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Sökning: hsv:(MEDICIN OCH HÄLSOVETENSKAP) hsv:(Medicinska grundvetenskaper)

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  • Holmér, Andreas, et al. (författare)
  • The factor H variant associated with age-related macular degeneration (H384) and the non-disease associated form bind differentially to C-reactive protein, fibromodulin, DNA and necrotic cells.
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Journal of Biological Chemistry. - ASBMB. - 1083-351X. ; 282:15, s. 10894-10900
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Recently, a polymorphism in the complement regulator factor H (FH) gene has been associated with age-related macular degeneration. When histidine instead of tyrosine is present at position 384 in the seventh complement control protein (CCP) domain of FH, the risk for age-related macular degeneration is increased. It was recently shown that these allotypic variants of FH, in the context of a recombinant construct corresponding to CCPs 6 - 8, recognize polyanionic structures differently, which may lead to altered regulation of the alternative pathway of complement. We show now that His-384, corresponding to the risk allele, binds C-reactive protein (CRP) poorly compared with the Tyr-384 form. We also found that C1q and phosphorylcholine do not compete with FH for binding to C-reactive protein. The interaction with extracellular matrix protein fibromodulin, which we now show to be mediated, at least in part, by CCP6 - 8 of FH, occurs via the polypeptide of fibromodulin and not through its glycosaminoglycan modifications. The Tyr-384 variant of FH bound fibromodulin better than the His-384 form. Furthermore, we find that CCP6 - 8 is able to interact with DNA and necrotic cells, but in contrast the His-384 allotype binds these ligands more strongly than the Tyr-384 variant. The variations in binding affinity of the two alleles indicate that complement activation and local inflammation in response to different targets will differ between His/His and Tyr/Tyr homozygotes.
  • Johansson, C, et al. (författare)
  • Nitric oxide synthase inhibition blocks phencyclidine-induced behavioural effects on prepulse inhibition and locomotor activity in the rat.
  • 1997
  • Ingår i: Psychopharmacology. - 0033-3158. ; 131:2, s. 167-73
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The ability of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), to block the behavioural effects of the potent psychotomimetic, phencyclidine, was tested in rats using two different behavioural models. L-NAME was found to block both phencyclidine-induced disruption of prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle and phencyclidine-induced stimulation of locomotor activity. A selective action of L-NAME on the effects of phencyclidine was indicated, since L-NAME did not alter the effects of amphetamine, another potent psychotomimetic, in these behavioural models. These observations suggest that a nitric oxide-dependent mechanism may be involved in the effects of phencyclidine in the central nervous system.
  • Karlsson, Oskar, et al. (författare)
  • Neonatal exposure to the cyanobacterial toxin BMAA induces changes in protein expression and neurodegeneration in adult hippocampus.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Toxicological Sciences. - 1096-0929 .- 1096-6080. ; 130:2, s. 391-404
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The cyanobacterial toxin β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) has been proposed to contribute to neurodegenerative disease. We have previously reported a selective uptake of BMAA in the mouse neonatal hippocampus and that exposure during the neonatal period causes learning and memory impairments in adult rats. The aim of this study was to characterize effects in the brain of 6-month-old rats treated neonatally (postnatal days 9-10) with the glutamatergic BMAA. Protein changes were examined using the novel technique Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization (MALDI) imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) for direct imaging of proteins in brain cryosections, and histological changes were examined using immunohistochemistry and histopathology. The results showed long-term changes including a decreased expression of proteins involved in energy metabolism and intracellular signaling in the adult hippocampus at a dose (150 mg/kg) that gave no histopathological lesions in this brain region. Developmental exposure to a higher dose (460 mg/kg) also induced changes in the expression of S100β, histones, calcium- and calmodulin-binding proteins, and guanine nucleotide-binding proteins. At this dose, severe lesions in the adult hippocampus including neuronal degeneration, cell loss, calcium deposits, and astrogliosis were evident. The data demonstrate subtle, sometimes dose-dependent, but permanent effects of a lower neonatal dose of BMAA in the adult hippocampus suggesting that BMAA could potentially disturb many processes during the development. The detection of BMAA in seafood stresses the importance of evaluating the magnitude of human exposure to this neurotoxin.
  • Lindberg, Olle R, et al. (författare)
  • Epidermal growth factor treatment of the adult brain subventricular zone leads to focal microglia/macrophage accumulation and angiogenesis.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Stem cell reports. - 2213-6711. ; 2:4, s. 440-8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • One of the major components of the subventricular zone (SVZ) neurogenic niche is the specialized vasculature. The SVZ vasculature is thought to be important in regulating progenitor cell proliferation and migration. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a mitogen with a wide range of effects. When stem and progenitor cells in the rat SVZ are treated with EGF, using intracerebroventricular infusion, dysplastic polyps are formed. Upon extended infusion, blood vessels are recruited into the polyps. In the current study we demonstrate how polyps develop through distinct stages leading up to angiogenesis. As polyps progress, microglia/macrophages accumulate in the polyp core concurrent with increasing cell death. Both microglia/macrophage accumulation and cell death peak during angiogenesis and subsequently decline following polyp vascularization. This model of inducible angiogenesis in the SVZ neurogenic niche suggests involvement of microglia/macrophages in acquired angiogenesis and can be used in detail to study angiogenesis in the adult brain.
  • Movahed Rad, Pouya, et al. (författare)
  • Endogenous unsaturated C18 N-acylethanolamines are vanilloid receptor (TRPV1) agonists.
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Journal of Biological Chemistry. - ASBMB. - 1083-351X. ; 280:46, s. 38496-38504
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The endogenous C18 N-acylethanolamines (NAEs) N-linolenoylethanolamine (18:3 NAE), N-linoleoylethanolamine (18:2 NAE), N-oleoylethanolamine (18:1 NAE), and N-stearoylethanolamine (18:0 NAE) are structurally related to the endocannabinoid anandamide (20:4 NAE), but these lipids are poor ligands at cannabinoid CB1 receptors. Anandamide is also an activator of the transient receptor potential (TRP) vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) on primary sensory neurons. Here we show that C18 NAEs are present in rat sensory ganglia and vascular tissue. With the exception of 18:3 NAE in rat sensory ganglia, the levels of C18 NAEs are equal to or substantially exceed those of anandamide. At submicromolar concentrations, 18:3 NAE, 18:2 NAE, and 18:1 NAE, but not 18:0 NAE and oleic acid, activate native rTRPV1 on perivascular sensory nerves. 18:1 NAE does not activate these nerves in TRPV1 gene knock-out mice. Only the unsaturated C18 NAEs elicit whole cell currents and fluorometric calcium responses in HEK293 cells expressing hTRPV1. Molecular modeling revealed a low energy cluster of U-shaped unsaturated NAE conformers, sharing several pharmacophoric elements with capsaicin. Furthermore, one of the two major low energy conformational families of anandamide also overlaps with the cannabinoid CB1 receptor ligand HU210, which is in line with anandamide being a dual activator of TRPV1 and the cannabinoid CB1 receptor. This study shows that several endogenous non-cannabinoid NAEs, many of which are more abundant than anandamide in rat tissues, activate TRPV1 and thus may play a role as endogenous TRPV1 modulators.
  • Nowak, Christoph, 1986- (författare)
  • Insulin Resistance Causes, biomarkers and consequences
  • 2017
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>The worldwide increasing number of persons affected by largely preventable diseases like diabetes demands better prevention and treatment. Insulin is required for effective utilisation of circulating nutrients. Impaired responsiveness to insulin (insulin resistance, IR) is a hallmark of type 2 diabetes and independently raises the risk of heart attack and stroke. The pathophysiology of IR is incompletely understood. High-throughput measurement of large numbers of circulating biomarkers may provide new insights beyond established risk factors.</p><p>The aims of this thesis were to (i) use proteomics, metabolomics and genomics methods in large community samples to identify biomarkers of IR; (ii) assess biomarkers for risk prediction and insights into aetiology and consequences of IR; and (iii) use Mendelian randomisation analysis to assess causality.</p><p>In Study I, analysis of 80 circulating proteins in 70-to-77-year-old Swedes identified cathepsin D as a biomarker for IR and highlighted a tentative causal effect of IR on raised plasma tissue plasminogen activator levels. In Study II, nontargeted fasting plasma metabolomics was used to discover 52 metabolites associated with glycaemic traits in non-diabetic 70-year-old men. Replication in independent samples of several thousand persons provided evidence for a causal effect of IR on reduced plasma oleic acid and palmitoleic acid levels. In Study III, nontargeted metabolomics in plasma samples obtained at three time points during an oral glucose challenge in 70-year-old men identified associations between a physiologic measure of IR and concentration changes in medium-chain acylcarnitines, monounsaturated fatty acids, bile acids and lysophosphatidylethanolamines. Study IV provided evidence in two large longitudinal cohorts for causal effects of type 2 diabetes and impaired insulin secretion on raised coronary artery disease risk.</p><p>In conclusion, the Studies in this thesis provide new insights into the pathophysiology and adverse health consequences of IR and illustrate the value of combining traditional epidemiologic designs with recent molecular techniques and bioinformatics methods. The results provide limited evidence for the role of circulating proteins and small molecules in IR and require replication in separate studies and validation in experimental designs.</p>
  • Turczynska, Karolina, et al. (författare)
  • Regulation of vascular smooth muscle mechanotransduction by microRNAs and L-type calcium channels.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Communicative & Integrative Biology. - Landes Bioscience. - 1942-0889. ; 6:1, s. 22278-22278
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The phenotype of smooth muscle cells is regulated by multiple environmental factors including mechanical forces. Mechanical stretch of mouse portal veins ex vivo has been shown to promote contractile differentiation by activation of the Rho-pathway, an effect that is dependent on the influx of calcium via L-type calcium channels. MicroRNAs have recently been demonstrated to play a significant role in the control of smooth muscle phenotype and in a recent report we investigated their role in vascular mechanosensing. By smooth muscle specific deletion of Dicer, we found that microRNAs are essential for smooth muscle differentiation in response to stretch by regulating CamKIIδ and L-type calcium channel expression. Furthermore, we suggest that loss of L-type calcium channels in Dicer KO is due to reduced expression of the smooth muscle-enriched microRNA, miR-145, which targets CamKIIδ. These results unveil a novel mechanism for miR-145 dependent regulation of smooth muscle phenotype.
  • Vincents, Bjarne, et al. (författare)
  • Down-regulation of human extracellular cysteine protease inhibitors by the secreted staphylococcal cysteine proteases, staphopain A and B.
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Biological Chemistry. - De Gruyter. - 1437-4315. ; 388:4, s. 437-446
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Of seven human cystatins investigated, none inhibited the cysteine proteases staphopain A and B secreted by the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. Rather, the extracellular cystatins C, D and E/M were hydrolyzed by both staphopains. Based on MALDI-TOF time-course experiments, staphopain A cleavage of cystatin C and D should be physiologically relevant and occur upon S. aureus infection. Staphopain A hydrolyzed the Glyl 1 bond of cystatin C and the Ala10 bond of cystatin D with similar K-m values of approximately 33 and 32 mu m, respectively. Such N-terminal truncation of cystatin C caused > 300-fold lower inhibition of papain, cathepsin B, L and K, whereas the cathepsin H activity was compromised by a factor of ca. 10. Similarly, truncation of cystatin D caused alleviated inhibition of all endogenous target enzymes investigated. The normal activity of the cystatins is thus down-regulated, indicating that the bacterial enzymes can cause disturbance of the host protease-inhibitor balance. To illustrate the in vivo consequences, a mixed cystatin C assay showed release of cathepsin B activity in the presence of staphopain A. Results presented for the specificity of staphopains when interacting with cystatins as natural protein substrates could aid in the development of therapeutic agents directed toward these proteolytic virulence factors.
  • Zhang, Jianhua, 1961-, et al. (författare)
  • Repeated administration of amphetamine induces sensitisation to its disruptive effect on prepulse inhibition in the rat.
  • 1998
  • Ingår i: Psychopharmacology. - 0033-3158. ; 135:4, s. 401-6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Male Sprague-Dawley rats were repeatedly treated with amphetamine (AMP, 1 mg/kg, SC) at 3- day intervals for 15 days and tested for prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle after each treatment. This treatment regimen induced sensitisation in the animals as evidenced by a progressive increase in the disruptive effect of AMP on prepulse inhibition. Persistent changes in brain function was indicated, since an increase in disruptive effect was observed in sensitised animals also after a 22-day-long drug- and test-free period. The development of sensitisation was blocked by pretreatment with haloperidol (HPD, 0.1 mg/kg, SC), which suggests that sensitisation to the disruptive effect of AMP was dependent on dopamine (DA) D2 receptor activation. Furthermore, the development of sensitisation was blocked by adrenalectomy, which suggests that sensitisation was dependent also on circulating adrenal hormones. Increased DA-ergic activity has been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and AMP-induced sensitisation to the neuronal functions that modulate prepulse inhibition may be an experimental model to investigate this hypothesis.
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