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  • Andersson, Sören, 1957-, et al. (författare)
  • 2015
  • Patent (övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • Eklund, Erik, et al. (författare)
  • Proteoglycan production in disomic and trisomy 7-carrying human synovial cells.
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Matrix Biology. - Elsevier. - 1569-1802. ; 21:4, s. 325-335
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To gain further insight into the synthesis and structure of the synovial matrix of joints, we have established cell cultures from synovial specimens and elaborated their production of hyaluronan and proteoglycans. The cultures secreted mainly the small proteoglycan decorin, but also considerable amounts of the related biglycan and the large proteoglycan versican. Only minor amounts of heparan sulfate proteoglycans were found. All cultures also had a high production of hyaluronan, which highlights the important role for normal joint function of these cells. In joint diseases, a common feature is the presence of an extra chromosome 7 (trisomy 7) in the synovial cells. To study the possible consequences of trisomy 7 on the synovial cell function, we extended our study to cultures that had been sub-cloned to contain high amounts of trisomy 7-carrying cells. These cell cultures had approximately four times more versican than their disomic counterparts in the cell culture medium, indicating that versican may be a mediator in the processes of joint destructive disorders. To find an explanation for this increase in versican, we investigated the expression/secretion of PDGF-AA and IL-6, cytokines with their genes located to chromosome 7. Indeed, both these cytokines were increased in the cultures with high frequencies of trisomy 7. We then added the two cytokines to cell cultures of disomic synovial cells, but only cells treated with IL-6 displayed an increased amount of versican. Thus, we suggest that the increased amount of versican in cultures of trisomy 7-carrying cells relates to an autocrine loop involving an increased IL-6 production.
  • Sundh, Valter, 1950-, et al. (författare)
  • FRAX and mandibular sparse trabeculation as fracture predictors: a longitudinal study from 1980 to 2002.
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: European journal of oral sciences. - 1600-0722. ; 125:2, s. 135-140
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The fracture assessment tool (FRAX) is widely used for predicting fractures, but better methods are needed. The aim of this study was to determine whether visual assessments of mandibular trabecular bone could improve FRAX predictions. Three age-cohorts of women were examined twice - 499 women in 1980/1981 and 412 women in 1992/1993; 397 participated in both examinations. Information on 10-yr fracture events was available, and bone trabeculation was assessed in radiographs as 'dense', 'mixed', or 'sparse'. Fracture assessment tool values, without bone mineral density (BMD), were calculated twice. Both sparse trabeculation and FRAX >15% were associated with a twofold higher risk for future fracture in the younger group and with a three- to fourfold higher risk for future fracture in the older group. For those with both FRAX >15% and sparse trabeculation, the relative risk (RR) for a fracture in the next 10 yr was 5.9 (95% CI: 3.5-9.8) in the younger group and 22.7 (95% CI: 5.6-92) in the older group. If either FRAX >15% or sparse trabeculation was present, the RR was 2.6 (95% CI: 1.7-4.1) in the younger group and 15.7 (95% CI: 3.9-6.4) in the older group. We concluded that FRAX >15%, without BMD measurements, was an effective fracture predictor, and mandibular sparse trabeculation had a substantial additive effect. Together, FRAX plus mandibular sparse trabeculation predicts major osteoporotic fractures to approximately the same extent as does FRAX with BMD measurements.
  • Di Gennaro, A., et al. (författare)
  • Cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 1 antagonism prevents experimental abdominal aortic aneurysm
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. - 0027-8424. ; 115:8, s. 1907-1912
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cysteinyl-leukotrienes (cys-LTs) are 5-lipoxygenase-derived lipid mediators involved in the pathogenesis and progression of inflammatory disorders, in particular asthma. We have previously found evidence linking these mediators to increased levels of proteolytic enzymes in tissue specimens of human abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Here we show that antagonism of the CysLT1 receptor by montelukast, an established antiasthma drug, protects against a strong aorta dilatation (>50% increase = aneurysm) in a mouse model of CaCl2-induced AAA at a dose comparable to human medical practice. Analysis of tissue extracts revealed that montelukast reduces the levels of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha (MIP-1 alpha) in the aortic wall. Furthermore, aneurysm progression was specifically mediated through CysLT1 signaling since a selective CysLT2 antagonist was without effect. A significantly reduced vessel dilatation is also observed when treatment with montelukast is started days after aneurysm induction, suggesting that the drug not only prevents but also stops and possibly reverts an already ongoing degenerative process. Moreover, montelukast reduced the incidence of aortic rupture and attenuated the AAA development in two additional independent models, i.e., angiotensin II- and porcine pancreatic elastase-induced AAA, respectively. Our results indicate that cys-LTs are involved in the pathogenesis of AAA and that antagonism of the CysLT1 receptor is a promising strategy for preventive and therapeutic treatment of this clinically silent and highly lethal disease.
  • Aziz, Abdul Maruf Asif (författare)
  • Neuropeptide Receptors as Treatment Targets in Alcohol Use Disorders
  • 2017
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a complex disorder with multiple pathophysiological processes contributing to the initiation, progression and development of the disease state. AUD is a chronic relapsing disease with escalation of alcohol-intake over time in repeated cycles of tolerance, abstinence and relapse and hence, it is very difficult to treat. There are only a few currently available treatments with narrow efficacy and variable patient response. Thus it is important to find new, more effective medications to increase the number of patients who can benefit from pharmacological treatment of AUD.</p><p>The research presented in this thesis work focuses on the critical involvement of central neuropeptides in alcohol-related behaviors. The overall aim was to evaluate the nociceptin/orphanin FQ (NOP) receptor, the neuropeptide Y (NPY) Y2 receptor and the melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) receptor 1 as novel and potential pharmacological treatment targets for AUD by testing the NOP receptor agonist SR-8993, the NPY-Y2 receptor antagonist CYM-9840 and the MCH1 receptor antagonist GW803430 in established animal models.</p><p>In the first study (Paper I), the novel and selective NOP agonist SR-8993 was assessed in rat models of motivation to obtain alcohol and relapse to alcohol seeking behavior using the operant self-administration (SA) paradigm. Firstly, treatment with SR-8993 (1 mg/kg) showed a mildly anxiolytic effect and reversed acute alcohol withdrawal-induced “hangover” anxiety in the elevated plus-maze (EPM). Next, it potently attenuated alcohol SA and motivation to obtain alcohol in the progressive ratio responding (PRR) and reduced both alcohol cue-induced and yohimbine stress-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking, without affecting the pharmacology and metabolism of alcohol nor other control behaviors. To extend these findings, SR-8993 was evaluated in escalated alcohol-intake in rats.  Treatment with SR-8993 significantly suppressed alcohol-intake and preference in rats that were trained to consume high amounts of alcohol in the two-bottle free choice intermittent access (IA) paradigm. SR-8993 also blocked operant SA of alcohol in rats that showed robust escalation in operant alcohol SA following chronic IA exposure to alcohol.</p><p>In the second study (Paper II), SR-8993 was further evaluated in a model for escalated alcohol-intake induced by long-term IA exposure to alcohol. The effect of previous experience on operant alcohol SA on two-bottle free choice preference drinking was evaluated and sensitivity to treatment with SR-8993 was tested in rats selected for escalated and non-escalated alcohol seeking behavior. We found that rats exposed to the combined SA-IA paradigm showed greater sensitivity to SR-8993 treatment. In addition, acute escalation of alcohol SA after a three-week period of abstinence was completely abolished by pretreatment with SR-8993.</p><p>In the third study (Paper III), the effects of the novel, small molecule NPY-Y2 antagonist CYM-9840 were tested in operant alcohol SA, PRR which is a model for motivation to work for alcohol and reinstatement of alcohol-seeking behavior. Treatment with CYM-9840 (10 mg/kg) potently attenuated alcohol SA, progressive ratio responding and stress-induced reinstatement using yohimbine as the stressor, while alcohol cue-induced reinstatement was unaffected. Moreover, a range of control behaviors including taste sensitivity, locomotor and pharmacological sensitivity to the sedative effects of alcohol remained unaffected by CYM-9840 pretreatment, indicating that its effects are specific to the rewarding and motivational aspects of alcohol-intake and related behaviors. CYM-9840 also reversed acute alcohol withdrawal-induced “hangover” anxiety measured in the EPM and reduced alcohol-intake in the 4 hour limited access two-bottle free choice preference drinking model.</p><p>Finally, in the fourth study (Paper IV), the selective MCH1-R antagonist GW803430 was tested in rat models of escalated alcohol-intake. Pretreatment with GW803430 (effective at 10 &amp; 30 mg/kg) dose-dependently reduced alcohol and food-intake in rats that consumed high amounts of alcohol during IA, while it only decreased food-intake in rats that consumed low amounts of alcohol during IA, likely due to a floor effect. Upon protracted abstinence following IA, GW803430 significantly reduced operant alcohol SA and this was associated with adaptations in MCH and MCH1-R gene-expression. In contrast, GW803430 did not affect escalated alcohol SA induced by chronic alcohol vapor exposure and this was accompanied by no change in MCH or MCH1-R gene expression. Overall, these results suggest that the MCH1-R antagonist affects alcohol-intake through regulation of both motivation for caloric-intake and the rewarding properties of alcohol.</p><p>In conclusion, our results suggest critical roles for these central neuropeptides in the regulation of anxiety and of alcohol reward, making them potential pharmacological targets in the treatment of AUD.</p>
  • Björn, Niclas, et al. (författare)
  • Genes and variants in hematopoiesis-related pathways are associated with gemcitabine/carboplatin-induced thrombocytopenia
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: The Pharmacogenomics Journal. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1470-269X .- 1473-1150. ; 20:2, s. 179-191
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Chemotherapy-induced myelosuppression, including thrombocytopenia, is a recurrent problem during cancer treatments that may require dose alterations or cessations that could affect the antitumor effect of the treatment. To identify genetic markers associated with treatment-induced thrombocytopenia, we whole-exome sequenced 215 non-small cell lung cancer patients homogeneously treated with gemcitabine/carboplatin. The decrease in platelets (defined as nadir/baseline) was used to assess treatment-induced thrombocytopenia. Association between germline genetic variants and thrombocytopenia was analyzed at single-nucleotide variant (SNV) (based on the optimal false discovery rate, the severity of predicted consequence, and effect), gene, and pathway levels. These analyses identified 130 SNVs/INDELs and 25 genes associated with thrombocytopenia (<em>P</em>-value &lt; 0.002). Twenty-three SNVs were validated in an independent genome-wide association study (GWAS). The top associations include rs34491125 in <em>JMJD1C</em> (<em>P</em>-value = 9.07 × 10<sup>−5</sup>), the validated variants rs10491684 in <em>DOCK8</em> (<em>P</em>-value = 1.95 × 10<sup>−4</sup>), rs6118 in <em>SERPINA5</em> (<em>P</em>-value = 5.83 × 10<sup>−4</sup>), and rs5877 in <em>SERPINC1</em> (<em>P</em>-value = 1.07 × 10<sup>−3</sup>), and the genes <em>CAPZA2</em> (<em>P</em>-value = 4.03 × 10<sup>−4</sup>) and <em>SERPINC1</em> (<em>P</em>-value = 1.55 × 10<sup>−3</sup>). The SNVs in the top-scoring pathway <em>“Factors involved in megakaryocyte development and platelet production”</em> (<em>P</em>-value = 3.34 × 10<sup>−4</sup>) were used to construct weighted genetic risk score (wGRS) and logistic regression models that predict thrombocytopenia. The wGRS predict which patients are at high or low toxicity risk levels, for CTCAE (odds ratio (OR) = 22.35, <em>P</em>-value = 1.55 × 10<sup>−8</sup>), and decrease (OR = 66.82, <em>P</em>-value = 5.92 × 10<sup>−9</sup>). The logistic regression models predict CTCAE grades 3–4 (receiver operator characteristics (ROC) area under the curve (AUC) = 0.79), and large decrease (ROC AUC = 0.86). We identified and validated genetic variations within hematopoiesis-related pathways that provide a solid foundation for future studies using genetic markers for predicting chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia and personalizing treatments.</p>
  • Björn, Niclas, 1990- (författare)
  • Pharmacogenetic biomarkers for chemotherapy-induced adverse drug reactions
  • 2019
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>Cancer is a serious disease expected to be the world-leading cause of death in the 21st century. The use of harsh chemotherapies is motivated and accepted but, unfortunately, is often accompanied by severe toxicity and adverse drug reactions (ADRs). These occur because the classical chemotherapies’ common modes of action effectively kill and/or reduce the growth rate not only of tumour cells, but also of many other rapidly dividing healthy cells in the body. There are also considerable interindividual differences in ADRs, even between patients with similar cancers and disease stage treated with equal doses; some experience severe to life-threatening ADRs after one dose, leading to treatment delays, adjustments, or even discontinuation resulting in suboptimal treatment, while others remain unaffected through all treatment cycles. Being able to predict which patients are at high or low risk of ADRs, and to adjust doses accordingly before treatment, would probably decrease toxicity and patient suffering while also increasing treatment tolerability and effects. In this thesis, we have used next-generation sequencing (NGS) and bioinformatics for the prediction of myelosuppressive ADRs in lung and ovarian cancer patients treated with gemcitabine/carboplatin and paclitaxel/carboplatin.</p><p>Paper I shows that <em>ABCB1 </em>and <em>CYP2C8 </em>genotypes have small effects inadequate for stratification of paclitaxel/carboplatin toxicity. This supports the transition to whole-exome sequencing (WES) and whole-genome sequencing (WGS). Papers II and IV, respectively, use WES and WGS, and demonstrate that genetic variation in or around genes involved in blood cell regulation and proliferation, or genes differentially expressed at chemotherapy exposure, can be used in polygenic prediction models for stratification of gemcitabine/carboplatininduced myelosuppression. Paper III reassuringly shows that WES and WGS are concordant and mostly yield comparable genotypes across the exome. Paper V proves that single-cell RNA sequencing of hematopoietic stem cells is a feasible method for elucidating differential transcriptional effects induced as a response to <em>in vitro </em>chemotherapy treatment.</p><p>In conclusion, our results supports the transition to genome-wide approaches using WES, WGS, and RNA sequencing to establish polygenic models that combine effects of multiple pharmacogenetic biomarkers for predicting chemotherapy-induced ADRs. This approach could be applied to improve risk stratification and our understanding of toxicity and ADRs related to other drugs and diseases. We hope that our myelosuppression prediction models can be refined and validated to facilitate personalized treatments, leading to increased patient wellbeing and quality of life.</p>
  • Deming, Y., et al. (författare)
  • The MS4A gene cluster is a key modulator of soluble TREM2 and Alzheimer's disease risk
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Science Translational Medicine. - 1946-6234. ; 11:505
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (sTREM2) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has been associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). TREM2 plays a critical role in microglial activation, survival, and phagocytosis; however, the pathophysiological role of sTREM2 in AD is not well understood. Understanding the role of sTREM2 in AD may reveal new pathological mechanisms and lead to the identification of therapeutic targets. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify genetic modifiers of CSF sTREM2 obtained from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. Common variants in the membrane-spanning 4-domains subfamily A (MS4A) gene region were associated with CSF sTREM2 concentrations (rs1582763; P = 1.15 × 10-15); this was replicated in independent datasets. The variants associated with increased CSF sTREM2 concentrations were associated with reduced AD risk and delayed age at onset of disease. The single-nucleotide polymorphism rs1582763 modified expression of the MS4A4A and MS4A6A genes in multiple tissues, suggesting that one or both of these genes are important for modulating sTREM2 production. Using human macrophages as a proxy for microglia, we found that MS4A4A and TREM2 colocalized on lipid rafts at the plasma membrane, that sTREM2 increased with MS4A4A overexpression, and that silencing of MS4A4A reduced sTREM2 production. These genetic, molecular, and cellular findings suggest that MS4A4A modulates sTREM2. These findings also provide a mechanistic explanation for the original GWAS signal in the MS4A locus for AD risk and indicate that TREM2 may be involved in AD pathogenesis not only in TREM2 risk-variant carriers but also in those with sporadic disease.
  • Deyou, Tsegaye, et al. (författare)
  • Isoflavones and Rotenoids from the Leaves of Millettia oblata ssp teitensis
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of Natural Products. - 0163-3864. ; 80:7, s. 2060-2066
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A new isoflavone, 8-prenylmilldrone (1), and four new rotenoids, oblarotenoids A-D (2-5), along with nine known compounds (6-14), were isolated from the CH2Cl2/CH3OH (1:1) extract of the leaves of Millettia oblata ssp. teitensis by chromatographic separation. The purified compounds were identified by NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometric analyses, whereas the absolute configurations of the rotenoids were established on the basis of chiroptical data and in some cases by single-crystal X-ray crystallography. Maximaisoflavone J (11) and oblarotenoid C (4) showed weak activity against the human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 with IC50 values of 33.3 and 93.8 mu M, respectively.
  • Fischer, M Dominik, et al. (författare)
  • Expression profiling reveals metabolic and structural components of extraocular muscles
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Physiological Genomics. - American Physiological Society. - 1094-8341 .- 1531-2267. ; 9:2, s. 71-84
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>The extraocular muscles (EOM) are anatomically and physiologically distinct from other skeletal muscles. EOM are preferentially affected in mitochondrial myopathies, but spared in Duchenne's muscular dystrophy. The anatomical and pathophysiological properties of EOM have been attributed to their unique molecular makeup: an allotype. We used expression profiling to define molecular features of the EOM allotype. We found 346 differentially expressed genes in rat EOM compared with tibialis anterior, based on a twofold difference cutoff. Genes required for efficient, fatigue-resistant, oxidative metabolism were increased in EOM, whereas genes for glycogen metabolism were decreased. EOM also showed increased expression of genes related to structural components of EOM such as vessels, nerves, mitochondria, and neuromuscular junctions. Additionally, genes related to specialized functional roles of EOM such as the embryonic and EOM-specific myosin heavy chains and genes for muscle growth, development, and/or regeneration were increased. The EOM expression profile was validated using biochemical, structural, and molecular methods. Characterization of the EOM expression profile begins to define gene transcription patterns associated with the unique anatomical, metabolic, and pathophysiological properties of EOM.</p>
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