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Sökning: hsv:(SAMHÄLLSVETENSKAP) > Heshmati Almas

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  • Haouas, I., et al. (författare)
  • The impacts of trade liberalization on employment and wages in Tunisian industries
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Journal of International Development. - 0954-1748 .- 1099-1328. ; 17:4, s. 527-551
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>This paper investigates short and long-run effects of trade liberalization on employment and wages. Employment and wage equations are estimated using data (1971-96) for importable and exportable industrial sectors in Tunisia. Causality tests show that causality is unidirectional. Wages strongly causes employment. There is significant difference in the direction of effects in the short and long-run. Empirical results only support the short-run theoretical predictions for the exportable sectors. A possible reason for the divergence of theory and practice is that the theoretical model is premised on the basis of a fixed supply of labour. Employment at exportable sectors could therefore only rise if employment at importable fell. However, as we have seen, the supply of labour increased dramatically in Tunisia as women entered the labour market. This allowed employment at importable sectors to be maintained as the exportable sector expanded. Copyright ©2005 John Wiley &amp; Sons, Ltd.</p>
  • Herrman, Peter, et al. (författare)
  • Efficiency and Effectiveness of Social Spending
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft. ; 35:1, s. 13-43
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>In this qualitative sociological and quantitative economic policy paper, we start out from the assumption of a very recent European Commission Background paper on the ”Efficiency and effectiveness of social spending“, which says the effectiveness of social spending can be defined by the degree to which the realized allocation approaches the socially desired outcome. The conclusions listed in the Commission paper are found far reaching and not supported by the empirical data. We perform such an analysis, starting from advances in recent literature. A more encompassing sociological perspective on the issue and factor analytical calculations is presented, which supports our general argument about the efficiency of the Scandinavian model. The social quality approach provides an alternative perspective on welfare system analysis, focusing on public policies rather than social policies. The empirical evidence, suggests that in terms of the efficiency of the European social model, the geography of comparative performance include: the direct action against social exclusion, health and family social expenditures, the neo-liberal approach, and the unemployment benefit centred approach. Applying rigorous comparative social science methodology, we also arrive at the conclusion that in terms of the initial ECOFIN definition of efficiency, the data presented in this article suggest that apart from Finland and the Netherlands, three new EU-27 member countries, especially the Czech Republic and Slovenia, provide interesting answers to the question about the efficiency of state expenditures in reducing poverty rates.</p>
  • Heshmati, Almas, et al. (författare)
  • A General Model of Technical Change with an Application to the OECD Countries
  • 2011
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>In the neoclassical production functions model technical change (TC) is assumed to be exogenous and it is specified as a function of time. However, some exogenous external factors other than time can also affect the rate of TC. In this paper we model TC via a combination of time trend (purely non-economic) and other observable exogenous factors, which we call technology shifters (economic factors). We use several composite technology indices based on appropriate combinations of the external economic factors which are indicators of different aspects of technology. These technology indices are embedded into the production function in such a way that they can complement to different inputs. By estimating the generalized production function, we get estimates of TC which is decomposed TC into a pure time component as well as several producer specific external economic factors. Furthermore, the technology shifters allow for non-neutral and biased shifts in TC. We also consider a simple model in which the technology shifters are aggregated into one single index. The empirical model uses panel data on OECD, accession and enhanced engagement countries observed during 1980-2006.</p>
  • Heshmati, Almas, et al. (författare)
  • A general model of technical change with an application to the OECD countries
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Economics of Innovation and New Technology. - 1043-8599 .- 1476-8364. ; 23:1, s. 25-48
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>In the neoclassical production theory technical change (TC) is specified as a function of time. However, some exogenous external factors other than time can also affect the rate of TC. In this paper, we model TC via a combination of time trend (purely non-economic) and other observable exogenous factors that shift the technology. The exogenous economic factors are used to define several technology indices. These technology indices are embedded into the production function in a flexible manner. By estimating this generalized production function, we get estimates of rate of TC which is decomposed into a pure time component as well as several components attributed to technology indices. The empirical model uses panel data on OECD, accession and enhanced engagement countries observed during 1980-2006. ©2013 Taylor &amp; Francis.</p>
  • Heshmati, Almas, et al. (författare)
  • A production analysis of the manufacturing industries in Iran
  • 1998
  • Ingår i: Technological forecasting & social change. - 0040-1625 .- 1873-5509. ; 59:2, s. 183-196
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>This article is concerned with the estimation of production functions, returns to scale, and measurement of the rate of technical change using panel data. Technical change is represented by single as well as multiple time trends. The underlying production technology is represented in translog functional form. A random effects model with heteroscedastic variances is used. The models are estimated using the generalized least squares method. The disturbances of cross-sectional units are assumed to be correlated over time. Empirically, our focus is on measuring technical change in Iranian manufacturing industries during the period 1971-1993. Empirical results show that single or multiple time trend representations yield different time behavior of technical change. In the multiple time trends model, we observe a sharp decline in the pattern of technical change in 1978 in relation to the political changes. In the single time trend, as expected, the sharp decline cannot be revealed due to the smooth pattern of technical progress during the entire period of study.</p>
  • Heshmati, Almas (författare)
  • A review of the circular economy and its implementation
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Green Economics. - InderScience Publishers. - 1744-9928 .- 1744-9936. ; 11:3/4, s. 251-284
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Circular economy (CE) is a sustainable development strategy that is being proposed to tackle urgent problems of environmental degradation and resource scarcity. CE's 3R principles are to reduce, reuse and recycle materials. This study is a review of the rapidly growing literature on CE covering its concept and current practices and assessing its implementation. The review also serves as an assessment of the design, implementation and effectiveness of CE-related policies. It first presents the concept of CE and compares it with the current linear economy. The paper then introduces current practices that have been introduced and discusses standards for the assessment of CE's development and performance. Third, based on an analysis of literature, the paper identifies the underlying problems and challenges to CE in an entrepreneurial perspective. Finally, the review provides a conclusion on CE's current development and gives policy suggestions for its future development.</p>
  • Heshmati, Almas, et al. (författare)
  • A Survey of the Role of Fiscal Policy in Addressing Income Inequality, Poverty Reduction and Inclusive Growth
  • 2014
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>A growing concern on widening income gap between the rich and the poor, the policy mismatch in tackling the relative poverty and income inequality have invited increasing volumes of research focusing on the nexus between equity and efficient growth. Developed countries have experienced the critical challenges and trade-off between their generous welfares provisions and economic growth. Developing countries on the other hand, especially countries in Asia are in the process of shifting their policy direction toward more inclusive growth where most members are transforming themselves from a low-income country into a middle income country (ADB, 2014). This has stimulated the need to understand causes of inequality and poverty for better formulate policies of fostering inclusive growth. Economic growth itself is an important source of welfare distribution in most developing Asian countries. Asian governments used many forms of fiscal policy to mitigate income gaps and poverty because they will substantially undermine the economic growth if left unchecked (ADB, 2014). The objective of this study is to review the previous studies, particularly literatures related with inclusive growth of advanced economies, and to offer an efficient policy options for Asian countries. Major determinant factors of growing inequality, poverty and a range of fiscal policy tools are evaluated from both country and cross-country perspectives. The initiated policy measures are based on experiences of advanced welfare economies and the lessons derived from them will be a meaningful guideline for Asian countries to achieve their goals of inclusive growth.</p>
  • Heshmati, Almas, et al. (författare)
  • Agent-based simulation of cooperative innovation in R&amp;D
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Research Evaluation. - 0958-2029 .- 1471-5449. ; 22:1, s. 15-29
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>This article introduces an agent-based simulation model representing the dynamic processes of cooperative R&amp;D in the manufacturing sector of South Korea. Firms’ behaviors were defined according to empirical findings on a data set from the internationally standardized Korean Innovation Survey in 2005. Simulation algorithms and parameters were defined based on the determinants of firms’ likelihood to participate in cooperation with other firms when conducting innovation activities. The calibration process was conducted to the point where artificially generated scenarios were equivalent to the one observed in the real world. The aim of this simulation game was to create a basic implementation that could be extended to test different policies strategies in order to observe sector responses (including cross-sector spillovers) when promoting cooperative innovation. Based on the evaluation of simulated research collaboration data, sector responses to strategies concerning government intervention in R&amp;D of the firms can now be assessed.</p>
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