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  • Degraded and restituted towns in Poland: Origins, development, problems Miasta zdegradowane i restytuowane w Polsce. Geneza, rozwój, problemy
  • 2015
  • Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • One of the less known problems in settlement geography is the issue of so-called degraded and restituted towns. This lack of reconnaissance, however, is perhaps less the result of the towns’ scarcity than their specificity of being ‘awarded’ or ‘deprived of’ an urban label by means of strictly socio-political actions. Degraded and restituted towns, hence, are spatial units made ‘urban’ or ‘rural’ instantaneously, irrespective of their de facto state along what is widely considered a gradual path of (de)urbanization. Instead, they become compartmentalized into two constructed spatial categories that have survived the onslaught of material transformations and philosophical repositioning through different whims of time. While ‘rural’ and ‘urban’ are conceptual binaries that certainly need to be treated with caution, their cultural salience may cause tangible consequences within national administrative systems that abide by a formalized rural-urban distinction. This issue becomes particularly important for settlements that clearly transcend any imagined rural-urban divide, i.e. those, whose material and immaterial characteristics seem counterfactual to their assigned category. It is also crucial in formal practices designed to avert such counterfactualities, but whose ran-domness of approach more creates confusion than helps straighten out a historical concoction. Both processes, nonetheless, lend ‘urbanity’ and ‘rurality’ a resonance of objectivity, justifying their use as guides for a host of developmental endeavors, despite subverting a much more intricate reality. Degraded and restituted towns are direct derivatives of this. Drawing on the above-mentioned irreconcilabilities, the aim of this book is to present and scrutinize degraded and restituted towns through the example of Poland, where these towns occupy a special niche. For one, Poland, due to its chequered and variegated history, is home to a conspicuously large number of degraded (831) and restituted (236) towns; for another, Poland’s relentlessness of formalizing ‘urbanity’ as a category of statistical, political and cultural guidance has a direct bearing on the lives of the towns’ residents. Realizing the intricacy of degraded and restituted towns in the face of commonplace ru-ral-urban ideations, the editors and the 17 contributing Authors of this book have made an effort to capture the towns’ complexity with special foci on their shrouded origins, developmental specificity and incurred problems. Owing to the involvement of researchers from different scientific disciplines and subdisciplines, the undertaken project has helped elucidate the problem from multiple perspectives: spatial, social, demographic, economic, environmental, historical, architectural, cultural, legal and philosophical. Allocated into 17 chapters, not only have the presented interpretations allowed for a first interdisciplinary synthesis on the topic, but they also helped outline some prospective directions for future research. Moreover, collecting materials of such diversity into an amalgamated whole has helped identify specific discourses that enwrap the concept of “urbanity” when seen through its oscillations within formal contexts, and to which degraded and restituted towns serve as expendable game pieces. By combining knowledge arrived at through ontologically and epistemologically different approaches, the incremental contribution of this book as a whole could be summarized in two attainments: a) extending theoretical frameworks used to study degraded and restituted towns in terms of definition, conceptualization and assessing predispositions for future de-velopment on account of their spatial, legal, socio-economic and historical charac-teristics; b) initiating an anticipated discussion on a number of important and current topics re-lated to the practices of degradation and restitution that have not received adequate attention, e.g., the urbanity-vs.-rurality paradox, the changeability of human settlement forms vs. the consequences of rigid spatial categorizations; the role of various actors in shaping the socio-economic reality under the guise of an ossified binary; or identifying spatio-conceptual conflicts as future challenges for local, regional and national policy.
  • Dymitrow, Mirek, et al. (författare)
  • Degradation and restitution: Understanding the concept of urbanity through its oscillations within formal contexts Degradacja i restytucja jako pryzmaty pojęcia miejskości w kontekście jego formalnoprawnej zmienności
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Krzysztofik, R., & Dymitrow, M. (Eds.): Degraded and restituted towns in Poland: Origins, development, problems / Miasta zdegradowane i restytuowane w Polsce. Geneza, rozwój, problemy. - Göteborg : University of Gothenburg. - 91-86472-76-3 ; 443-451 / 453-461
  • Bokkapitel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In this concluding chapter, our aim is to outline the state-of-the-art within the deliberated topic in order to identify challenges for future research. Firstly, reminiscent of George Orwell’s aphorism “who controls the past controls the future”, we stress the importance of research into the origins of degraded and restituted towns in order to understand the socio-economic context that has shaped their current situation. It is important to separate myth from accounts based on first-hand archival documentation and compelling historiographical deduction. This is particularly true of narratives embracing issues of justice, democracy and power, as often is the case with the rural-urban discourse in Poland. Secondly, the concepts of urbanity and rurality are often accompanied by stories of demise and success; in other words, they are not value-free. As of now, there is still a dearth of studies that would look into how degradation and restitution actually affect socio-economic change and steer development into certain – desired or undesired – outcomes. In order to avoid creating artificial problems, we need to better isolate the linkage between development and the spatial label it purportedly embodies. Thirdly, linear accounts of social phenomena may be convenient but seldom provide an appropriate abstraction. We must not unreflectively accept the transition “from urban to rural” and “from rural to urban” as propitious just because it has been sanctioned by a governmental decree. More in-depth empirical studies on the problems both degradation and restitution may incur are needed, particularly case-based research dedicated to the perceptions of those closest to the effects of cultural convictions and normative perspectives brought on by the rural-urban distinction. In conclusion, degradation and restitution are not one-dimensional concepts. As the plurality of topics undertaken in this book shows, the concepts can be handled in a multitude of ways. As each comes with its own variety of ontological commitments, theoretical perspectives and methodological approaches, the results differ. But they all have one thing in common: they contribute to a deeper understanding of the often taken-for-granted concept of urbanity. Urbanity is complex, transient and indefinable and therefore increasingly elusive. In that light, understanding urbanity as it emerges, evolves, consolidates, ruptures and finally reconstitutes itself through the practices of degradation and restitution makes an invaluable asset to multifaceted production of knowledge on various social processes and their inseparable geographical contexts.
  • Krzysztofik, Robert, et al. (författare)
  • Environmental hazards and urban abandonment: Case studies and typological issues
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Geografiska Annaler. Series B. Human Geography. - 0435-3684 .- 1468-0467. ; 97:4, s. 291-308
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The article discusses the phenomenon of urban abandonment as a result of environmental hazards. Seen as an outcome of environmental drivers, the underlying assumption is that a characteristic of environmental hazards is their spatial and temporal constancy of impact, whereby processes and phenomena having taken place in the past have their analogies in the present. In order to generate insights for future research and policy development, there is a need to pay greater attention to the precarious relationship between humans and the natural environment, not least by drawing lessons from the past through the study of historical cases. The article clarifies the dynamic interactions of drivers and their progression through various stages of urban abandonment. This is done by recourse to an analysis of some general trends and an in-depth examination of three selected case studies from Poland. It has two objectives. The first is to identify the historical role of environmental drivers in the process of urban abandonment, while the second one is to contribute to the typology of environmentally related processes of urban abandonment in order to better identify future calamities. With respect to the former, the findings reveal that the relation between environmental hazards and urban abandonment is pertinent in regions with specific geographic conditions and pertains only to certain categories of urban settlements. With respect to the latter, by drawing on these findings, we propose some alterations and amendments to McLeman's comprehensive model of settlement abandonment in the context of global environmental change.
  • Krzysztofik, Robert, et al. (författare)
  • Poverty and social exclusion: An alternative spatial explanation
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Bulletin of Geography. Socio-economic Series. - 1732-4254. ; 35:35, s. 45-64
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Poverty and social exclusion remain some of the biggest concerns in the face of obtaining social sustainability. In this respect, the continuing immense spatial differences between individual localities of seemingly similar characteristics have puzzled social scientists for decades. In quest for a better understanding, this article highlights the role of spatial heterogeneity as a factor conducive to the formation of functionally derelict areas, which in turn play a crucial role in the formation of spatial mismatch. Using two case studies from Poland, one from a big city and one from a small village, we explore the relationality between the phenomena of spatial heterogeneity, functional dereliction and spatial mismatch, whose mutual reinforcement seems to lead to a specific kind of deprivation in terms of scale and intensity. Special attention is paid to the role of spatial heterogeneity, which under certain conditions is capable of changing from being a developmental stimulant to becoming a destimulant. We argue that taking greater account of the intricate historical contexts responsible for the resistance of some pressing socio-economic problems is key to breaking the deadlock in the implementation of ineffective sustainability policies.
  • Krzysztofik, Robert, et al. (författare)
  • Selected urban centers of the Holy Cross Province in view of the concept of urban hibernation Wybrane ośrodki miejskie województwa świętokrzyskiego w świetle koncepcji hibernacji miast
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: 5th National Conference on Historical Geography (V Ogólnopolska Konferencja Geografii Historycznej), 22-23 June 2017, Łódź, Poland.
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Koncepcja hibernacji miast zaproponowana została w 2016 r. na łamach czasopisma European Planning Studies przez R. Krzysztofika, M. Dymitrowa, I. Kantor-Pietragę i T. Spórnę. Koncepcja wyjaśnia model ewolucji miejscowości o miejskiej genezie, która w dłuższej perspektywie historycznej przechodzi przez etap ruralizacji i ponownej urbanizacji. Autorzy wskazują na kilka zasadniczych atrybutów tego procesu, ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem faktu, iż część miast ruralizuje się (wchodzi w stan hibernacji) by przetrwać lub zminimalizować negatywne konsekwencje dezurbanizacji. Hibernacja jest więc swoistym remedium na przetrwanie w sytuacji straty dotychczasowej bazy ekonomicznej i funkcji społeczno-ekonomicznych. Nowe możliwości rozwoju lub restytucja dawnych funkcji powoduje z kolei dehibernację miast – uzyskanie ponownie ważnej roli w lokalnej lub regionalnej sieci osadniczej. Problemy te Autorzy omawiają w kontekście przykładów miast z terenu obecnego województwa świętokrzyskiego – m.in. Małogoszczy, Osieka, Ożarowa, Połańca. W wystąpieniu wskazano na trajektorie omawianego procesu oraz zasadnicze czynniki warunkujące istnienie jego poszczególnych etapów – zarówno te o charakterze regionalnym, jak i te o charakterze lokalnym.
  • Krzysztofik, Robert, et al. (författare)
  • The concept of urban hibernation
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: European Planning Studies. - 0965-4313 .- 1469-5944. ; 24:2, s. 316-343
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Today, as a result of fast-paced societal transformations, many small towns face severe developmental challenges and an uncertain future. Departing from the broader theory of developmental disequilibrium, we launch the concept of urban hibernation to explain the process of periodic small-town regress. The concept—along with its key stages and turning points—is presented to the background of urbanization processes encountered in Poland. At the same time, the focus on small towns offers an alternative and more context-sensitive explication to eclectic development models inherent to larger cities. As such, we argue that the concept of urban hibernation is apt to serve as a more precise research and planning tool in the context of small towns, and particularly in the critical moments of rise and recession. By applying a historical perspective, we address the importance of proper identification of the various and ever-changing city-forming factors, including their role for spatial planning at different scales. Urban hibernation should thus be considered as an intrinsic part of the geographic environment, which, due to the volatility of its socio-economic components, transcends the traditional rural–urban divide. Our conceptual contribution may thus serve as a background for a fuller understanding of the variability and dynamics of intra-urban structures.
  • Krzysztofik, Robert, et al. (författare)
  • The concept of urban hibernation: Scientific note Koncepcja hibernacji miast. Notatka naukowa
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Krzysztofik, R., & Dymitrow, M. (Eds.): Degraded and restituted towns in Poland: Origins, development, problems / Miasta zdegradowane i restytuowane w Polsce. Geneza, rozwój, problemy. - Göteborg : University of Gothenburg. - 91-86472-76-3 ; 347-349 / 351-353
  • Bokkapitel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This scientific note aims to briefly introduce the concept of urban hibernation, published recently (September 2015) in an article with the same name in European Planning Studies (Routledge). By outlining some general characteristics, the purpose of this note is merely to put the reader’s attention to this concept, whom we remit to the original article for a comprehensive walk-through. The reason for including this note in the book is its strong association with the concepts of degradation and restitution, to which the concept of urban hibernation offers a novel explanatory lens. Given the hitherto overly descriptive, undertheorized and confirmative character of studies on degraded and restituted towns, the concept of hibernation is a first attempt to capture degradation and restitution through the use of a coherent theoretical framework.
  • Landzelius, Michael, 1958- (författare)
  • Real Estate Ownership Concentration and Urban Governance
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Transformations of the Swedish Welfare State: From Social Engineering to Governance?. - Basingstoke : Palgrave. - 978-0-230-29341-0
  • Bokkapitel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The article, first, discusses 40 years of data on the ongoing process of concentration of ownership to commercial real estate in the Inom Vallgraven district in Gothenburg. The topic is addressed in terms of structural shifts in the urban space economy. Second, the article suggests that in relation to present governance issues, the data on this concentration process needs to be seen in the light of a situation where companies, through increased market capitalization, confront possibilities of increased growth simultaneously with competitive dangers that push towards measures for influencing spatial governance. Third, the article proceeds with a discussion of present governance forms in inner-city Gothenburg and how they are embedded in the organized interests of both real estate holders and inner-city merchants. Fourth and finally, the article touches upon matters of legitimacy and accountability with regard to effects of quango-ization and related politically supported social, economic and spatial framing of citizens as consumers.
  • Larsson, Anders, 1961-, et al. (författare)
  • Accessibility Atlas to Analyse Regional Acessibility to Labour in the Food Sector
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: COST Action TU1002 – Assessing Usability of Accessibility Instruments. - Amsterdam : The Cost Office. - 978-90-90-28212-1 ; s. 115-121
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Presents the results of an experiential workshop with local planning practitioners. These practitioners first experienced and then reflected on the usability of accessibility instruments.
  • Larsson, Anders, 1961-, et al. (författare)
  • Bridging the Knowledge-gap Between the Old and the New: Regional Marine Experience Production in Orust, Västra Götaland, Sweden
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Innovation and Tourism Destination Development. - London : Routledge. - 9781138922464
  • Bokkapitel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Today many regions in the industrialized world have to deal with a transformation from traditional industry such as agriculture or manufacturing to service-oriented production such as tourism. Nevertheless, few studies highlight the possibilities and limitations of inter-sectoral knowledge sharing among stakeholders representing these sectors and hence there seem to be missed opportunities for mutual collaboration in the era of experience production. Using an evolutionary perspective, this article aims to analyse how the leisure boat manufacturing and the tourism sectors in the municipality of Orust on the Swedish west coast, combine knowledge from these two sectors as a way to spur innovation in experience production. The article shows how there are a number of limitations to sectoral knowledge interaction. Some of them can be linked to the conservative nature of the traditional industry, and to the immature nature of the tourism sector, others to the role of policy. However, at the same time as there being a number of obstacles for collaboration, the article reveals some interesting possibilities to form inter-sectoral knowledge sharing.
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