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Träfflista för sökning "hsv:(MEDICIN OCH HÄLSOVETENSKAP) hsv:(Medicinska grundvetenskaper) srt2:(1980-1994)"

Sökning: hsv:(MEDICIN OCH HÄLSOVETENSKAP) hsv:(Medicinska grundvetenskaper) > (1980-1994)

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  • Abrahamson, Magnus, et al. (författare)
  • Identification of the probable inhibitory reactive sites of the cysteine proteinase inhibitors human cystatin C and chicken cystatin
  • 1987
  • Ingår i: Journal of Biological Chemistry. - ASBMB. - 1083-351X. ; 262:20, s. 9688-9694
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • When an excess of human cystatin C or chicken cystatin was mixed with papain, an enzyme-inhibitor complex was formed immediately. The residual free cystatin was then progressively converted to a form with different electrophoretic mobility and chromatographic properties. The modified cystatins were isolated and sequenced, showing that there had been cleavage of a single peptide bond in each molecule: Gly11-Gly12 in cystatin C, and Gly9-Ala10 in chicken cystatin. The residues Gly11 (cystatin C) and Gly9 (chicken cystatin) are among only three residues conserved in all known sequences of inhibitory cystatins. The modified cystatins were at least 1000-fold weaker inhibitors of papain than the native cystatins. An 18-residue synthetic peptide corresponding to residues 4-21 of cystatin C did not inhibit papain but was cleaved at the same Gly-Gly bond as cystatin C. When iodoacetate or L-3-carboxy- trans-2,3-epoxypropionyl-leucylamido-(4-guanidin o)butane was added to the mixtures of either cystatin with papain, modification of the excess cystatin was blocked. Papain-cystatin complexes were stable to prolonged incubation, even in the presence of excess papain. We conclude that the peptidyl bond of the conserved glycine residue in human cystatin C and chicken cystatin probably is part of a substrate- like inhibitory reactive site of these cysteine proteinase inhibitors of the cystatin superfamily and that this may be true also for other inhibitors of this superfamily. We also propose that human cystatin C and chicken cystatin, and probably other cystatins as well, inhibit cysteine proteinases by the simultaneous interactions with such proteinases of the inhibitory reactive sites and other, so far not identified, areas of the cystatins. The cleavage of the inhibitory reactive site glycyl bond in mixtures of papain with excess quantities of cystatins is apparently due to the activity of a small percentage of atypical cysteine proteinase molecules in the papain preparation that form only very loose complexes with cystatins under the conditions employed and degrade the free cystatin molecules.
  • Abrahamson, Magnus, et al. (författare)
  • Increased body temperature accelerates aggregation of the (Leu-68–>Gln) mutant cystatin C, the amyloid-forming protein in hereditary cystatin C amyloid angiopathy
  • 1994
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. - National Acad Sciences. - 1091-6490. ; 91:4, s. 1416-1420
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Hereditary cystatin C amyloid angiopathy is a dominantly inherited disorder, characterized by dementia, paralysis, and death from cerebral hemorrhage in early adult life. A variant of the cysteine proteinase inhibitor, cystatin C, is deposited as amyloid in the tissues of the patients and their spinal-fluid level of cystatin C is abnormally low. The disease-associated Leu-68-->Gln mutant (L68Q) cystatin C has been produced in an Escherichia coli expression system and isolated by use of denaturing buffers, immunosorption, and gel filtration. Parallel physicochemical and functional investigations of L68Q-cystatin C and wild-type cystatin C revealed that both proteins effectively inhibit the cysteine proteinase cathepsin B (equilibrium constants for dissociation, 0.4 and 0.5 nM, respectively) but differ considerably in their tendency to dimerize and form aggregates. While wild-type cystatin C is monomeric and functionally active even after prolonged storage at elevated temperatures, L68Q-cystatin C starts to dimerize and lose biological activity immediately after it is transferred to a nondenaturing buffer. The dimerization of L68Q-cystatin C is highly temperature-dependent, with a rise in incubation temperature from 37 to 40 degrees C resulting in a 150% increase in dimerization rate. The aggregation at physiological concentrations is likewise increased at 40 compared to 37 degrees C, by approximately 60%. These properties of L68Q-cystatin C have bearing upon our understanding of the pathophysiological process of hereditary cystatin C amyloid angiopathy. They might also be of clinical relevance, since medical intervention to abort febrile periods of carriers of the disease trait may reduce the in vivo formation of L68Q-cystatin C aggregates.
  • Abrahamson, Magnus, et al. (författare)
  • Isolation of six cysteine proteinase inhibitors from human urine. Their physicochemical and enzyme kinetic properties and concentrations in biological fluids
  • 1986
  • Ingår i: Journal of Biological Chemistry. - ASBMB. - 1083-351X. ; 261:24, s. 11282-11289
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Six cysteine proteinase inhibitors were isolated from human urine by affinity chromatography on insolubilized carboxymethylpapain followed by ion-exchange chromatography and immunosorption. Physicochemical and immunochemical measurements identified one as cystatin A, one as cystatin B, one as cystatin C, one as cystatin S, and one as low molecular weight kininogen. The sixth inhibitor displayed immunochemical cross-reactivity with salivary cystatin S but had a different pI (6.85 versus 4.68) and a different (blocked) N-terminal amino acid. This inhibitor was tentatively designated cystatin SU. The isolated inhibitors accounted for nearly all of the cysteine proteinase inhibitory activity of the urinary pool used as starting material. The enzyme inhibitory properties of the inhibitors were investigated by measuring inhibition and rate constants for their interactions with papain and human cathepsin B. Antisera raised against the inhibitors were used in immunochemical determinations of their concentrations in several biological fluids. The combined enzyme kinetic and concentration data showed that several of the inhibitors have the capacity to play physiologically important roles as cysteine proteinase inhibitors in many biological fluids. Cystatin C had the highest molar concentration of the inhibitors in seminal plasma, cerebrospinal fluid, and milk; cystatin S in saliva and tears; and kininogen in blood plasma, synovial fluid, and amniotic fluid.
  • Agardh, Carl-David, et al. (författare)
  • Lack of association between plasma homocysteine levels and microangiopathy in type 1 diabetes mellitus
  • 1994
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical & Laboratory Investigation. - Informa Healthcare. - 1502-7686. ; 54:8, s. 637-641
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The reactive vascular-injuring amino acid homocysteine was previously shown to be increased in plasma in diabetic patients with clinical signs of nephropathy. In this study, plasma homocysteine was measured in type 1 diabetic patients with normoalbuminuria (n = 22), microalbuminuria (n = 40) and proteinuria (n = 14) in order to investigate whether plasma homocysteine levels are increased already at the stage of incipient nephropathy, i.e. microalbuminuria. Furthermore, patients were characterized according to the degree of retinopathy. Plasma homocysteine in the whole population (n = 76) was related to B-Folate (r = 0.38, p < 0.01), S-Creatinine (r = 0.55, p < 0.001), S-Urea (r = 0.37, p < 0.01), U-Albumin (r = 0.46, p < 0.001), urinary N-acetyl-beta- glucosaminidase (r = 0.40, p < 0.001), systolic blood pressure (r = 0.36, p < 0.01) and diabetes duration (r = 0.44, p < 0.001). There were no differences in plasma homocysteine levels between patients with normoalbuminuria (8.0 +/- 1.7 mumol l-1; mean +/- SD) and those with microalbuminuria (9.1 +/- 3.4 mumol l-1). However, patients with clinical signs of nephropathy had higher plasma homocysteine levels (12.9 +/- 5.7 mumol l-1, p < 0.01) compared to the other two groups. There was no association between plasma homocysteine levels and different degrees of retinopathy. Thus, the present study does not show any relation between plasma homocysteine levels and early stages of diabetic nephropathy or retinopathy indicating that elevated concentrations of plasma homocysteine does not explain the increased risk for atherosclerosis observed in patients with microalbuminuria.
  • Agardh, Carl-David, et al. (författare)
  • Plasma high density lipoproteins and lipolytic enzyme activities in diabetic patients
  • 1983
  • Ingår i: Acta Medica Scandinavica. - Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Ltd. - 0001-6101. ; 213:2, s. 123-128
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Eighty diabetic patients, consecutively selected from an out-patient clinic, were studied with regard to plasma lipoprotein levels, especially HDL. Patients treated with sulphonylureas had 24% lower HDL cholesterol concentrations (p less than 0.01) but only about 7% lower apo AI levels (n.s.) than those on insulin treatment. This difference could at least partly be explained by differences in age and type of diabetes. There was no relationship between the degree of diabetic control, as measured by fasting blood glucose levels, and HDL levels. In two subgroups of insulin-treated diabetics, selected to represent extremely low and high HDL levels (range 0.5-0.8 and 1.8-2.0 mmol/l, respectively) but matched with regard to age, duration of diabetes, insulin dosage and diabetic control, the activities of lipoprotein lipase and hepatic lipase in postheparin plasma were also recorded. The high HDL group had significantly higher lipoprotein lipase activities (p less than 0.01) and significantly lower hepatic lipase activities (p less than 0.05) than the low HDL group, supporting the hypothetical roles of these enzymes in HDL metabolism, and offering a tentative mechanism behind the large variability of HDL levels in diabetics.
  • Agardh, Carl-David, et al. (författare)
  • Plasma lipids and plasma lipoproteins in diabetics with and without proliferative retinopathy
  • 1988
  • Ingår i: Acta Medica Scandinavica. - Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Ltd. - 0001-6101. ; 223:2, s. 165-169
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The single most important factor related to the development of diabetic retinopathy is the duration of diabetes. Little is known about the underlying mechanisms, but many factors have been suggested to be involved, among them derangements in plasma lipids and plasma lipoproteins. In the present study we examined the relation between plasma lipids, plasma lipoproteins, and the duration of diabetes in Type I diabetics with and without proliferative retinopathy. The duration of diabetes in the two groups was 12.2 +/- 2.8 and 21.5 +/- 9.0 years, respectively (mean +/- SD; p less than 0.01). Except for moderately low HDL levels, plasma lipid and lipoprotein concentrations were normal in both groups of patients. The levels of lipids and lipoproteins did not correlate with the duration of diabetes. Furthermore, no differences were seen between patients with and without proliferative retinopathy. Thus, the present study does not indicate that plasma lipids and plasma lipoproteins play any major role in the development of diabetic proliferative retinopathy.
  • Agardh, Carl-David, et al. (författare)
  • Serum beta-hexosaminidase in diabetes mellitus with reference to the type of treatment
  • 1982
  • Ingår i: Acta Medica Scandinavica. - Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Ltd. - 0001-6101. ; 212:1-2, s. 39-41
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A significantly increased serum level of beta-hexosaminidase was found in an unselected group of 85 diabetics. When the patients were divided into three groups according to type of treatment, increased enzyme levels were found only in patients treated with oral hypoglycemic agents or diet while insulin-treated patients had normal serum levels of beta-hexosaminidase. There was a positive correlation between beta-hexosaminidase and blood glucose concentration for the entire patient series. When grouped according to treatment, a positive correlation was found only in the insulin-treated group despite its normal serum activity of beta-hexosaminidase. Serum beta-hexosaminidase of patients with retinopathy did not differ from the mean value of their group. It is concluded that the activity of beta-hexosaminidase in diabetics can produce different results depending on the type of patients under study.
  • Alling, Christer, et al. (författare)
  • Muscarinic receptor-stimulated expression of c-fos in neuroblastoma cells
  • 1994
  • Ingår i: Alcohol and alcoholism. Supplement. - Pergamon. - 1358-6173. ; :2, s. 103-108
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The intracellular signal cascade transducing muscarinic-receptor-stimulation to gene expression was investigated in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Naive and ethanol-exposed SH-SU5Y cells were stimulated with carbachol (CCh) and inositol 1,4-5-trisphosphate (IP3), 1,2-diacylglycerol (DAG), and c-fos mRNA levels were analyzed using a radioreceptor assay (IP3) thin-layer chromatography (DAG) and Northern blot (c-fos mRNA). Application of the muscarinic agonist CCh induced a rapid increase in (IP3), peaking within seconds after the CCh-addition. There was also an accumulation of DAG reaching maximum after 5 min of receptor-stimulation. Stimulation with CCh also induced expression of the immediate-early gene c-fos in these cells. These events were mediated via muscarinic M1 receptors and the inhibitory effects of H7, staurosporin, and RO31-7549 on the c-fos expression indicated that it was mediated via protein kinase C. Acute exposure to 100 mM ethanol inhibited the formation of IP3 and the expression of c-fos. These effects were due to an increase in the EC50 of CCh for the events. Exposure to 100 mM ethanol for 4 days caused a potentiation of these two events. The EC50 was unaffected but the maximal response was increased. These data indicate that this signal transduction system is inhibited by acute exposure to 100 mM ethanol, an effect that is compensated for after exposure to ethanol for 4 days.
  • Andersson, K, et al. (författare)
  • The role of gastric mucosal histamine in acid secretion and experimentally induced lesions in the rat. Digestion 1990;46:1-9.
  • 1990
  • Ingår i: Digestion. - Karger. - 1421-9867. ; 46:1, s. 1-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The role played by histamine from enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cells and mast cells in gastric acid secretion and in the development of ethanol-induced gastric lesions was studied in the rat. This was done by examining the effects of inhibition of the histamine-producing enzyme histidine decarboxylase (HDC) with alpha-fluoromethylhistidine (alpha-FMH) and the effects of degranulation of the mucosal mast cells with dexamethasone. A single dose of alpha-FMH (50 mg/kg p.o.) inhibited the HDC activity by 94% but did not affect histamine levels in the gastric mucosa 2 h after dose. Repeated treatment resulted in an almost complete inhibition of HDC activity and in a reduction of histamine levels by 75%. Pentagastrin failed to stimulate acid secretion after 4 days treatment with alpha-FMH, whereas the acid response to histamine was unaffected in chronic gastric fistula rats. Ethanol failed to induce gastric lesions in rats pretreated for 4 days with dexamethasone whereas 4 days pretreatment with alpha-FMH did not influence ethanol-induced lesion formation. The present results show that histamine synthesis is required for pentagastrin-stimulated gastric acid secretion and that mucosal mast-cell histamine plays a role in the development of ethanol-induced gastric lesions.
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