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21.
  • Borja-Barrera, S. M., et al. (författare)
  • A comparison of efficiency of mobile operators in South America
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Information and communication technologies policies and practices. - New York : Nova Science Publishers, Inc.. - 9781608766710 ; s. 145-165
  • Bokkapitel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Telecommunications plays a major role worldwide with the aim of achieving a bettersocial life for citizens and is one of the major factors contributing to economic growth.This study provides an efficiency analysis of mobile operators in Colombia, Venezuela,Chile and Brazil.For the empirical analysis, the stochastic frontier functions approach is employed toanalyze data from 10 mobile operators from the sample countries. Mobile operators inColombia are compared with others from Venezuela, Chile, and Brazil. Panel data from2005 to 2007 is used in the analysis.The efficiency estimation for each operator over time shows that the level is affectedby some firms and market characteristics such as: type of ownership, market share, typeof technology and firm level wages. One of the main findings of this research is thatsmaller operators work at the same level of efficiency compared with their largercounterparts. ©2010 by Nova Science Publishers, Inc. All rights reserved.</p>
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22.
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23.
  • Byambasuren, Erkhemchimeg, et al. (författare)
  • Economic Development in Mongolia
  • 2010
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>Mongolian economy has evolved rapidly in recent decades. It has a number of particular features which makes it interesting to study from a development perspective. One is the landlocked condition which limits its development potential. Another is its high dependence on a few products and natural resources like minerals, energy and agriculture. A third is the large scale of its natural resources with its low population density. This report aims to present a detailed analysis of the abovementioned aspects of the Mongolian economy and its development. It sheds light on conditions for sustainable economic development in the country. The objective is to mobilize available resources to enhance Mongolia's self-sufficiency and reduce its vulnerability and dependency on its two economically, politically and militarily powerful neighbors. This is conducted in a descriptive and simple but illustrative way. The report provides general information about the Mongolian economy and society compared with its neighbors serving as reference for investors, planners and decision-makers. The report is divided into five main parts. The first part contains a general introduction to the economy of Mongolia. The second part is on the development and the role of the key economic sectors including agriculture, industry and services. The third part elaborates on the development and role of the mining and energy sectors in the development of the economy. The fourth part is an analysis of the international economic relations and the dependence on foreign countries. The last part is on the future directions of development. This report is expected to provide a complete picture of the national economy, its evolution, current state and future possible directions and potential. The empirical and illustrative part is mainly based on data at the aggregate national level, covering the last two decades but mainly the period from 2004 to 2009.</p>
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24.
  • Cho, Sungwook, et al. (författare)
  • What if you had been less fortunate : The effects of poor family background on current labor market outcomes
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of economic studies. - 0144-3585 .- 1758-7387. ; 42:1, s. 20-33
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p><strong>Purpose</strong>– The purpose of this paper is to examine the correlation between childhood poverty and its influence on adulthood wage distribution, where childhood poverty refers to the experience of poverty or poor family background during one’s childhood.</p><p><strong>Design/methodology/approach</strong>– With data from the Korean Labor and Income Panel Study, a quantile regression technique and a decomposition method are conducted to identify and decompose the wage gap between low (poor) and middle class income groups along the whole current wage distribution, based on a simulated counterfactual distribution.</p><p><strong>Findings</strong>– The results show that those who had been less fortunate during their childhood were also less likely to have the opportunity to gain labor market favored characteristics, such as a higher level of education, and even earn lower returns to their labor market characteristics in the current labor market. This leads to a discount of about 15 percentage points in the wage, on average, in total for those with underprivileged backgrounds during childhood compared to those with a middle class background. This disadvantage is observed heterogeneously, with a greater effect at the lower quantiles compared to the higher quantiles of the current wage distribution.</p><p><strong>Originality/value</strong>– This research contributes to the literature by providing a partial understanding of poverty in Korea along with possible causes, including poor family background or childhood poverty, with which the implication of an intergenerational effect is considered.</p>
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25.
  • Cho, Sungwook, et al. (författare)
  • What If You Had Been Less Fortunate: The Effects of Poor Family Background on Current Labor Market Outcomes
  • 2013
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>This study examines the correlation between childhood poverty and its influence on adulthood wage distribution, where childhood poverty refers to experience of poverty or poor family background during one's childhood. With the data from Korean Labor Income Panel Study, KLIPS, quantile regression technique and decomposition method are conducted to identify and decompose the wage gap between low (poor) and middle class income group along the whole current wage distribution, based on a simulated counterfactual distribution.The results show that, those who had been less fortunate during their childhood likely had less opportunity to gain labor market favored characteristics such as a higher level of education, and even earn lower returns to their labor market characteristics in the current labor market. This leads to a discount of about fifteen percentages points off of the wage on average in total for those with underprivileged backgrounds during childhood compared to those with the middle class background, and that disadvantage is observed heterogeneously, greater at the lower quantiles than the higher quantiles of the current wage distribution. Then this research contributes to the literature by providing a partial understanding of poverty in Korea and its possible causes, in particular, in form of poor family background or childhood poverty, with which the implication of intergenerational effect issue is considered.</p>
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26.
  • Choi, Eunho, et al. (författare)
  • An Empirical Study of the Relationships between CO2 Emissions, Economic Growth and Openness
  • 2010
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>This paper investigates the existence of the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) for carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and its causal relationships with economic growth and openness by using time series data (1971-2006) from China (an emerging market), Korea (a newly industrialized country), and Japan (a developed country). The sample countries span a whole range of development stages from industrialized to newly industrialized and emerging market economies. The environmental consequences according to openness and economic growth do not show uniform results across the countries. Depending on the national characteristics, the estimated EKC show different temporal patterns. China shows an N-shaped curve while Japan has a U-shaped curve. Such dissimilarities are also found in the relationship between CO2 emissions and openness. In the case of Korea and Japan it represents an inverted U-shaped curve, while China shows a U-shaped curve. We also analyze the dynamic relationships between the variables by adopting a vector auto regression or a vector error correction model. These models through the impulse response functions allow for analysis of the causal variable’s influence on the dynamic response of emission variables and it adopts a variance decomposition to explain the magnitude of the forecast error variance determined by the shocks to each of the causal variables over time. Results show evidence of large heterogeneity among the countries and variables impacts.</p>
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27.
  • Chung, Yeimin, et al. (författare)
  • Measurement of Environmentally Sensitive Productivity Growth in Korean Industries
  • 2013
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>This study measures productivity growth using the Metafrontier Malmquist-Luenberger productivity growth index (MML index) method and decomposes the index. The results are compared with those obtained from the conventional Malmquist-Luenberger (ML) productivity growth index. MML has two advantages compared with the ML index. The former is able to consider undesirable output as a by-product of production which accounts for producer group heterogeneities. As a result, it enables separation and estimation of changes in the technological gap between regional and global frontier technologies. The proposed index is employed to measure productivity growth and decompose its components in 14 Korean industrial sectors during the period between 1981 and 2007. For the purpose of detailed analysis of policy effects, the study period was divided into three decades. The results show that technology innovation can be regarded as a more important factor of productivity growth, rather than efficiency change. The chemical and Petrochemical, Machinery and Transport equipment industries are treated as global innovators in the whole period. However, the result differs according to decades. It is found that the groups with higher energy efficient technology and profitability obtain a higher productivity growth rate in comparison with their low energy efficient technology industry counterparts. Policy implications of the empirical results are discussed.</p>
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28.
  • Chung, Yeimin, et al. (författare)
  • Measurement of environmentally sensitive productivity growth in Korean industries
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of Cleaner Production. - 0959-6526 .- 1879-1786. ; 104, s. 380-391
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>In this study we will attempt to measure productivity growth at the industrial level using the Metafrontier Malmquist-Luenberger (MML) productivity growth index and dissect/analyze this index to reveal further information. The results will be compared with those obtained from the conventional Malmquist-Luenberger (ML) productivity growth index. Utilizing the MML-index has two advantages when compared with the ML-index: the first is that it is able to consider undesirable output as a by-product of production; and the second is that it can account for producer group heterogeneities such as production technology. Noting such advantages, we will model this study to achieve three objectives related to productivity, technology and policy effects. To separate the results of the productivity index, we estimate the changes in the technological gap between regional and global frontier technologies. The proposed index presents productivity growth and dissects its components into 14 Korean industrial sectors from 1981 to 2010. For the purpose of detailed analysis, we have divided the relevant period into three decades. The results show that technology innovation can be regarded as an important component of productivity growth, rather than merely efficiency change. Chemical and petrochemical, iron and steel and machinery are all treated as global innovators throughout the entire period. It is also inferred that the groups with higher labor productivity obtain a higher productivity growth rate as compared with their low labor productivity counterparts. Considering the heterogeneity of production technology and the time that policy is introduced, the policy implications of the results will affect the circumstances regarding investment in environmental technology.</p>
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29.
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30.
  • Determinants of economic growth in Africa
  • 2018
  • Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>This volume is a collection of selected empirical studies on determinants of economic growth in Africa. Grouped into three parts, chapters examine the influence of financial sources and economic growth; sources of productivity growth; and prices, exchange rates and trade relationships with growth in regions in Africa or the continent as a whole. This edited book is authored by African experts in the field who employ diverse up-to-date data and methods to provide robust empirical results based on representative firms, household surveys and secondary country level data covering individuals or multiple countries on the continent. It contains a wealth of empirical evidence, deep analyses and sound recommendations for policymakers and researchers for designing and implementing effective social and national policies and strategies to prevent and to reduce poverty and its negative effects on poor households and in poor regions. The volume will be a useful resource for policymakers and researchers involved in promoting economic growth and fighting poverty. It will also appeal to a broader audience interested in economic development, resource economics, policies, economic welfare and inclusive growth. </p>
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