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  • Chung, B P M, et al. (författare)
  • Overcoming existential loneliness : a cross-cultural study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: BMC Geriatrics. - : BioMed Central. - 1471-2318 .- 1471-2318. ; 20:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Moving into a long-term care facility (LTCF) can reduce the ability for older adults to engage in meaningful roles and activities and the size of their social network. These changes and losses can lead them to experience existential loneliness (EL)-the intolerable emptiness and lack of meaningful existence resulted from the losses they have experienced. While EL has often been understood as a universal human experience, it has primarily been studied in people from Western cultures; little is known about how EL may be experienced by and manifested in people from Eastern cultures. Hence, this qualitative study aimed to describe the experience and coping of EL in Hong Kong Chinese and Swedish older adults living in LTCFs.METHODS: A qualitative study using Thorne's (2004) interpretive description was conducted. Thirteen Chinese and 9 Swedes living in LTCFs in Hong Kong, China and Malmo, Sweden, respectively were interviewed about their experience of EL in two series of semi-structured interviews. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis.RESULTS: The core theme of "overcoming EL" described the participants' experience of EL, which came about through the combined process of "Feeling EL" and "Self-Regulating". Both Chinese and Swedish participants had similar experience with EL. Realizing that they did not want to living with EL anymore, they coped by reframing their experience and identifying new meaning in their life.CONCLUSIONS: The study findings suggested that early and clear counselling support that help older adults to define new meaning in life may help them cope. In addition, more opportunities should be available at the LTCFs to promote quality relationships, enable older adults to reflect on their lives with pride, and support their ability to do the things they enjoy.
  • Enskär, Karin, et al. (författare)
  • Safe environments : Through the eyes of nine-year-old schoolchildren from a socially vulnerable area in Sweden
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Child Care Health and Development. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 0305-1862 .- 1365-2214.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Children are more vulnerable than adults to environmental risks. Also, children have little control over their environment. Unlike adults, they may be both unaware of risks and unable to make choices to protect their health. Children living in especially vulnerable areas might be even more at risk due to socioeconomic factors, immigration, and high crime rates. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe the perceptions that schoolchildren from a socially vulnerable area have of safe environments.METHODS: 52 nine-year-old schoolchildren from a socially vulnerable area participated in this study. The data collection consisted of an environmental walk with photovoicing, followed by rating of the photos, and a focus-group discussion elaborating on the photos and ratings. Six focus groups, with 6-8 children in each group, were conducted and analyzed using an inductive content analysis.RESULTS: The results show that, according to the children, places that they think are bright and beautiful, where they can do fun things with others and do not risk being exposed to danger, create safety. To increase safety, the children suggested cleaning up, making the environment beautiful with grass and flowers, and painting it in nice colours. Furthermore, they suggested that building features that increase the opportunities to play and engage in activities together with others, would improve safety and enhance protection and surveillance.CONCLUSIONS: All children have the right to protection and safety. Therefore, it is important to create safe environments for all children by listening to children's own voices.
  • Larsson, Helena, et al. (författare)
  • Spouses' existential loneliness when caring for a frail partner late in life : a hermeneutical approach.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being. - : Taylor & Francis. - 1748-2623 .- 1748-2631. ; 15:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: Spouses are in a vulnerable situation when caring for a frail partner late in life. Exploring their existential loneliness can be a way to understand more about their existential needs.Method: A hermeneutic approach was used. Multistage focus group interviews were conducted with two groups consisting of five spouses, respectively, who met three times each. To work with the text, an approach was adapted where quotations are converted into poems in a linguistic manner.Results: Existential loneliness can be understood as the following: 1) being in a transition from us to merely me, 2) being forced to make decisions and feeling excluded, 3) navigating in an unfamiliar situation and questioning oneself, and 4) longing for togetherness but lacking the energy to encounter other people. The main interpretation is that existential loneliness emerges when one is in moments of inner struggle, when one is forced to make impossible choices, when one is approaching and is in limit situations, and when one is experiencing the endless loss of the other.Conclusion: For health care professionals to achieve a holistic picture, person-centeredness can be a way to make the spouses' existential needs visible and to provide support based on their needs.
  • Ramji, Rathi, et al. (författare)
  • Development and evaluation of a physical activity intervention informed by participatory research : a feasibility study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: BMC Public Health. - : BioMed Central. - 1471-2458 .- 1471-2458. ; 20
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Despite numerous interventions aiming to improve physical activity in socially disadvantagedpopulations, physical inactivity remains to be a rising challenge to public health globally, as well as, in Sweden. Inan effort to address this challenge, a community-based participatory intervention was developed through activecommunity engagement and implemented in a socially disadvantaged neighborhood in Sweden. The current studyaims to present the development and initial evaluation of a participatory research driven physical activityintervention.Methods: Fifteen participants (11 females and 4 males) aged 17–59 years volunteered to participate in the physicalactivity intervention program. The intervention program was evaluated using a longitudinal mixed methods designmeasuring health impact changes over time through focus group discussions and quality of life surveys. Furtheradditional biomedical health parameters such as levels of glycosylated hemoglobin, blood pressure, levels ofoxygen saturation and body mass index were monitored before and after the intervention. Focus group data wereanalyzed using content analysis with an inductive approach. The pre-and post-test scores from the survey-basedquality of life domains, as well as the health parameters were compared using non-parametric and parametricstatistics.Results: Four themes emerged from the analysis of the focus group discussions including sense of fellowship,striving for inclusion and equity, changing the learner perspective and health beyond illness. The scores for thedomains Physical Health, Psychological Health, Social Relationships and Health Satisfaction where significantlyhigher after participation in the physical activity intervention program compared to the pre-test scores (p < .05)s.There were however, no significant changes in the scores for the environmental domain and overall quality of lifeafter intervention compared to that prior to intervention start. Overall, the biomedical health parameters remainedstable within the normal ranges during intervention.Conclusion: The focus group discussions and results from the surveys and biomedical measures reveal importantfindings to understand and further develop the intervention program to promote health equity among citizens indisadvantaged areas. Evaluating the feasibility of such an intervention using multiple approaches contributes toeffective implementation of it for larger communities in need.
  • Ramji, Rathi, et al. (författare)
  • Understanding behavioural changes through community-based participatory research to promote oral health in socially disadvantaged neighbourhoods in Southern Sweden.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: BMJ Open. - : BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. - 2044-6055 .- 2044-6055. ; 10:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: Inequalities in oral health have been on the rise globally. In Sweden, these differences exist not between regions, but among subgroups living in vulnerable situations. This study aims at understanding behavioural change after taking part in participatory oral health promotional activity among families living in socially disadvantaged neighbourhoods in Southern Sweden.SETTING: The current study involved citizens from a socially disadvantaged neighbourhood in Malmö, together with actors from the academic, public and private sectors. These neighbourhoods were characterised by high rates of unemployment, crime, low education levels and, most importantly, poor health.PARTICIPANTS: Families with children aged 7-14 years from the neighbourhood were invited to participate in the health promotional activities by a community representative, known as a health promoter, using snowball sampling. Between 8 and 12 families participated in the multistage focus groups over 6 months. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis.RESULTS: Three main themes emerged from the analysis, providing an understanding of the determinants for behavioural change, including meaningful social interactions, family dynamics and health trajectories. The mothers in the study valued the social aspects of their participation; however, they believed that gaining knowledge in combination with social interaction made their presence also meaningful. Further, the participants recognised the role of family dynamics primarily the interactions within the family, family structure and traditional practices as influencing oral health-related behaviour among children. Participants reported having experienced a change in general health owing to changed behaviour. They started to understand the association between general health and oral health that further motivated them to follow healthier behavioural routines.CONCLUSIONS: The results from this study show that oral health promotion through reflection and dialogue with the communities, together with other stakeholders, may have the potential to influence behavioural change and empower participants to be future ambassadors for change.
  • Sundström, Malin (författare)
  • Existentiell ensamhet hos sköra äldre personer : vårdpersonals och volontärers erfarenheter och behov av stöd
  • 2020
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The overall aim of the thesis was to explore healthcare professionals’ and volunteers’ experiences of encountering older persons’ existential loneliness, the significance of the care context, and first-line managers’ view of support. Three of the studies were qualitative with a descriptive design (studies I–III) and the fourth was quantitative with a cross-sectional design (Study IV). The data collection for studies I and II was based on focus group interviews with healthcare professionals (i.e., nurse assistant, registered nurse, physician, occupational therapist, physiotherapist, social counsellor, and social worker) in home care, residential care, hospital care, palliative care, primary care, and pre-hospital care. The data collection for Study III was based on focus group interviews and individual interviews with volunteers from various organisations. Study IV was based on a questionnaire sent to first-line managers in municipal care, examining their views of support for staff and volunteers encountering existential issues among older persons.   The findings of Study I indicated that, during the everyday care of older people, healthcare professionals experienced existential loneliness in various ways and situations related to ageing, illness, and end of life. The professionals’ stories about encountering older persons’ existential loneliness revealed that they often felt insecure about how to talk about existential issues. They also felt inadequate and frustrated when encountering barriers such as the older person’s bodily limitations, demands and needs (perceived as insatiable), personal privacy, or fear and difficulty in encountering existential issues. Study II was a multiple case study of the care contexts of home care, residential care, hospital care, and palliative care. The findings indicated that the care context matters regarding professionals’ views and interpretations of the origin of existential loneliness. In home care and residential care, these views and interpretations concerned life, the present, and the past. In hospital and palliative care, existential loneliness mainly concerned the older person’s forthcoming death. Professionals considered creating relationships an important part of their role in all care contexts, although the meanings, purposes, and conditions of these relationships differed (Study II). Study III showed that being a volunteer meant being a fellow human being, alleviating others’ and one’s own loneliness. Becoming a volunteer was 11  12 a way of finding meaning, and volunteering made the volunteers feel rewarded and simultaneously emotionally challenged. Encountering loneliness, including existential loneliness, required sensitivity to others’ needs for both closeness and distance. The findings of Study IV, based on a questionnaire, indicated that 88% of the first-line managers found that older persons sometimes or often expressed existential loneliness. They also reported that staff insecurity was the major obstacle to talking about existential issues with the older persons. Support was provided in the form of structured reflection, but provision of systematic supervision was reported by only 6% of first-line managers. The managers reported that most support was provided by themselves or by registered nurses. Almost half of the managers (44%) reported that, at their units, volunteers were engaged in activities such as everyday conversations and/or music/entertainment. In addition, they also reported a desire for volunteers to be more involved in both everyday and existential conversations. In conclusion, one of the most important findings of this thesis was the insecurity of the professionals, manifested in a fear of discussing existential issues. This was revealed in the interviews with the professionals and confirmed by the first-line managers. According to both professionals and volunteers, the relationship with the older person was important when encountering existential issues. The thesis demonstrates the importance of helping professionals focus on existential issues about life and death and of the potential of volunteers as an important complement in the care of older people.
  • Sunnqvist, Charlotta, et al. (författare)
  • Time Geography, a Method in Psychiatric Nursing Care
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Issues in Mental Health Nursing. - : Taylor & Francis. - 0161-2840 .- 1096-4673. ; , s. 1-7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Patients' life history is of primary interest in psychiatric nursing care. Our aim was to illustrate how we used time geography as a method to identify individuals' patterns in relation to certain situations in place. We have used interviews and diaries to construct life charts by hand and with a computer software program. By using time geography, we provide a rich amount of information, which can generate a broader picture of a person's life, to identify stressful as well as social aspects of a person's life. Patients with mental ill health need and value the therapeutic relationship using time geography.
  • Bolmsjö, Ingrid, et al. (författare)
  • Existential loneliness : An attempt at an analysis of the concept and the phenomen
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nursing Ethics. - : Sage Publications. - 0969-7330 .- 1477-0989. ; 26:5, s. 1310-1325
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Abstract Background: According to ethical guidelines, healthcare professionals should be able to provide care that allows for the patients’ values, customs and beliefs, and the existential issues that are communicated through them. One widely discussed issue is existential loneliness. However, much of the debate dealing with existential loneliness concludes that both the phenomenon and the concept are quite vague. Aim: To clarify what constitutes existential loneliness, and to describe its lived experiences. A further aim was to provide a definition of existential loneliness that can function as a tool for identifying the phenomenon and for differentiating it from other kinds of loneliness. Method: A literature review including theoretical and empirical studies. Different search strategies were used to gather the articles included in the study. The analysis of the empirical studies had an interpretative approach. The articles were also analysed with the aim of providing a definition of existential loneliness. This was done by means of criteria such as language, uniqueness, theory and usefulness. This study is not empirical and does therefore not require an ethics review. Results: The analysis resulted in two main characteristics. The first one was perceiving oneself as inherently separated (disconnected) from others and from the universe. The second one brings out emotional aspects of EL, such as isolation, alienation, emptiness and a feeling of being abandoned. The empirical findings were divided into two categories: experiences of EL and circumstances in which EL arises. A definition of EL is also suggested, based on the two main characteristics identified. Conclusion: In order to meet patients’ needs, it is an ethical duty for healthcare staff to be able to recognise experiences of EL, that is, to communicate with the patients about these experiences in an appropriate manner. This in turn demands knowledge about existential issues and skills to deal with them.
  • Larsson, Helena, et al. (författare)
  • Contrasts in older persons' experiences and significant others' perceptions of existential loneliness
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nursing Ethics. - : Sage Publications. - 0969-7330 .- 1477-0989. ; 26:6, s. 1623-1637
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: As frail older people might have difficulties in expressing themselves, their needs are often interpreted by others, for example, by significant others, whose information health care staff often have to rely on. This, in turn, can put health care staff in ethically difficult situations, where they have to choose between alternative courses of action. One aspect that might be especially difficult to express is that of existential loneliness. We have only sparse knowledge about whether, and in what way, the views of frail older persons and their significant others concerning existential loneliness are in concordance.OBJECTIVE: To contrast frail older (>75) persons' experiences with their significant others' perceptions of existential loneliness.METHODS: A case study design was chosen for this study. Individual interviews with frail older persons (n = 15) and interviews with their significant others (n = 19), as well as field notes, served as a basis for the study. A thematic analysis was used to interpret data. Ethical considerations: This study was conducted in accordance with the principles of research ethics.FINDINGS: The findings showed three themes: (1) Meaningless waiting in contrast to lack of activities, (2) Longing for a deeper connectedness in contrast to not participating in a social environment and (3) Restricted freedom in contrast to given up on life.DISCUSSION: Knowledge about the tensions between older persons' and their significant others' views of existential loneliness could be of use as a basis for ethical reflections on the care of older people and in the encounter with their significant others.CONCLUSION: It is of importance that health care professionals listen to both the frail older person and their significant other(s) and be aware of whose voice that the care given is based on, in order to provide care that is beneficial and not to the detriment of the older person.
  • Sundström, Malin, et al. (författare)
  • The context of care matters : Older people's existential loneliness from the perspective of healthcare professionals-A multiple case study.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Older People Nursing. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 1748-3735 .- 1748-3743. ; 14:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AIM: To explore existential loneliness among older people in different healthcare contexts from the perspective of healthcare professionals. BACKGROUND: Professionals meet and care for older people in most care contexts and need to be prepared to address physical, psychological, social and existential needs. Addressing existential loneliness can be both challenging and meaningful for professionals and is often not prioritised in times of austerity. DESIGN: A multiple case study design was used. METHODS: Focus group interviews were conducted with healthcare professionals (n = 52) in home, residential, hospital and palliative care settings. The analysis was performed in two steps: firstly, a within-case analysis of each context was conducted, followed by a cross-case analysis. FINDINGS: Differences and similarities were observed among the care contexts, including for the origin of existential loneliness. In home care and residential care, the focus was on life, the present and the past, compared to hospital and palliative care, in which existential loneliness mainly related to the forthcoming death. The older person's home, as the place where home care or palliative care was received, helped preserve the older person's identity. In hospital and palliative care, as in institutional care, the place offered security, while in residential care, the place could make older people feel like strangers. Creating relationships was considered an important part of the professionals' role in all four care contexts, although this had different meanings, purposes and conditions. CONCLUSIONS: The context of care matters and influences how professionals view existential loneliness among older people and the opportunities they have to address existential loneliness. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Support for professionals must be tailored to their needs, their education levels and the context of care. Professionals need training and appropriate qualifications to address existential loneliness related to existential aspects of ageing and care.
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