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Träfflista för sökning "hsv:(MEDICIN OCH HÄLSOVETENSKAP) hsv:(Medicinska grundvetenskaper) srt2:(1980-1994)"

Sökning: hsv:(MEDICIN OCH HÄLSOVETENSKAP) hsv:(Medicinska grundvetenskaper) > (1980-1994)

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  • Back, S E, et al. (författare)
  • Age dependence of renal function: clearance of iohexol and p-amino hippurate in healthy males
  • 1989
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical & Laboratory Investigation. - Informa Healthcare. - 1502-7686. ; 49:7, s. 641-646
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Iohexol, a newly developed non-ionic contrast agent, has been recently documented as a reliable glomerular filtration marker. This study describes the age dependence of the single injection clearance of iohexol in a sample of healthy male volunteers ranging from 21 to 77 years of age. In parallel, renal plasma flow was studied by measuring the total clearance of p-amino hippuric acid administered as a continuous infusion. In subjects older than 50 years a negative correlation to age was found for both p-amino hippuric acid and iohexol clearance, with a reduction of 52 ml/min and 12 ml/min per decade, respectively, whereas no age dependence was found for younger subjects. Correlation between p-amino hippuric acid and iohexol clearances was 0.81. However, the filtration fraction, defined as the ratio of iohexol to p-amino hippuric acid clearance, was higher in the elderly subjects. A consistent discrepancy was found between total and renal clearances of p-amino hippuric acid, indicating significant renal metabolism. Renal clearance of creatinine was poorly correlated to iohexol clearance and did not show any relationship to age.
  • Balbín, M, et al. (författare)
  • Demonstration of sequence variations in the promoter region of the human cystatin C gene
  • 1992
  • Ingår i: Biological Chemistry Hoppe-Seyler. - De Gruyter. - 0177-3593. ; 373:7, s. 471-476
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Four point mutations in the promoter region of the human cystatin C gene have been detected by direct sequencing of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified DNA. The four base changes are all localized within a short segment of 85 base pairs. Three cystatin C gene alleles could be defined with respect to these promoter mutations; one with the sequence previously published, one carrying three of the mutations and one with all four base substitutions. Two of the observed mutations are involved in a novel Sst II polymorphism and another generates a new Dde I restriction site. A PCR-based assay for analysis of these Sst II and Dde I sites was designed and used to demonstrate Mendelian inheritance of the polymorphisms as well as to determine the frequencies of the cystatin C gene alleles in the population.
  • Balbin, M, et al. (författare)
  • Determination of allotypes G1m(f) and G1m(z) at the genomic level by subclass specific amplification of DNA and use of allele specific probes
  • 1991
  • Ingår i: Experimental and Clinical Immunogenetics. - Karger. - 0254-9670. ; 8:2, s. 88-95
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Two oligonucleotide primers were used for selective enzymatic amplification of a DNA segment encoding a major portion of the first constant region domain (CH1) of the human IgG1 heavy chain. The selective amplification was confirmed by use of subclass-specific oligonucleotide probes. Two 15-mer oligonucleotides, hybridizing with the alleles for the allotypes G1m(f) and (z), respectively, could then be used for determination at the genomic level of these two truly allelic allotypes. Serum and DNA samples from 12 individuals, one of them with a considerable amount of anti-Gm(f) antibodies, were used for allotype assignment by classical serological methods and by the new method operating at the genomic level. The resulting classifications agreed completely, demonstrating the reliability of the new method.
  • Balbin, Milagros, et al. (författare)
  • Structural and functional characterization of two allelic variants of human cystatin D sharing a characteristic inhibition spectrum against mammalian cysteine proteinases
  • 1994
  • Ingår i: Journal of Biological Chemistry. - ASBMB. - 1083-351X. ; 269:37, s. 23156-23162
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Human cystatin D is a novel member of the cystatin superfamily of cysteine proteinase inhibitors present in saliva and tears. Two alleles of the cystatin D gene (CST5), encoding protein variants with either Cys or Arg as residue 26 in their 122-residue polypeptide chains, are present in the population. Expression of the two alleles was investigated by immunochemical analyses of the secreted cystatin D in saliva from individuals homozygous for each of the two alleles, with results demonstrating that both are expressed at similar levels. The inhibitory characteristics of the two cystatin D variants were studied, by determination of dissociation equilibrium constants (Ki) for their complexes with papain and with the mammalian cysteine proteinases, cathepsins B, H, L, and S. The results demonstrate that 1) cystatin D has a characteristic inhibition profile since it does not inhibit cathepsin B (Ki > 1 microM), and when compared to cystatin C and all other known cystatins it is a much poorer inhibitor of cathepsin L (mean Ki 25 nM) but binds cathepsin H and S relatively tightly (mean Ki values of 8.5 and 0.24 nM, respectively); and 2) the inhibitory activities of the two cystatin D variants are not significantly different, demonstrating that the presence of an extra cysteine residue in the cystatin D molecule affects neither the stability nor the functional activity of the inhibitor, thus explaining the widespread distribution of the Cys26-cystatin D encoding allele in the population. The inhibitory properties displayed by cystatin D suggest that it has a function in saliva as inhibitor of either endogenous or exogenous enzymes with cathepsin S- or H-like properties.
  • Bitzén, Ulrika, et al. (författare)
  • Retinyl palmitate is a reproducible marker for chylomicron elimination from blood
  • 1994
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical & Laboratory Investigation. - Informa Healthcare. - 1502-7686. ; 54:8, s. 611-613
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To study the individual variation in chylomicron clearance rate, young healthy volunteers were given a p.o. dose of 50,000 IU retinyl palmitate in the morning to label their chylomicrons. Serial blood samples were then obtained in the time interval 4-8 h after retinyl palmitate intake, to closely monitor the clearance of retinyl ester from the blood. The procedure was repeated in an identical way two days later. The calculated individual halflives for retinyl palmitate clearance ranged from 1.54 to 9.90 h, i.e. a more than five-fold variation. The intraindividual variation was much less (relative SD 11%). Retinyl palmitate clearance (and probably chylomicron clearance) is, thus, relatively constant within the same individual on different occasions but varies considerably between individuals.
  • Bixo, Marie, 1957- (författare)
  • Ovarian steroids in rat and human brain effects of different endocrine states
  • 1987
  • Ingår i: digitalisering@umu. - Umeå : Umeå universitet. - 91-7174-313-8
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>Ovarian steroid hormones are known to produce several different effects in the brain. In addition to their role in gonadotropin release, ovulation and sexual behaviour they also seem to affect mood and emotions, as shown in women with the premenstrual tension syndrome. Some steroids have the ability to affect brain excitability. Estradiol decreases the electroshock threshold while progesterone acts as an anti-convulsant and anaesthetic in both animals and humans. Several earlier studies have shown a specific uptake of several steroids in the animal brain but only a few recent studies have established the presence of steroids in the human brain.</p><p>In the present studies, the dissections of rat and human brains were carried out macroscopically and areas that are considered to be related to steroid effects were chosen. Steroid concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay after extraction and separation with celite chromatography. The accuracy and specificity of these methods were estimated.</p><p>In the animal studies, immature female rats were treated with Pregnant Mare's Serum Gonadotropin (PMSG) to induce simultaneous ovulations. Concentrations of estradiol and progesterone were measured in seven brain areas pre- and postovulatory. The highest concentration of estradiol, pre- and postovulatory, was found in the hypothalamus and differences between the two cycle phases were detected in most brain areas. The preovulatory concentrations of progesterone were low and the highest postovulatory concentration was found in the cerebral cortex.</p><p>In one study, the rats were injected with pharmacological doses of progesterone to induce "anaesthesia". High uptake of progesterone was found and a regional variation in the formation of 5&lt;*-pregnane-3,20-dione in the brain with the highest ratio in the medulla oblongata.</p><p>Concentrations of progesterone, 5a-pregnane-3*20-dione, estradiol and testosterone were determined in 17 brain areas of fertile compared to postmenopausal women. All steroids displayed regional differences in brain concentrations. Higher concentrations of estradiol and progesterone were found in the fertile compared to the postmenopausal women.</p><p>In summary, these studies show that the concentrations of ovarian steroids in the brain are different at different endocrine states in both rats and humans and that there are regional differences in brain steroid distribution.</p>
  • Buttle, D J, et al. (författare)
  • Levels of neutrophil elastase and cathepsin B activities, and cystatins in human sputum: relationship to inflammation
  • 1990
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical & Laboratory Investigation. - Informa Healthcare. - 1502-7686. ; 50:5, s. 509-516
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Sputum samples from 25 patients with bronchiectasis were assayed enzymatically for myeloperoxidase, neutrophil elastase and cathepsin B, and immunologically for cystatin A, cystatin B, cystatin C, cystatin S and kininogen. High myeloperoxidase and neutrophil elastase levels were found in those sputum samples that were assessed visually to be purulent. These samples were also found to contain high levels of cathepsin B activity and cystatin A, but low levels of cystatin S and of the most effective cathepsin B inhibitor, cystatin C. In contrast, sputum samples that were low in myeloperoxidase and neutrophil elastase activities had low levels of cathepsin B and cystatin A, but high cystatin C and S levels. It is concluded that cathepsin B activity in sputum is positively correlated with the degree of inflammation and neutrophil recruitment. Although this may be due in part to reduced amounts of cathepsin B inhibitors, particularly cystatin C, theoretical considerations suggest that factors other than the gross level of inhibitors must be involved in the control of cathepsin B activity.
  • Buttle, David, et al. (författare)
  • The biochemistry of the action of chymopapain in relief of sciatica
  • 1986
  • Ingår i: Spine. - Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 0362-2436. ; 11:7, s. 688-694
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A study has been made of the mechanism of action of intradiscal injections of preparations of chymopapain in the treatment of sciatica. Such preparations were found to contain at least four distinct proteins, but enzymatically active chymopapain was the component mainly responsible for releasing glycosaminoglycan from cartilaginous tissue. Previous suggestions that an electrostatic interaction between chymopapain and glycosaminoglycan is important to the action of injected enzyme were not supported by the finding that both positively and negatively charged forms of chymopapain efficiently released glycosaminoglycan from cartilaginous tissue. In contrast, cysteine alone did not cause release of glycosaminoglycan. Chymopapain was found to be inhibited efficiently by the protein inhibitors, cystatin C and low molecular weight kininogen in vitro, and the possible relevance of this finding to the efficacy and safety of chemonucleolysis is discussed.
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