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11.
  • Al-Hammadany, F. H., et al. (författare)
  • Determinants of internet use in Iraq
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Communication. - 1932-8036 .- 1932-8036. ; 5:1, s. 1967-1989
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>The Internet is considered to be today’s most advanced technology and a key to progress in communications and in the exchange of information, goods, services, and technologies. Since its introduction during the late 1960s, the Internet has been instrumental in creating opportunities and conditions for progress in developed and developing nations alike. Not all nations, though, welcome this particular tool of global interconnectivity. One such nation is Iraq, which faces huge challenges in increasing Internet penetration, capacity building, and changing the traditional methods of communications. This study of Iraq’s efforts during this difficult undertaking explores the many factors that define this transition process. It concludes by explaining the determinants of Internet use in Iraq. The results of the study indicate that while Iraqis are eager to adopt this technology in order to reach out to the world, a number of factors are not allowing it to become a public domain. Factors include lack of adequate resources, insufficient incentives and encouragement from the government, and social inhibitions. ©2011 (Firas H. al-Hammadany, Almas Heshmati).</p>
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12.
  • Al-mutawkkil, A., et al. (författare)
  • Development of telecommunication and broadcasting infrastructure indices at the global level
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Telecommunications Policy. - 0308-5961 .- 1879-3258. ; 33:3-4, s. 176-199
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>The importance of information and communication technology (ICT) in economic development has been increasing rapidly along with the Internet and mobile telecommunication networks. ICT development is becoming a main growth factor of many countries. As they realize the importance of the ICT industry, developing nations work to catch up with established economies. Therefore, many nations are formulating an ICT-enhanced policy. This paper introduces a number of telecommunication and broadcasting sub-indices, which include the fixed telephone network, the Internet, and mobile networks, which are aggregated into a composite Telecommunication Index (TI). The indices are computed using principal component analysis and human development type index methods. The country rankings, by different ICT-related indices, help identify the strengths and weaknesses of infrastructure development such that each country can foster economic growth. The performance of TI is compared with several other indices, such as the digital access, human development, and ArCo technology indices. The type of indices affects the country ratings. Results suggest that the parametric index approach may be preferred over those methods in which the subjective weighted summation of normalized variables used (non-parametric indices). Crown Copyright © 2009.</p>
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13.
  • Altmann, Jörn, et al. (författare)
  • Evaluation of e-infrastructure deployment in OECD and MENA countries
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Catalyzing development through ICT adoption : The developing world experience. - Cham : Springer. - 9783319565231 - 9783319565224 ; s. 113-148
  • Bokkapitel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>This paper introduces new indices quantifying country's level of e-infrastructure deployment. These indices comprise six components, which include several indicators, and are based on parametric or nonparametric methods. They improve existing indices. Based on index calculations, variations between countries, regions, and over time are analyzed. The data used covers MENA and OECD countries, 2000-2007. Analysis results identified areas, in which countries need improvements, and showed that some MENA countries outperformed some OECD countries. The rankings based on the indices differ only slightly. Additionally, the parametric method-based index produces equally distributed value ranges and shows an overall e-infrastructure improvement over time. </p>
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14.
  • Aoun, D., et al. (författare)
  • International diversification, capital structure and cost of capital : Evidence from ICT firms listed at NASDAQ
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Applied Financial Economics. - 0960-3107 .- 1466-4305. ; 18:12, s. 1021-1032
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>In this study, we intend to examine the information and communication technology (ICT) firms from a financial perspective. The relationship between capital structure and cost of capital (COC) is investigated in a simultaneous equation framework. On the one hand, we relate international diversification to the firm’s capital structure, and on the other, we test their individual and collective inferences on the combined debt and equity COC. We expect a negative correlation between international diversification and higher total and long-term debt ratios, and a reduction in the overall COC.</p>
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15.
  • Battese, G. E., et al. (författare)
  • Efficiency of labour use in the Swedish banking industry : A stochastic frontier approach
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Empirical Economics. - 0377-7332 .- 1435-8921. ; 25:4, s. 623-640
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>The purpose of this paper is to analyse the impact of the deregulation of the Swedish banking industry in the mid-1980s, and the consequent banking crisis, on productive efficiency and productivity growth in the industry. An unbalanced panel of Swedish banks is studied over the period, 1984 to 1995. A total of 1275 observations are analysed for 156 banks that were observed for between two and twelve years. We adopt a translog stochastic frontier model to estimate the labour-use requirements in terms of the variables, loans, deposits, guarantees, number of branches and total inventories, together with the year of observation. The inefficiency effects in the labour-use frontier are modelled in terms of the number of branches, total inventories, the type of bank and year of observation. The technical inefficiencies of labour use of Swedish banks were found to be significant, with mean inefficiencies per year estimated to be between about 8 and 15 per cent over the years of study. However, the confidence interval predictions for these inefficiencies were found to be quite wide.</p>
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16.
  • Bersisa, Mekkonen, et al. (författare)
  • Multidimensional Measure of Poverty in Ethiopia : Factor and Stochastic Dominance Analysis
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Poverty and Well-Being in East Africa : A Multi-faceted Economic Approach. - Springer. - 978-3-319-30980-4 - 978-3-319-30981-1 ; s. 215-238
  • Bokkapitel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>This study did an in-depth analysis of multidimensional poverty in rural and small towns in Ethiopia. As social well-being or poverty is a multidimensional phenomenon, using a multidimensional measure of poverty helps circumvent problems surrounding the conventional measures of poverty and helps show clearly the realities of households. In this line, our analysis used six dimensions with 14 indicators to construct a multidimensional index of poverty using first rounds of Ethiopian Rural Households’ Socioeconomic Survey data set. The study also employed a factor analysis for determining relative weights in computing a multidimensional index and did an in-depth analysis of stochastic dominancy of poverty for different segments of society. Besides, a comparison of the extent of poverty using the conventional measure of poverty and the multidimensional approach was also done. The results reveal that intensity, severity, and depth of poverty vary considerably across the two measures. Moreover, demographic, regional, and household heads’ characteristics are major factors in determining poverty.</p>
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17.
  • Bhandari, A. K., et al. (författare)
  • Labour use and its adjustment in Indian manufacturing Industries
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Global Economic Review. - 1226-508X .- 1744-3873. ; 34:3, s. 261-290
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>This study provides an empirical investigation of the adjustment process of labour in Indian manufacturing industries, which evolved through structural transformation in the era of globalization. The analysis is based on a dynamic model applied to a panel of 22 two-digit manufacturing industries for the time period of 22 years covering 1980/1981 to 2001/2002. It is assumed that as competition increases industries adjust their employment to a desired level which is both industry and time specific. The results indicate that the manufacturing sector has shown a considerable dynamism in adjusting its workforce. The long-run labour demand responds greatest to the output, followed by capital and least by wages. It is observed that Indian manufacturing is not inefficient in labour use as modest speed of adjustment has led employment size closer to the optimal level. ©2005 Institute of East and West Studies, Yonsei University, Seoul.</p>
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18.
  • Bhandari, Amit Kumar, et al. (författare)
  • Wage Inequality and Job Insecurity Among Permanent and Contract Workers in India: Evidence from Organized Manufacturing Industries
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: The ICFAI Journal of Applied Economics. - 0972-6861. ; 7:1, s. 80-111
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Since the early 1990s, the employment structure of organized manufacturing industries in India has undergone substantial changes with steep rise in the use of contract workers in place of permanent workers. This process has led to increased wage inequality, discrimination as well as concern of job insecurity in the labor market. The paper focuses on wage inequality between permanent and contract workers, since contract workers earn substantially lower wages than their counterparts. The study uses data at the individual level from a recent labor survey of organized manufacturing industries in the India. The lower wage earned by contract workers is largely due to cost cutting, rather than differences in labor productivity. The issue of job insecurity has been modeled in the form of a binary logistic model. The factors affecting job security are divided into productivity-related attributes such as level of education and skill, and institutional attributes such as labor market rules and regulations and union membership. Contrary to the general expectation, the study finds that permanent workers are more concerned regarding job insecurity than the contract workers.</p>
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19.
  • Bhandari, Amit Kumar, et al. (författare)
  • Willingness to Pay for Biodiversity Conservation
  • 2009
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>Nature based tourism is the fastest growing tourism in many parts of the world. The attitude towards conservation of nature is measured by individuals' willingness to pay. This study has made an attempt to investigate the determinants of tourists' willingness to pay (WTP) for biodiversity conservation. The determinants include a combination of socio-economic and site-specific characteristics of tourists. The study was conducted in Sikkim, which is India's prime nature based tourism destination. Results show that willingness to pay is determined by the level of education and income of tourists. Among site-specific characteristics length of stay and number of spots are the significant determinants of willingness to pay. This empirical research is a valuable input to identify market segment among tourists, which might help to generate more revenue for biodiversity conservation in Sikkim.</p>
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20.
  • Bhandari, A. K., et al. (författare)
  • Willingness to pay for biodiversity conservation
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing. - 1054-8408 .- 1540-7306. ; 27:6, s. 612-623
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Nature-based tourism is the fastest growing tourism in many parts of the world. The attitude toward conservation of nature is measured by individuals’ willingness to pay. This study has made an attempt to investigate the determinants of tourists’ willingness to pay (WTP) for biodiversity conservation. The determinants include a combination of socio-economic and site-specific characteristics of tourists. The study was conducted in Sikkim, which is India’s prime nature-based tourism destination. Results show WTP, and effects of education, and income of tourists. Among site-specific characteristics, length of stay and number of spots are the significant determinants ofWTP. This empirical research is a valuable input to identify market segment among tourists, which might help to generate more revenues for biodiversity conservation in Sikkim. ©Taylor &amp; Francis Group, LLC.</p>
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