse (3 after autologous SCT) and 1 with induction therapy failure. The preparative regimen included high-dose (131)I-MIBG on day -20, followed by fludarabine (Flu), thiotepa, and melphalan (Mel) from day -8 to -1. Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF)-mobilized, T cell-depleted haploidentical paternal stem cells were infused on day 0 together with cultured donor mesenchymal stem cells. A single dose of rituximab was given on day +1. After cessation of short immunosuppression (mycophenolate, OKT3), 4 children received donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI). (131)I-MIBG infusion and RIC were well tolerated. All patients engrafted. No primary acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) was observed. Four children developed aGVHD after DLI and were successfully treated. Analysis of immunologic recovery showed fast reappearance of potentially immunocompetent natural killer (NK) and T cells, which might have acted as effector cells responsible for the graft-versus-tumor (GVT) effect. Two children are alive and well, with no evidence of disease 40 and 42 months after transplantation. One patient experienced late progression with new bone lesions (sternum) 38 months after haplo-SCT, and is being treated with local irradiation and reinstituted DLI. One patient rejected the graft, was rescued with autologous backup, and died of progressive disease 5 months after transplantation. Another child relapsed 7 months after transplantation and died 5 months later. High-dose (131)I-MIBG followed by RIC and haplo-SCT for RRNB is feasible and promising, because 2 of 5 children on that regimen achieved long-lasting remission. Further studies are needed to evaluate targeted therapy and immune-mediated tumor control in high-risk neuroblastoma.
40.
  • Wängberg, Bo, 1953-, et al. (författare)
  • Intraoperative detection of somatostatin-receptor-positive neuroendocrine tumours using indium-111-labelled DTPA-D-Phe1-octreotide.
  • 1996
  • Ingår i: British journal of cancer. - 0007-0920. ; 73:6, s. 770-5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • After injection of 111In-labelled DTPA-D-Phe1-octreotide, intraoperative tumour localisation was performed using a scintillation detector in 23 patients with neuroendocrine tumours. Count rates from suspect tumour lesions and adjacent normal tissue were expressed as a ratio before (Rin situ) and after (Rex vivo) excision. 111In activity concentration ratios of tumour tissue to blood (T/B) were determined in a gamma counter. In patients with midgut carcinoids, (all scintigraphy positive), false Rin situ recordings were found in 4/29 macroscopically identified tumours. T/B ratios were all high (27-650). In patients with medullary thyroid carcinomas (eight out of ten scintigraphy positive), misleading Rin situ results were found in 4/37 macroscopically identified tumours. T/B ratios were lower (3-39) than those seen in midgut carcinoids. Two out of four patients with endocrine pancreatic tumours had positive scintigraphy, reliable intraoperative measurements and very high T/B ratios (910-1500). One patient with a gastric carcinoid had correct measurements in situ and ex vivo with high T/B ratios (71-210). In situ measurements added little information to preoperative scintigraphy and surgical findings using the present detection system. Rex vivo measurements were more reliable. The very high T/B ratios seen in midgut carcinoids and some endocrine pancreatic tumours would be favourable for future radiation therapy via somatostatin receptors.
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