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1.
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2.
  • Bennerstedt, Ulrika, 1979- (författare)
  • Att spela datorspel: Om färdigheter och kompetenser i spelaktiviteten Gaming and literacy: Skills and competencies in computer game activity
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Master thesis. - Göteborg : University of Gothenburg.
  • Annan publikation (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • By taking departure in the concept of computer gaming literacy, which is described as the ability of interacting with a computer game, the report relates this to what gamers actually do in an empirically study of players. Earlier research claim that computer gaming could be seen as a semiotic domain. This study focus on the “character” of any ability that the concept computer gaming literacy could include, and answering the question what it means to be “literate” within this area. In particular what is it that a gamer can? The study’s empirical material is based on 20 gamers playing the Xbox game Timesplitters 2 by videotaping them when playing the game in pairs (split-screen). The players in the study, with an age between 17 and 54, have a broad variation in gaming experience. By doing interaction analysis, which has a background from socio cultural theory, the result illustrate that gaming is a discursive practice with a specialized language. Therefore, the gamer assumes learning a discourse in the game activity. Further, the gaming activities demonstrate that competence could be seen as two, to some extent, separate capabilities. One of them deals with handling the control, and therefore the games interface, by making it invisible to be able to interpret the artifacts “statements”. The second capability or competence is about seeing the game environments structure. The study shows that the gamer must make competent hypothesis concerning the model underlying the functions of the game to be able to progress in the game environment. Experienced gamers have therefore developed a way of seeing based on the structure of the game environment.
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3.
  • Bennerstedt, Ulrika, 1979- (författare)
  • Avatars and interaction in gaming: Dysfunctional interaction or a practice of players
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Game in' Action, June, 2007, Gothenburg, Sweden.
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • In Massively Multiplayer Online Role Playing Games (MMORPG) you act and react on other players avatars in ways that resembles face-to-face interaction. At the same time, the avatar-interaction is restricted in the technological-embedded environment. Research indicates problems concerning interaction inside these worlds, namely whether the systems resemble ordinary human face-to-face interaction in an adequate way. The assumed insufficient avatar-mediating interaction apparatus is in this paper used as a thinking tool. As a point of departure MMORPG’s is seen as having a history of social life, one that has created specific domains and discursive practices. Examples of avatar in-game text chat from initial research on a Role-Playing (RP) server in World of Warcraft (WoW) are used to illustrate such domain. This indicates that the textual interaction system built-in has done language expressions utterly crucial to be able to interact with other avatars and to know how to act in a competent way to others utterances. In relation with face-to-face interaction, avatar-toavatar interaction in a RP server is done with the heritage of RP which demands competence of framing the interaction activity such as both in-game issues and RP could coexistence to let the other person now what you are doing here and now, a so called metaframing activity. Thus, the avatar interaction is not foremost seen as an insufficient environment for interaction, but instead as a domain in itself.
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4.
  • Bennerstedt, Ulrika, 1979- (författare)
  • Collaborative assessment and game development : professionals’ orientation towards problems, potentials and organizational demands
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: 4th International Conference Applied Linguistics and Professional Practice.
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper address assessment practice as part of professional activity and learning in the domain of game development. A growing body of research has been concerned with the professionalization of games production knowledge, frequently attributed to the coordinated work of numerous actors in technology dense settings. While previous accounts of games development list a multifaceted body of knowledge, there is a gap in the literature focusing on game developers’ professional knowing and learning in situ. With an analytical approach informed by ethnomethodology, this paper aim to make visible professional knowledge and learning when collaboratively evaluating games-in-development. It is focusing on game developers’ assessment work as a way to gain insight in the practical reasoning when orienting towards games and gaming as subject of assessment, and as a way of making professional knowledge bases explicit.       The empirical material is drawn from three settings: 1) a vocational game education, 2) a national game award event, and 3) a professional game development company. Based on fieldwork augmented with video-recordings, the study investigates how games-in-development are collaborative assessed and specifically the ways professionals evaluate co-workers views and understandings with respect to what constitutes problems and potentials of games-in-development.       Assessments are at stake in a number of internal and external work practices, such as gate reviews, playtests, and the activity of pitching not-yet-finished-nor-financed games to publishers. Games assessments are a common preoccupation at game companies and game education but also at so-called game awards. Games assessments share similarities with assessment practices in other professional and educational settings, such as design reviews in architectural practices. Both are events where proposals are assessed by externally recruited professionals. However, the assessment activities and object of assessment largely differ. In architectural education, proposals are assessed by considering the qualities visible in the designed material (such as plans, paper posters and digital slideshows) in relation to articulated intentions. This can be contrasted with the object of criticism in games presentations: the object constitutes both digitally visual material and designed ‘playable/interactive’ activities. This means that the qualities of a game cannot only be judged by interpreting the idea communicated in plain words together with some visual layout, it also has to be discovered when engaging with the designed ‘experience’. Hence, professionals’ in the gaming domain are required to account for what hinders or make possible appealing experiences during assessments of digital games.       By focusing on professionals’ collaborative assessments, the analysis unpacks some recurrent orientations towards games and gaming in professional settings. It is shown that the professionals are faced with a number of institutional and organizational demands with respect to time, technology, conventions, and innovations.
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5.
  • Bennerstedt, Ulrika, 1979- (författare)
  • Gaming Competence as Professional Vision
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Paper presented at From Games to Gaming, Mars 2006, Gothenburg, Sweden.
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)
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6.
  • Bennerstedt, Ulrika, 1979-, et al. (författare)
  • How gamers manage aggression: Situating skills in collaborative computer games
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning. - 1556-1607. ; 7:1, s. 43-61
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In the discussion on what players learn from digital games, there are two major camps in clear opposition to each other. As one side picks up on negative elements found in games the other side focuses on positive aspects. While the agendas differ, the basic arguments still depart from a shared logic: that engagement in game-related activities fosters the development of behaviors that are transferred to situations beyond the game itself. With an approach informed by ethnomethodology, in this paper we probe the underlying logic connected to studies that argue for such general effects of games. By focusing on proficient gamers involved in the core game activity of boss encounters in a massively multiplayer online game, we examine the fundamentals that must be learnt and mastered for succeeding in an ordinary collaborative gaming practice where aggression is portrayed. On the basis of our empirical analysis we then address the contentious links between concrete instances of play and generic effects. As expected, the results point to “aggression” as well as “collaboration” as major components in the gaming experience, but our analysis also suggests that the practices associated with these notions are locally tied to the game. Based on these results, we propose that to reverse this relationship and claim that game environments foster collaboration or aggression in general first assumes strong theoretical claims about the nature of cognition and learning, and second, risks confusing the debate with hyperbole.
7.
  • Bennerstedt, Ulrika, 1979-, et al. (författare)
  • Knowing the Way. Managing Epistemic Topologies in Virtual Game Worlds
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: 'Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW). An International Journal. - 0925-9724 (Print) 1573-7551 (Online). ; 19:2, s. 201-230
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This is a study of interaction in massively multiplayer online games. The general interest concerns how action is coordinated in practices that neither rely on the use of talk-in-interaction nor on a socially present living body. For the participants studied, the use of text typed chat and the largely underexplored domain of virtual actions remain as materials on which to build consecutive action. How, then, members of these games can and do collaborate, in spite of such apparent interactional deprivation, are the topics of the study. More specifically, it addresses the situated practices that participants rely on in order to monitor other players’ conduct, and through which online actions become recognizable as specific actions with implications for the further achievement of the collaborative events. The analysis shows that these practices share the common phenomenon of projections. As an interactional phenomenon, projection of the next action has been extensively studied. In relation to previous research, this study shows that the projection of a next action can be construed with resources that do not build on turns-at-talk or on actions immediately stemming from the physical body—in the domain of online games, players project activity shifts by means of completely different resources. This observation further suggests that projection should be possible through the reconfiguration of any material, on condition that those reconfigurations and materials are recurrent aspects of some established practice.
8.
  • Bennerstedt, Ulrika, 1979- (författare)
  • Knowledge at play. Studies of games as members’ matters Kunskap genom spelande. Studier av digitala spel och spelande som kunskapsdomän
  • 2013
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • On a general level, this thesis seeks some answers to the broad question of what one can learn from digital games. With an analytical approach informed by ethnomethodology, the main thrust of the work is an exploration of members’ matters in the area of games and gaming. In response to prevailing discussions about how, where and what gamers learn, the aim is to examine emerging forms of knowledge embedded in practices in and around digital games. The first part of the thesis addresses three themes: the question of whether leisure gaming could be understood to have transfer effects; how games are positioned in a state of restlessness and multistableness; and how the domain encompassing gaming and game development is advancing in terms of professionalization and institutionalization. The second part is comprised of three empirical studies based on two sets of video recordings: collaborative gaming in The Lord of the Rings Online, and assessment practices in game development education. The studies begin to unravel the elusive phenomena of gaming by making some gameplay practices and conventions visible. For instance, the findings suggest that there are specialized coordination practices, developed through long-term engagement with the online game. Furthermore, from the perspective of the institutional framing, it is argued that understandings from other media are not applicable in a straightforward manner, but must be carefully calibrated to matters such as game genre conventions and control over gameplay conduct. By describing the reasoning and knowledge displayed by gamers and game developers, the thesis contributes to interrelated discussions about knowledge development, currently carried out in educational science, interaction studies and game studies. In conclusion, it is suggested that digital games are establishing autonomy from other forms of entertainment media and software industries as a result of the ways games and gaming as multistable objects of knowledge have become deeply embedded in society.
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9.
  • Bennerstedt, Ulrika, 1979-, et al. (författare)
  • Kollegialt skärmarbete som lärpotential i digitala yrkesverksamheter
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Lärande organisation 2.0. - Stockholm : Studentlitteratur AB. - 9789144114798 ; s. 127-152
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Digitaliseringen av samhället har i grunden förändrat dagens arbetsliv och alltmer arbete utförs i och omkring digitala enheter. Arbetsmoment är därmed på något sätt knutet till vad som i bred bemärkelse kan kopplas till skärmar av olika slag, vad som kan beskrivas som skärmarbete. Ytterligare en konsekvens av digitaliseringen är att nya yrkesroller uppstått till följd av framväxande digitala arbets- och fritidsaktiviteter. I relation till lärande innebär digitaliseringen att arbetsplatsens lärprocesser i hög grad sker i och omkring skärmarbete. Med utgångspunkt i ett sociokulturellt perspektiv på lärande är syftet i detta kapitel att bidra med kunskap om möjligheter och utmaningar med lärande i organisationer där digitala aktiviteter och redskap är det centrala kunskapsobjektet för yrkeskunnandet. Exempel tas från två olika verksamheter där kollegialt skärmarbete organiseras för att utföra utvärderings- och bedömningsaktivteter. Den första verksamheten utgörs av en IT-support där ett team använder dokumenterat skärmarbete vid återkommande organiserade lärtillfällen. Det andra sammanhanget utgår från hur en jury av yrkesverksamma spelutvecklare värderar spel på en datorspelstävling. I kapitlet diskuteras hur yrkesprofessionellas kollegiala blick är direkt kopplad till hur digitala verktyg är integrerade i organisatoriska verksamheter. Kapitlet illustrerar hur professsionella grupper organiserar såväl traditionella som nyare former av utrymme och stöd för lärande och utveckling för att tillgängliggöra privata digitala aktiviteter kollegialt.
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10.
  • Bennerstedt, Ulrika, 1979- (författare)
  • Lessons learned from ’being’ virtually there: Worded action in the perceptual field of online computer games
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Paper presented at ECER 2008, From teaching to Learning (September 2008, Gothenburg, Sweden).
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Computer games are assumed to, for better or worse, influence knowledge, beliefs and attitudes of the user. Assumptions are often based on computer games complex environments and visual components. This has brought along expectations about using computer games within education for pedagogical purposes. Though, attempts to use computer games in education has shown to be a complicated affair, demanding structures surrounding such attempts that often is not met. Further, research show that games cannot be used in ways that other media have been invoked in education. Computer games as category is used to a wide array of products. Those different genres give rise to different activities from the players. Online game environments are a category which can be seen as the next computer game area to be glanced at for pedagogical purposes. Though, earlier research on learning and computer games are based on computer game formats that lack crucial features from online games. The most obvious difference is that players’ meet other players within these online spaces, and interact through virtual bodies. The most popular and developed virtual worlds focus game-specific contents. This paper take such online game worlds (i.e. massively multiplayer online role-playing games, MMORPG) as focus for scrutinizing players activity. How, then, are online game formats to be understood in relation to learning aspects? Earlier research concerning Massively Multiplayer Online Games has, among all, studied the lingo developed between players’ in online games. This paper advocates for studying online gaming worlds as domains in itself. In other words, how players’ manage their virtual bodies (i.e. the avatar) in conduct with others in task-oriented group activities, or the work players do when they role-play a character through the mediated tool of the avatar. To play, live and communicate in online games, players’ need to master their avatar through typing in chat channels and using interaction methods that have been institutionalized in these online spheres. These institutionalized ways to act and be, stems from earlier technological online environments. Hence, the paper argues that the skills and competencies needed to “be” in an online game space must be considered before embracing them for learning potentials outside activities that is done in ordinary “virtual” life. The empirical material comes from screen-captured video-recorded avatar-interaction within the online games World of Warcraft and The Lord of the Rings Online. Detailed transcripts have been transformed into sequential art to highlight aspects of the activities to make the setting understandable for outsiders.
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