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61.
  • Rekić, Dinko, et al. (författare)
  • External Validation of the Bilirubin-Atazanavir Nomogram for Assessment of Atazanavir Plasma Exposure in HIV-1-Infected Patients.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: The AAPS journal. - 1550-7416. ; 15:2, s. 308-15
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Atazanavir increases plasma bilirubin levels in a concentration-dependent manner. Due to less costly and readily available assays, bilirubin has been proposed as a marker of atazanavir exposure. In this work, a previously developed nomogram for detection of suboptimal atazanavir exposure is validated against external patient populations. The bilirubin nomogram was validated against 311 matching bilirubin and atazanavir samples from 166 HIV-1-infected Norwegian, French, and Italian patients on a ritonavir-boosted regimen. In addition, the nomogram was evaluated in 56 Italian patients on an unboosted regimen. The predictive properties of the nomogram were validated against observed atazanavir plasma concentrations. The use of the nomogram to detect non-adherence was also investigated by simulation. The bilirubin nomogram predicted suboptimal exposure in the patient populations on a ritonavir-boosted regimen with a negative predictive value of 97% (95% CI 95-100). The bilirubin nomogram and monitoring of atazanavir concentrations had similar predictive properties for detecting non-adherence based on simulations. Although both methods performed adequately during a period of non-adherence, they had lower predictive power to detect past non-adherence episodes. Using the bilirubin nomogram for detection of suboptimal atazanavir exposure in patients on a ritonavir-boosted regimen is a rapid and cost-effective alternative to routine measurements of the actual atazanavir exposure in plasma. Its application may be useful in clinical settings if atazanavir concentrations are not available.
62.
  • Nyberg, Lars, et al. (författare)
  • Longitudinal evidence for diminished frontal cortex function in aging
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. - 0027-8424. ; 107:52, s. 22682-22686
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cross-sectional estimates of age-related changes in brain structure and function were compared with 6-y longitudinal estimates. The results indicated increased sensitivity of the longitudinal approach as well as qualitative differences. Critically, the cross-sectional analyses were suggestive of age-related frontal overrecruitment, whereas the longitudinal analyses revealed frontal underrecruitment with advancing age. The cross-sectional observation of overrecruitment reflected a select elderly sample. However, when followed over time, this sample showed reduced frontal recruitment. These findings dispute inferences of true age changes on the basis of age differences, hence challenging some contemporary models of neurocognitive aging, and demonstrate age-related decline in frontal brain volume as well as functional response.
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63.
  • Arner, Anders, et al. (författare)
  • Cross-bridge cycling in smooth muscle: a short review
  • 1998
  • Ingår i: Acta Physiologica Scandinavica. - Wiley-Blackwell. - 0001-6772. ; 164:4, s. 363-372
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This review is focused on the cross-bridge interaction of the organized contractile system of smooth muscle fibres. By using chemically skinned preparations the different enzymatic reactions of actin-myosin interaction have been associated with mechanical events. A rigor state has been identified in smooth muscle and the binding of ATP causes dissociation of rigor cross-bridges at rates slightly slower than those in skeletal muscle, but fast enough not to be rate-limiting for cross-bridge turn over in the muscle fibre. The release of inorganic phosphate (Pi) is associated with force generation, and this process is not rate-limiting for maximal shortening velocity (Vmax) in the fully activated muscle. The binding of ADP to myosin is strong in the smooth muscle contractile system, a property that might be associated with the generally slow cross-bridge turn over. Both force and Vmax are modulated by the extent of myosin light chain phosphorylation. Low levels of activation are considered to be associated with the recruitment of slowly cycling dephosphorylated cross-bridges which reduces shortening velocity. The attachment of these cross-bridge states in skinned smooth muscles can be regulated by cooperative mechanisms and thin filament associated systems. Smooth muscles exhibit a large diversity in their Vmax and the individual smooth muscle tissue can alter its Vmax under physiological conditions. The diversity and the long-term modulation of phenotype are associated with changes in myosin heavy and light chain isoform expression.
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64.
  • Arner, Anders, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of Ca2+ on force-velocity characteristics of normal and hypertrophic smooth muscle of the rat portal vein
  • 1985
  • Ingår i: Acta Physiologica Scandinavica. - Wiley-Blackwell. - 0001-6772. ; 124:4, s. 525-533
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Portal hypertension was induced in rats by partial ligation of the hepatic branches of the portal vein. After 5 days of hypertension the portal veins were taken out and mounted for isometric and quick-release experiments. Portal veins from sham-operated normal rats served as controls. The ligated veins had an increased cross-sectional area, indicating smooth-muscle hypertrophy. Although the absolute magnitude of active force of these veins was increased, the active force per cross-sectional area was decreased, indicating an alteration in the properties of the contractile system. No difference in the Ca2+ concentration-response relations to K+-activated intact control and hypertrophic veins was found. In chemically skinned preparations, devoid of functional plasma membranes, the hypertrophic veins had similar Ca2+ sensitivity (in the presence of I microM calmodulin) but a lower force per cross-sectional area. Force-velocity relations were determined in K+-activated intact preparations. In control veins a reduction in extracellular Ca2+ was associated with a significant reduction in both isometric force and maximal shortening velocity (Vmax). In hypertrophic veins the decreased isometric force at maximal activation was associated with a low Vmax. A comparison between hypertrophic and submaximally stimulated control vessels showed corresponding Vmax and isometric force values. We conclude that the low isometric force of hypertrophic veins is associated with a lower rate of cross-bridge turnover. This could be an effect of alterations in the activation mechanisms or in the intrinsic properties of the contractile system itself.
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65.
  • Arner, Anders, et al. (författare)
  • Energy turnover and lactate dehydrogenase activity in detrusor smooth muscle from rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes
  • 1993
  • Ingår i: Acta Physiologica Scandinavica. - Wiley-Blackwell. - 0001-6772. ; 147:4, s. 375-383
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Force generation and tissue glucose metabolism were measured in the urinary bladder smooth muscle from rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes (7-8 wk duration). Bladder wet wt was almost 4-fold higher in the diabetic animals compared with the untreated controls. Morphological analysis showed that the growth was associated with hypertrophy of the smooth muscle component in the bladder wall. Force generation of isolated bladder strip preparations was measured in vitro at different ambient oxygen tensions. Activation of intramural nerves, with electrical field stimulation, induced contractions that were unaffected by reduction of oxygen tension down to PO2 100 mmHg for both control and diabetic muscle strips. At zero PO2 force was reduced by approximately 10-20%, in both groups. High-K+ solution induced 'tonic' contractions that were slightly more inhibited by lowering PO2. At intermediate PO2 (between 100 and 20 mmHg) the diabetic muscle gave slightly higher force. At zero PO2 no significant difference could be detected between strips from control and diabetic animals. Oxygen consumption and lactate production in the preparations were determined at a PO2 of 290 mmHg and related to the volume of smooth muscle. At zero PO2, lactate formation increased 3- to 4-fold. The metabolic tension cost was lower at zero PO2. No differences in basal and contraction related metabolic rates could be detected between the two groups under normoxic and anoxic conditions. The maximal activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) determined in tissue samples was about 2-fold higher in the diabetic bladder muscle.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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66.
  • Arner, Anders, et al. (författare)
  • Metabolism and force in hypertrophic smooth muscle from rat urinary bladder
  • 1990
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Physiology. - American Physiological Society. - 0002-9513. ; 258:5 Pt 1, s. 923-932
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Ten days of urinary outlet obstruction in the rat induced a threefold increase in bladder weight. Active force of control and hypertrophic bladder muscle strips was measured at varying PO2 levels after high-K+, carbachol, or electrical field stimulation. Highest force output was obtained with carbachol. Force per muscle area was lower in the hypertrophic muscles. The basal rates of oxygen consumption and lactate formation were similar in the two groups. The metabolic tension cost (ATP turnover/active force) was similar in the two groups for activation with high K+ and carbachol. In anoxia the active force decreased, but this was less pronounced in the hypertrophied muscle. Hypertrophied muscle could, in contrast to the controls, maintain a sustained K+ contracture in anoxia. Basal metabolic rates and tension cost were markedly reduced in anoxia for both groups. The lower force per area with unaltered tension cost, in hypertrophic muscles under all experimental conditions, may reflect unaltered intrinsic properties of the contractile system, although the amount of contractile material has decreased relative to cell volume. The increased resistance to anoxia may reflect a metabolic adaptation to impaired oxygen supply to the hypertrophied tissue.
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67.
  • Arner, Anders, et al. (författare)
  • Structural and mechanical adaptations in rat aorta in response to sustained changes in arterial pressure
  • 1984
  • Ingår i: Acta Physiologica Scandinavica. - Wiley-Blackwell. - 0001-6772. ; 122:2, s. 119-126
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Structural and mechanical adaptations in response to sustained changes in arterial pressure were studied on abdominal aorta of the male rat. Two models were used: 1. Aortic ligature (L), immediately below the renal arteries producing hypotension distal to the knot (duration before sacrifice 6 weeks or 3 months). 2. One-clip renal hypertensive rats (H) (duration 6 weeks). Normotensive sham-operated rats (C) served as controls. At sacrifice mean tail artery pressure was L: 58 +/- 1, C: 110 +/- 3, and H: 163 +/- 5 mmHg (SE, N=6). Segments of abdominal aorta were mounted in vitro for determination of their length-tension relations (activation: High-K+ solution with 2.5 mM Ca2+). At end of experiments the vessels were supramaximally stimulated at optimal circumference (1o) for active force (activation: High-K+ solution with 10 mM Ca2+, and 10(-5) M noradrenaline), and then fixated for light and electron microscopy. Passive and active length-tension relations were shifted towards lower and higher circumference values for hypo- and hypertensive vessels, respectively. The 1o values were L: 3.60 +/- 0.13, C: 4.44 +/- 0.19, and H: 4.91 +/- 0.29 mm. The media thickness at 1o was reduced in L: 56.0 +/- 3.3, and increased in H: 81.3 +/- 2.4 compared to C: 73.4 +/- 1.8 micron. Maximal active wall stress was L: 46.6 +/- 9.8, C: 74.2 +/- 7.0, and H: 83.8 +/- 7.7 mN/mm2. Intracellular volume (ICV) in the media was L: 30 +/- 2, C: 45 +/- 3, and H: 44 +/- 1% (n=4 for each).
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68.
  • Birnir, Bryndis, et al. (författare)
  • Bicuculline, pentobarbital and diazepam modulate spontaneous GABA(A) channels in rat hippocampal neurons
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Pharmacology. - The British Pharmacological Society. - 1476-5381. ; 131:4, s. 695-704
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Spontaneously opening, chloride-selective channels that showed outward rectification were recorded in ripped-off patches from rat cultured hippocampal neurons and in cell-attached patches from rat hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons in slices. In both preparations, channels had multiple conductance states and the most common single-channel conductance varied. In the outside-out patches it ranged from 12 to 70 pS (Vp=40 mV) whereas in the cell-attached patches it ranged from 56 to 85 pS (-Vp=80 mV). Application of GABA to a patch showing spontaneous channel activity evoked a rapid, synchronous activation of channels. During prolonged exposure to either 5 or 100 microM GABA, the open probability of channels decreased. Application of GABA appeared to have no immediate effect on single-channel conductance. Exposure of the patches to 100 microM bicuculline caused a gradual decrease on the single-channel conductance of the spontaneous channels. The time for complete inhibition to take place was slower in the outside-out than in the cell-attached patches. Application of 100 microM pentobarbital or 1 microM diazepam caused 2 - 4 fold increase in the maximum channel conductance of low conductance (<40 pS) spontaneously active channels. The observation of spontaneously opening GABA(A) channels in cell-attached patches on neurons in slices suggests that they may have a role in neurons in vivo and could be an important site of action for some drugs such as benzodiazepines, barbiturates and general anaesthetics.
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69.
  • Blomgren, Klas, 1963-, et al. (författare)
  • Pathological apoptosis in the developing brain
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Apoptosis. - 1360-8185 (Print). ; 12:5, s. 993-1010
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • More than half of the initially-formed neurons are deleted in certain brain regions during normal development. This process, whereby cells are discretely removed without interfering with the further development of remaining cells, is called programmed cell death (PCD). The term apoptosis is used to describe certain morphological manifestations of PCD. Many of the effectors of this developmental cell death program are highly expressed in the developing brain, making it more susceptible to accidental activation of the death machinery, e.g. following hypoxia-ischemia or irradiation. Recent evidence suggests, however, that activation and regulation of cell death mechanisms under pathological conditions do not exactly mirror physiological, developmentally regulated PCD. It may be argued that the conditions after e.g. ischemia are not even compatible with the execution of PCD as we know it. Under pathological conditions cells are exposed to various stressors, including energy failure, oxidative stress and unbalanced ion fluxes. This results in parallel triggering and potential overshooting of several different cell death pathways, which then interact with one another and result in complex patterns of biochemical manifestations and cellular morphological features. These types of cell death are here called "pathological apoptosis," where classical hallmarks of PCD, like pyknosis, nuclear condensation and caspase-3 activation, are combined with non-PCD features of cell death. Here we review our current knowledge of the mechanisms involved, with special focus on the potential for therapeutic intervention tailored to the needs of the developing brain.
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70.
  • Brage, M, et al. (författare)
  • Different cysteine proteinases involved in bone resorption and osteoclast formation.
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Calcified tissue international. - 0171-967X. ; 76:6, s. 439-47
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cysteine proteinases, especially cathepsin K, play an important role in osteoclastic degradation of bone matrix proteins and the process can, consequently, be significantly inhibited by cysteine proteinase inhibitors. We have recently reported that cystatin C and other cysteine proteinase inhibitors also reduce osteoclast formation. However, it is not known which cysteine proteinase(s) are involved in osteoclast differentiation. In the present study, we compared the relative potencies of cystatins C and D as inhibitors of bone resorption in cultured mouse calvariae, osteoclastogenesis in mouse bone marrow cultures, and cathepsin K activity. Inhibition of cathepsin K activity was assessed by determining equilibrium constants for inhibitor complexes in fluorogenic substrate assays. The data demonstrate that whereas human cystatins C and D are equipotent as inhibitors of bone resorption, cystatin D is 10-fold less potent as an inhibitor of osteoclastogenesis and 200-fold less potent as an inhibitor of cathepsin K activity. A recombinant human cystatin C variant with Gly substitutions for residues Arg8, Leu9, Val10, and Trp106 did not inhibit bone resorption, had 1,000-fold decreased inhibitory effect on cathepsin K activity compared to wildtype cystatin C, but was equipotent with wildtype cystatin C as an inhibitor of osteoclastogenesis. It is concluded that (i) different cysteine proteinases are likely to be involved in bone resorption and osteoclast formation, (ii) cathepsin K may not be an exclusive target enzyme in any of the two systems, and (iii) the enzyme(s) involved in osteoclastogenesis might not be a typical papain-like cysteine proteinase.
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