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301.
  • Tausch, A., et al. (författare)
  • The effects of multinational corporation (MNC) penetration on the global political economy. A re-analysis of a recur-rent sociological proposition with contemporary data
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Sociológia (Bratislava). - 0049-1225 .- 1336-8613. ; 44:3, s. 314-347
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>In this essay we reconsider the effects of direct foreign investments on the host countries around the globe. A number of sociological analyses (Bandelji 2009; Mahutga - Bandelji 2008), already applied such a question to Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). Is the growing penetration of host countries of multinational investment heralding the promised gains of stable economic growth and social cohesion, or is social polarization around the corner instead? In our re-analysis with contemporary data of one of the most influential essays ever published in international sociology (Bornschier - Chase-Dunn - Rubinson 1978), which predicted that direct foreign investment would increase economic inequality and that it would have a short-term dynamic, but a long-term stagnation effect on the economic growth of the host countries (Bornschier - Chase-Dunn - Rubinson 1978: 651), we re-confirm the main thrust of the sceptical hypotheses on multinational corporation (MNC) penetration. We also show that on the global level and in the 183 countries analysed there is indeed a very strong connection between foreign capital penetration in the mid-1990s on the one hand and rising inequality, deficient life expectancy, rising unemployment, and a deficient under five mortality rate in the first decade of the new Millennium on the other. Economic growth in the contemporary period (2010) is also being determined negatively by the long-term effects of multinational corporation penetration in the mid-1990s, while in the period between 1990 and 2005 the effect was positive. We thus confirm that the approach, established by Bandelji 2009 and Mahutga and Bandelji 2008, is a valid one, and can be generalized on a global level.</p>
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302.
  • Tausch, A., et al. (författare)
  • Worker remittances and the global preconditions of ’smart development’
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Society and Economy. - 1588-9726 .- 1588-970X. ; 35:1, s. 25-50
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>With the growing environmental crisis affecting our globe, ideas to weigh economic or social progress by the ’energy input’ necessary to achieve it are increasingly gaining acceptance. This question is intriguing and is being dealt with by a growing number of studies, focusing on the environmental price of human progress. Even more intriguing, however, is the question of which factors of social organization contribute to a responsible use of the resources of our planet to achieve a given social result (’smart development’). In this essay, we present the first systematic study on how migration-or rather, more concretely, received worker remittances per GDP-helps the nations of our globe to enjoy social and economic progress at a relatively small environmental price. We look at the effects of migration on the balance sheets of societal accounting, based on the ’ecological price’ of the combined performance of democracy, economic growth, gender equality, human development, research and development, and social cohesion. Feminism in power, economic freedom, population density, the UNDP education index as well as the receipt of worker remittances all significantly contribute towards a ’smart overall development’, while high military expenditures and a high world economic openness are a bottleneck for ’smart overall development’.</p>
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303.
  • Tran-Quy, Nam, et al. (författare)
  • Measurements and Determinants of Pay Inequality and its Impacts on Firms Performance in Vietnam
  • 2009
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>This study is an empirical investigation of causal factors of pay inequality and its relationship with firm performance using firm level data in Vietnam. Both nonparametric and parametric approaches are used for the purpose. The Gini coefficient and Theil-T index are employed to measure pay inequality. Linear and quadratic models are specified to identify determinants of pay inequality and to investigate the relationship between pay inequality and firm performance. The empirical results, based on a large sample of Vietnamese firms, suggest that capital-intensive sectors pay more equal wages than labour-intensive sectors while regions with a higher urbanization rate and economic development pay their employees quite unequally. The determinant factors contributing to pay inequality are firm size, volume of assets, share of temporary workers, debt ratio, provincial competitiveness and the market size. We also find a positive relationship between firm performance and pay inequality, which gives support to the "tournament" theory.</p>
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304.
  • Tsoy, Lyubov, et al. (författare)
  • Impact of financial crises on the dynamics of capital structure : Evidence from Korean listed companies
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Singapore Economic Review. - World Scientific. - 0217-5908.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>This study examines the impact of the 1997 Asian financial crisis and the 2008 Global economic crisis on the capital structures of Korean non-financial listed companies. Using a panel data covering 1,159 Korean listed non-financial firms from 10 industrial sectors over a 31-year period (1985-2015), this study investigates the patterns of firms' capital structures before and after the crises and identifies their speeds of adjustment toward the optimal leverage. This study finds different effects of the two crises on both capital structures and adjustment speeds. The average debt ratio fell significantly after the 1997 Asian financial crisis. The distance between the optimal and the observed debt ratios shrank after the Asian crisis, while the speed of adjustment increased two-fold. Unlike the Asian financial crisis, the global economic crisis of 2008 had a positive effect on companies' debt ratios and the speeds of adjustments toward the optimal leverage. Our empirical analysis shows that, on average, the Korean non-financial listed companies decreased their debt ratios over the entire period of observation, with the leverage being the highest before the Asian financial crisis and lowest after the global economic crisis. Our results also show that the debt ratios of Korean chaebols were higher than that of non-chaebols. Moreover, we find that the high level of leverage of Korean firms was associated with tangible assets, income variability, size and age of the firm, non-debt tax shield and uniqueness. </p>
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305.
  • Umulisa, Yvonne (författare)
  • The prospects for the East African Monetary Union An empirical analysis
  • 2020
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>This thesis operationalizes the theory of optimum currency areas, which describes the preconditions (criteria) that countries must fulfill prior to forming a monetary union. In light of the different dimensions of the theory that are examined, the empirical findings from the four papers in this thesis seem to favor forming a monetary union among East African Community (EAC) partner states. Hence, the findings are important for EAC policymakers, as they decided to participate in a monetary union by 2024.</p><p>The first paper uses a gravity model to determine to what extent membership in the EAC has affected intraregional trade. One common argument is that if there is not much trade between EAC member countries, there is no interest in forming a monetary union. The paper implements the fixed effect filter estimator, which uses a two-step approach and has better performance than the standard fixed effect estimator. The empirical findings in this paper show that EAC membership has a positive and significant effect on intra-trade among member countries. The second paper investigates business cycle synchronization and core-periphery patterns. Greater synchronization is needed for an easy transition towards monetary union. Unlike previous studies, this paper uses wavelet decomposition, a powerful tool for analyzing the comovement of business cycles. It is found that business cycle synchronization is more significant for Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda, the countries that also form the core of the East African Monetary Union.</p><p>The link between business cycle synchronization and trade intensity among EAC countries is established in the third paper. This analysis is relevant, as it is associated with the hypothesis of the endogeneity of the optimum currency area criteria, whereby a monetary union among member countries is predicted to increase trade among them, which, in turn, may lead to more synchronized business cycles. The empirical findings show that trade intensity among the considered countries has indeed led to more synchronized business cycles, suggesting that monetary union among EAC countries may be beneficial.</p><p>Moreover, the fourth and last paper uses a similarity index and a rank correlation measure, Kendall’s tau, to investigate the movement of inflation rates among EAC countries. The results show that changes in inflation have become more similar over time and that there are high correlations between EAC countries. This paper also investigates the convergence in inflation rate levels among the EAC countries. It is found that these levels have tendency to converge. These findings favor the formation of a monetary union among these countries.</p>
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306.
  • Uwitonze, Eric, et al. (författare)
  • Determinants of service sector firms’ growth in Rwanda
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Studies on economic development and growth in selected African countries. - Singapore : Springer. - 978-981-10-4450-2 - 978-981-10-4451-9 ; s. 331-368
  • Bokkapitel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>The service sector is an avenue for economic transformation as not all countries have a competitive edge in manufacturing. Findings from a micro-level research on the service sector confirm that ICT integration, firm’s age, the education of the owner, the boss’ attitude, family business, networks, new processes, major improvements, market share, on the job training and know-how significantly, and positively increase the probability of a firm’s growth. Even though the growth rate of services is currently impressive in the Rwandan economy, no investigations have been done on the determinants of the growth of the firms in the service sector. This paper studies the development of services over the years in Rwanda’s economy in detail and empirically estimates its determinants by using an econometric methodology. The empirical results are based on micro-data collected by the Rwanda Enterprise Survey (2011) and the 2014 Establishment Census. The survey has data on 241 firms and establishments. Linear and limited dependent variable techniques are employed to investigate the factors behind the development of service firms. Models are specified and estimated to assess the factors contributing to sales growth, innovations, and turnovers of service firms. The results show that the key factors driving the development of service firms in Rwanda include access to credit, application of ICT, availability of skilled labor, employee development and acquisition of fixed assets. The results suggest that the government should uphold the use of ICT in all service firms, promote access to finance to new service firms and promote on-work training in service firms to speed up Rwanda’s shift from a low income to a middle-income state.</p>
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307.
  • Wang, S., et al. (författare)
  • The relationship between efficiency and ownership structure : The case of China’s listed ICT companies
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Information and communication technologies policies and practices. - New York : Nova Science Publishers, Inc.. - 9781608766710 ; s. 119-144
  • Bokkapitel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>If we take an overview of enterprise reform in China during the last 30 years, we willfind that this process has always been accompanied by the debate of ownership identityand ownership structure. Numerous pieces of research on the relationship between theefficiency and ownership structure in China have been undertaken, but the conclusionsvary and even contradict each other. This dissertation will explore the uniquecharacteristics of the ownership structure of Chinese companies, and illustrate the effectsof ownership structure on the efficiency of companies and finally discuss how to adjustthe ownership structure to improve their efficiency. Unbalance panel data for listed ICTcompanies from 2003 to 2007 are collected to conduct an empirical analysis of therelationship between performance and the ownership structure of firms. A two-stepprocedure is used. In the first step, data envelopment analysis (DEA) Window model isapplied to measure the efficiencies of these companies. In the second step, the Tobitregression model is used to establish the relationship between efficiency and theownership structure, to identify the determinants of efficiency and to estimate theirimpacts. A sensitivity analysis with respect to model specification is conducted. Inaddition, this dissertation attempts to provide an explanation for the conclusions drawn,and provides policy guidelines for future adjustments in the ownership structure. Inconclusion, the results suggest that the proportions of state-owned and private corporateshares do not affect the efficiency of companies significantly. However, the ownershipconcentration exhibits a positive impact on the efficiency level of the sample ICT firms. ©2010 by Nova Science Publishers, Inc. All rights reserved.</p>
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308.
  • Yeo, M., et al. (författare)
  • Healthy Residential Environments for the Elderly
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Journal of Housing for the Elderly. - 0276-3893 .- 1540-353X. ; 28:1, s. 1-20
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>This study aims to analyze the environmental elements of residential facilities for elderly people by using Antonovsky’s salutogenic concept. The relationship between the environment and health is clearly identified. This information facilitates the presentation and development of residential facilities with healthy living conditions for elderly people in South Korea. The concept includes providing a residential environment that is safe from a variety of dangers by applying a barrier-free concept to address the physical changes of elderly people. It also provides an environment equipped with a continuous protection system that considers both the physical and sociopsychological aspects of this particular treatment environment. ©2014 Copyright Taylor &amp; Francis Group, LLC.</p>
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309.
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310.
  • Zheng, X., et al. (författare)
  • An analysis of energy use efficiency in China by applying stochastic frontier panel data models
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Energies. - MDPI. - 1996-1073 .- 1996-1073. ; 13:8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>This paper investigates energy use efficiency at the province level in China using the stochastic frontier panel data model approach. The stochastic frontier model is a parametric model which allows for the modeling of the relationship between energy use and its determinants using different control variables. The main control variables in this paper are energy policy and environmental and regulatory variables. This paper uses province level data from all provinces in China for the period 2010-2017. Three different models are estimated accounting for the panel nature of the data; province-specific heterogeneity and province-specific energy inefficiency effects are separated. The models differ because of their underlying assumptions, but they also complement each other. The paper also explains the degree of inefficiency in energy use by its possible determinants, including those related to the public energy policy and environmental regulations. This research supplements existing research from the perspective of energy policy and regional heterogeneity. The paper identifies potential areas for improving energy efficiency in the western and northeastern regions of China. Its findings provide new empirical evidence for estimating and evaluating China's energy efficiency and a transition to cleaner energy sources and production. </p>
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