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  • Singh, Nandita, et al. (författare)
  • Children’s right to water as a contested domain: Gendered reflections from India
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Development (London). - : Springer. - 1011-6370 .- 1461-7072. ; 51:1, s. 102-107
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Nandita Singh and her colleagues look at children’s water rights in India. They argue for the exercise of the right to water by children by analysing the universal normative-legal framework and its difference to the local socio-culturally defined framework. They suggest that defining problems and designing actions only within the normative-legal framework can obscure understanding the critical realities at the right-holders’ end. They suggest that interventions at various levels, such as through policy and targeted programmes, have at best provided an ‘‘enabling environment’’, but the process of implementation of children’s rights at the right-holders’ end is to date an incomplete socio-cultural process
  • SINGH, Nandita, 1969-, et al. (författare)
  • Gender and water from a human rights perspective : The role of context in translating international norms into local action
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Rural Society. - : e-Content Management. - 1037-1656. ; 18:3, s. 185-193
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • An important area in the discourse on gender and water is water supply where women are seen as the key actors and beneficiaries. A human rights approach to development has been adopted with access to safe water explicitly recognized as a basic human right. This right places a legal obligation upon governments to translate the international norms into practice. But does explicitly acknowledging the human right to water make a practical difference in women's lives? Using an actor-oriented perspective, this paper analyzes how the international legal norms for realization of the right get reconstructed in local communities where women are the right holders. The empirical data for the analysis will be drawn from a first-hand qualitative study in rural India. The findings of the study show how the socio-cultural matrix provides the environment for implementing the right and determines its equitable and effective exercise by women.  
  • Ungmark, Inger, 1935- (författare)
  • Kvinnor, brott, övervakning
  • 1992
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The study is mainly an empirical survey of women on probation. The main purpose is to describe and understand the dynamics of probation.The data collection comprises interviews with twenty seven female clients, and twenty two supervisors. Furthermore, information has been gathered from 157 personal record of female clients and part of a questionnaire answered by 225 probation officers from all probation districts in Sweden. The data from the interviews and personal records have been collected at three probation districts in Stockholm. In line with the research approach the analysis of data has been qualitative.Part 1 of the study comprises the background, problems and life history of the female clients. With three exceptions, all twenty seven clients from the interview study were drog abusers. Another common trace was that experiences in their early years had brought about distrust, denial of weakness together with a wish to manage on their own. Socialization with men in the subculture meant that the women developed in the same direction. Nearly half of them considered themselves self-sufficient and independent Changed gender roles and negative experiences of being dependent were one reason for them to choose a criminal life style as their main source of income. Other reasons were dissociation from prostitution or being provided for by a man. In the discussion I relate the experiences of the female clients to the experiences of professional women when acting in a male arena. Furthermore, the gains and losses connected with independence are discussed.Part two of the study comprises the relationship between the female client and the probation officer. The results show that, because of drog problems, social degeneration and destructive relations with men and a frequent use of defensive techniques by the client, the probation officers consider the female clients as "hard work". The relationship between clients and supervisors is interpreted in two perspectives. The first is the background and life history of the clients and the second is the framework that constitutes probation. The purpose of this interpretation is to create an understanding of the relationship between the client and the probation officer.
  • Urinboyev, Rustamjon, et al. (författare)
  • Corruption in a culture of money: Understanding social norms in post-Soviet Uzbekistan
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Social and Legal Norms. - : Ashgate. - 9781409453437 ; , s. 267-284
  • Bokkapitel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of this article is to explore the social meaning and ordinary activities surrounding informal transactions in order to better understand the social context forming the premises and informing the meaning of corruption in Uzbekistan. A theoretically founded hypothesis is that informal transactions in Uzbek society reflect different cultural meanings than in the Western world. If this is true, there may be reasons to re-evaluate the concept of corruption in order to reflect the morality of exchange in Uzbekistan. This article is based on two periods of field research between 2009-2010 in Oltiariq district of Fergana region, Uzbekistan. We used ethnographic methods and the case of wedding ceremonies in order to illustrate local perceptions of informal exchange. Our results can be summarised in three main points: (a) informal transactions are deeply embedded in cultural practices; (b) not all informal transactions are corrupt; (c) when talking about (or measuring) corruption, local perceptions should be taken into account.
  • Urinboyev, Rustamjon, et al. (författare)
  • Living Law, Legal Pluralism, and Corruption in Post-Soviet Uzbekistan
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Journal of Legal Pluralism and Unofficial Law. - : Taylor & Francis. - 0732-9113. ; 45:3, s. 372-390
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper aims to explore the multifaceted meaning, logic, and morality of informal transactions in order to better understand the social context that informs the meaning of corruption and bribery in post-Soviet Uzbekistan. It will be argued that the informal transactions in Uzbek society reflect different cultural and functional meanings from those in most of the Western world, and hence transactions that from a Western-centric perspective would be labelled as bribes can be morally accepted transactions in the Uzbek cultural context. If this is true, there may be reasons to re-evaluate the relevance of the Western-centric interpretations of corruption in the context of Uzbekistan, and possibly other Central Asian countries. These issues will be investigated with reference to observations and informal interviews from post-Soviet Uzbekistan. This study is based on three periods of ethnographic field research between 2009 and 2012 in the Ferghana Province of Uzbekistan. It draws on concepts of ‘living law’ and legal pluralism to provide a theoretical framework.
  • Urinboyev, Rustam, et al. (författare)
  • Mahalla
  • . - 568th edition
  • Ingår i: The Global Encyclopaedia of Informality: Understanding Social and Cultural Complexity. - : UCL Press. - 9781787351929 - 9781787351912 ; 2, s. 69-72
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • von der Heiden, Gregor, 1974- (författare)
  • Gespräche in einer Krise : Analyse von Telefonaten mit einem RAF-Mitglied während der Okkupation der westdeutschen Botschaft in Stockholm 1975
  • 2009
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • When crises develop, people are confronted with difficulties beyond those experienced in normal everyday activities.  Due to the perceived threats inherent to such situations, familiar behaviors may prove ineffective, and such attempts can pose dangerous and unpredictable risks. Crises are extreme situations, occurring at the very edges of human experience. Oral communication in such situations cannot be casual; the seriousness of the situation demands exceptional communicative performance on the part of the participants. Therefore, certainties about everyday communication conventions are called into question. The following work examines conversations during which the participants were involved in an extreme situation. In this particular crisis, a politically motivated kidnapping, the personal involvement of the interlocutors is substantial. A clear and present fear of the situation escalating and the possibility of a failure to anticipate the resulting reactions from the other party(ies) characterize the communicative acts of those involved. Recorded telephone calls during the occupation of the West German Embassy in Stockholm by members of the Red Army Faction (RAF) on April 24, 1975 comprise the basis for this analysis. One of the occupiers speaks with various interlocutors located in an adjacent embassy building. These interlocutors are relatives of the hostages, the Swedish Minister of Justice, and a German official charged with leading the negotiations. In this study, the communicative processes of the crisis are reconstructed. In order to show how the interlocutors attempt to reach their goals in this tense situation with the resources available to them, as well as what they in fact achieve, ethnographic methods of analysis have been employed. This study shows how, despite strong conflicting interests and motives, a shared reality is built through the actions of the interlocutors. The interaction between two key figures in the early stages of the crisis can even be characterized as a form of coalition building. An explanation as to why this collaboration is not retained in the subsequent course of the events, however, leading to an escalation of the situation, is also presented. Furthermore, the following work sets forth qualities needed to interactively build a coalition in a precarious crisis situation, which has arisen between parties characterized by diametrically opposed aims.
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