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  • Kivimäki, Mika, et al. (författare)
  • Long working hours as a risk factor for atrial fibrillation a multi-cohort study
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: European Heart Journal. - Oxford University Press. - 0195-668X. ; 38:34, s. 2621-2628
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims Studies suggest that people who work long hours are at increased risk of stroke, but the association of long working hours with atrial fibrillation, the most common cardiac arrhythmia and a risk factor for stroke, is unknown. We examined the risk of atrial fibrillation in individuals working long hours (>= 55 per week) and those working standard 35-40 h/week. Methods and results In this prospective multi-cohort study from the Individual-Participant-Data Meta-analysis in Working Populations (IPD-Work) Consortium, the study population was 85 494 working men and women (mean age 43.4 years) with no recorded atrial fibrillation. Working hours were assessed at study baseline (1991-2004). Mean follow-up for incident atrial fibrillation was 10 years and cases were defined using data on electrocardiograms, hospital records, drug reimbursement registers, and death certificates. We identified 1061 new cases of atrial fibrillation (10-year cumulative incidence 12.4 per 1000). After adjustment for age, sex and socioeconomic status, individuals working long hours had a 1.4-fold increased risk of atrial fibrillation compared with those working standard hours (hazard ratio = 1.42, 95% CI= 1.13-1.80, P= 0.003). There was no significant heterogeneity between the cohort-specific effect estimates (I-2= 0%, P = 0.66) and the finding remained after excluding participants with coronary heart disease or stroke at baseline or during the follow-up (N= 2006, hazard ratio= 1.36, 95% CI= 1.05-1.76, P = 0.0180). Adjustment for potential confounding factors, such as obesity, risky alcohol use and high blood pressure, had little impact on this association. Conclusion Individuals who worked long hours were more likely to develop atrial fibrillation than those working standard hours.
  • Kivimäki, Mika, et al. (författare)
  • Overweight, obesity, and risk of cardiometabolic multimorbidity Pooled analysis of individual-level data for 120 813 adults from 16 cohort studies from the USA and Europe
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: The Lancet. Public health. - Elsevier. ; 2:6, s. e277-e285
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Although overweight and obesity have been studied in relation to individual cardiometabolic diseases, their association with risk of cardiometabolic multimorbidity is poorly understood. Here we aimed to establish the risk of incident cardiometabolic multimorbidity (ie, at least two from: type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, and stroke) in adults who are overweight and obese compared with those who are a healthy weight.METHODS: We pooled individual-participant data for BMI and incident cardiometabolic multimorbidity from 16 prospective cohort studies from the USA and Europe. Participants included in the analyses were 35 years or older and had data available for BMI at baseline and for type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, and stroke at baseline and follow-up. We excluded participants with a diagnosis of diabetes, coronary heart disease, or stroke at or before study baseline. According to WHO recommendations, we classified BMI into categories of healthy (20·0-24·9 kg/m(2)), overweight (25·0-29·9 kg/m(2)), class I (mild) obesity (30·0-34·9 kg/m(2)), and class II and III (severe) obesity (≥35·0 kg/m(2)). We used an inclusive definition of underweight (<20 kg/m(2)) to achieve sufficient case numbers for analysis. The main outcome was cardiometabolic multimorbidity (ie, developing at least two from: type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, and stroke). Incident cardiometabolic multimorbidity was ascertained via resurvey or linkage to electronic medical records (including hospital admissions and death). We analysed data from each cohort separately using logistic regression and then pooled cohort-specific estimates using random-effects meta-analysis.FINDINGS: Participants were 120  813 adults (mean age 51·4 years, range 35-103; 71 445 women) who did not have diabetes, coronary heart disease, or stroke at study baseline (1973-2012). During a mean follow-up of 10·7 years (1995-2014), we identified 1627 cases of multimorbidity. After adjustment for sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, compared with individuals with a healthy weight, the risk of developing cardiometabolic multimorbidity in overweight individuals was twice as high (odds ratio [OR] 2·0, 95% CI 1·7-2·4; p<0·0001), almost five times higher for individuals with class I obesity (4·5, 3·5-5·8; p<0·0001), and almost 15 times higher for individuals with classes II and III obesity combined (14·5, 10·1-21·0; p<0·0001). This association was noted in men and women, young and old, and white and non-white participants, and was not dependent on the method of exposure assessment or outcome ascertainment. In analyses of different combinations of cardiometabolic conditions, odds ratios associated with classes II and III obesity were 2·2 (95% CI 1·9-2·6) for vascular disease only (coronary heart disease or stroke), 12·0 (8·1-17·9) for vascular disease followed by diabetes, 18·6 (16·6-20·9) for diabetes only, and 29·8 (21·7-40·8) for diabetes followed by vascular disease.INTERPRETATION: The risk of cardiometabolic multimorbidity increases as BMI increases; from double in overweight people to more than ten times in severely obese people compared with individuals with a healthy BMI. Our findings highlight the need for clinicians to actively screen for diabetes in overweight and obese patients with vascular disease, and pay increased attention to prevention of vascular disease in obese individuals with diabetes.FUNDING: NordForsk, Medical Research Council, Cancer Research UK, Finnish Work Environment Fund, and Academy of Finland.
  • Nilsson, Ulrica G., et al. (författare)
  • Sex knowledge in males and females recovering from a myocardial infarction : a brief communication
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Clinical Nursing Research. - Thousand Oaks, USA : Sage Publications. - 1054-7738. ; 21:4, s. 486-494
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The purpose of this article was to explore sexual knowledge in persons who had suffered from myocardial infarction (MI). Seventy-six Swedish persons completed the "Sex after MI Knowledge Test" questionnaire. Overall, 53% of the men and 45% of the women scored maximum in the test. In a comparison between sexes, the men scored significantly more often a correct answer compared to the women for two out of the 25 items. The levels of correct answers were less then 50% for 14 out of the 25 items in both sexes. In conclusion we found that people who had suffered MI had poor levels of knowledge about sex and that there were some differences concerning lesser knowledge among the females in comparison to males. In regard to application, using a validated instrument facilitates an interactive communication between the patient and health care professionals, and opens up for a tailored education in line with the patient's and his or her partner's needs.
  • Nyberg, Solja, et al. (författare)
  • Obesity and loss of disease-free years owing to major non-communicable diseases a multicohort study
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: The Lancet Public Health. - Elsevier Ltd. - 2468-2667. ; 3:10, s. e490-e497
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Obesity increases the risk of several chronic diseases, but the extent to which the obesity-related loss of disease-free years varies by lifestyle category and across socioeconomic groups is unclear. We estimated the number of years free from major non-communicable diseases in adults who are overweight and obese, compared with those who are normal weight. Methods: We pooled individual-level data on body-mass index (BMI) and non-communicable diseases from men and women with no initial evidence of these diseases in European cohort studies from the Individual-Participant-Data Meta-Analysis in Working Populations consortium. BMI was assessed at baseline (1991–2008) and non-communicable diseases (incident type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, stroke, cancer, asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) were ascertained via linkage to records from national health registries, repeated medical examinations, or self-report. Disease-free years from age 40 years to 75 years associated with underweight (BMI <18·5 kg/m2), overweight (≥25 kg/m2 to <30 kg/m2), and obesity (class I [mild] ≥30 kg/m2 to <35 kg/m2; class II–III [severe] ≥35 kg/m2) compared with normal weight (≥18·5 kg/m2 to <25 kg/m2) were estimated. Findings: Of 137 503 participants from ten studies, we excluded 6973 owing to missing data and 10 349 with prevalent disease at baseline, resulting in an analytic sample of 120 181 participants. Of 47 127 men, 211 (0·4%) were underweight, 21 468 (45·6%) normal weight, 20 738 (44·0%) overweight, 3982 (8·4%) class I obese, and 728 (1·5%) class II–III obese. The corresponding numbers among the 73 054 women were 1493 (2·0%), 44 760 (61·3%), 19 553 (26·8%), 5670 (7·8%), and 1578 (2·2%), respectively. During 1 328 873 person-years at risk (mean follow-up 11·5 years [range 6·3–18·6]), 8159 men and 8100 women developed at least one non-communicable disease. Between 40 years and 75 years, the estimated number of disease-free years was 29·3 (95% CI 28·8–29·8) in normal-weight men and 29·4 (28·7–30·0) in normal-weight women. Compared with normal weight, the loss of disease-free years in men was 1·8 (95% CI −1·3 to 4·9) for underweight, 1·1 (0·7 to 1·5) for overweight, 3·9 (2·9 to 4·9) for class I obese, and 8·5 (7·1 to 9·8) for class II–III obese. The corresponding estimates for women were 0·0 (−1·4 to 1·4) for underweight, 1·1 (0·6 to 1·5) for overweight, 2·7 (1·5 to 3·9) for class I obese, and 7·3 (6·1 to 8·6) for class II–III obese. The loss of disease-free years associated with class II–III obesity varied between 7·1 and 10·0 years in subgroups of participants of different socioeconomic level, physical activity level, and smoking habit. Interpretation: Mild obesity was associated with the loss of one in ten, and severe obesity the loss of one in four potential disease-free years during middle and later adulthood. This increasing loss of disease-free years as obesity becomes more severe occurred in both sexes, among smokers and non-smokers, the physically active and inactive, and across the socioeconomic hierarchy. Funding: NordForsk, UK Medical Research Council, US National Institute on Aging, Academy of Finland, Helsinki Institute of Life Science, and Cancer Research UK. 
  • Virtanen, Marianna, et al. (författare)
  • Perceived job insecurity as a risk factor for incident coronary heart disease systematic review and meta-analysis
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: BMJ. British Medical Journal. ; 347:7921
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective To determine the association between self reported job insecurity and incident coronary heart disease.Design A meta-analysis combining individual level data from a collaborative consortium and published studies identified by a systematic review.Data sources We obtained individual level data from 13 cohort studies participating in the Individual-Participant-Data Meta-analysis in Working Populations Consortium. Four published prospective cohort studies were identified by searches of Medline (to August 2012) and Embase databases (to October 2012), supplemented by manual searches.Review methods Prospective cohort studies that reported risk estimates for clinically verified incident coronary heart disease by the level of self reported job insecurity. Two independent reviewers extracted published data. Summary estimates of association were obtained using random effects models.Results The literature search yielded four cohort studies. Together with 13 cohort studies with individual participant data, the meta-analysis comprised up to 174 438 participants with a mean follow-up of 9.7 years and 1892 incident cases of coronary heart disease. Age adjusted relative risk of high versus low job insecurity was 1.32 (95% confidence interval 1.09 to 1.59). The relative risk of job insecurity adjusted for sociodemographic and risk factors was 1.19 (1.00 to 1.42). There was no evidence of significant differences in this association by sex, age (<50 v ≥50 years), national unemployment rate, welfare regime, or job insecurity measure.Conclusions The modest association between perceived job insecurity and incident coronary heart disease is partly attributable to poorer socioeconomic circumstances and less favourable risk factor profiles among people with job insecurity.
  • Wallin Lundell, Inger, et al. (författare)
  • Posttraumatic stress among women after induced abortion a Swedish multi-centre cohort study
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: BMC Women's Health. - 1472-6874 .- 1472-6874. ; 13, s. 52
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND:Induced abortion is a common medical intervention. Whether psychological sequelae might follow induced abortion has long been a subject of concern among researchers and little is known about the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and induced abortion. Thus, the aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of PTSD and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) before and at three and six months after induced abortion, and to describe the characteristics of the women who developed PTSD or PTSS after the abortion.METHODS:This multi-centre cohort study included six departments of Obstetrics and Gynaecology in Sweden. The study included 1457 women who requested an induced abortion, among whom 742 women responded at the three-month follow-up and 641 women at the six-month follow-up. The Screen Questionnaire-Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (SQ-PTSD) was used for research diagnoses of PTSD and PTSS, and anxiety and depressive symptoms were evaluated by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Measurements were made at the first visit and at three and six months after the abortion. The 95% confidence intervals for the prevalence of lifetime or ongoing PTSD and PTSS were calculated using the normal approximation. The chi-square test and the Student's t-test were used to compare data between groups.RESULTS:The prevalence of ongoing PTSD and PTSS before the abortion was 4.3% and 23.5%, respectively, concomitant with high levels of anxiety and depression. At three months the corresponding rates were 2.0% and 4.6%, at six months 1.9% and 6.1%, respectively. Dropouts had higher rates of PTSD and PTSS. Fifty-one women developed PTSD or PTSS during the observation period. They were young, less well educated, needed counselling, and had high levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms. During the observation period 57 women had trauma experiences, among whom 11 developed PTSD or PTSS and reported a traumatic experience in relation to the abortion.CONCLUSION:Few women developed PTSD or PTSS after the abortion. The majority did so because of trauma experiences unrelated to the induced abortion. Concomitant symptoms of depression and anxiety call for clinical alertness and support.
  • Wallin Lundell, Inger, et al. (författare)
  • The prevalence of posttraumatic stress among women requesting induced abortion
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: European journal of contraception & reproductive health care. - 1362-5187 .- 1473-0782. ; 18:6, s. 480-488
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives To describe the prevalence and pattern of traumatic experiences, to assess the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), to identify risk factors for PTSD and PTSS, and to analyse the association of PTSD and PTSS with concomitant anxiety and depressive symptoms in women requesting induced abortion. Methods A Swedish multi-centre study of women requesting an induced abortion. The Screen Questionnaire - Posttraumatic Stress Disorder was used for research diagnoses of PTSD and PTSS. Anxiety and depressive symptoms were evaluated by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Results Of the 1514 respondents, almost half reported traumatic experiences. Lifetime- and point prevalence of PTSD were 7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.8-8.5) and 4% (95% CI: 3.1-5.2), respectively. The prevalence of PTSS was 23% (95% CI: 21.1-25.4). Women who reported symptoms of anxiety or depression when requesting abortion were more likely to have ongoing PTSD or PTSS. Also single-living women and smokers displayed higher rates of ongoing PTSD. Conclusions Although PTSD is rare among women who request an induced abortion, a relatively high proportion suffers from PTSS. Abortion seeking women with trauma experiences and existing or preexisting mental disorders need more consideration and alertness when counselled for termination.
  • Sundström, Johan, et al. (författare)
  • Rationale for a Swedish cohort consortium
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences. - Taylor & Francis. - 0300-9734. ; 124:1, s. 21-28
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We herein outline the rationale for a Swedish cohort consortium, aiming to facilitate greater use of Swedish cohorts for world-class research. Coordination of all Swedish prospective population-based cohorts in a common infrastructure would enable more precise research findings and facilitate research on rare exposures and outcomes, leading to better utilization of study participants’ data, better return of funders’ investments, and higher benefit to patients and populations. We motivate the proposed infrastructure partly by lessons learned from a pilot study encompassing data from 21 cohorts. We envisage a standing Swedish cohort consortium that would drive development of epidemiological research methods and strengthen the Swedish as well as international epidemiological competence, community, and competitiveness.
  • Årestedt, Kristofer, et al. (författare)
  • Symptom Relief and Palliative Care during the Last Week of Life among Patients with Heart Failure : A National Register Study
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Journal of Palliative Medicine. - Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.. - 1096-6218. ; 21:3, s. 361-367
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Heart failure is a disease with high morbidity, mortality, and physical and psychological burden. More knowledge about the care provided for patients with heart failure close to death is needed. Objective: The aim was to describe key aspects of palliative care during the last week of life in patients with heart failure, as reported by healthcare professionals. Design: This is a national register study. Setting/Subjects: The study included 3981 patients with diagnosed heart failure as the underlying cause of death. Measurements: Data were obtained from the Swedish Register of Palliative Care, a national quality register that focuses on patients' last week of life, independent of diagnosis or care setting. The register includes information about care interventions connected with key aspects of palliative care. Data are reported retrospectively by a nurse or physician at the healthcare unit where the patient dies. Results: Only 4.2% of patients with heart failure received specialized palliative care. In their last week of life, symptom prevalence was high, validated scales were seldom used, and symptoms were unsatisfactorily relieved. Around one-fifth (17%) of the patients in the study died alone. Less than half of family members had been offered bereavement support (45%). Moreover, one-third (28%) of the patients and more than half (61%) of the family members were reported to have had end-of-life discussions with a physician during the illness trajectory. Conclusion: The results indicate inadequate palliative care for patients with heart failure during their last week of life.
  • Ahrentorp, Fredrik, et al. (författare)
  • Sensitive magnetic biodetection using magnetic multi-core nanoparticles and RCA coils
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials. - 0304-8853. ; 427, s. 14-18
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We use functionalized iron oxide magnetic multi-core particles of 100 nm in size (hydrodynamic particle diameter) and AC susceptometry (ACS) methods to measure the binding reactions between the magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and bio-analyte products produced from DNA segments using the rolling circle amplification (RCA) method. We use sensitive induction detection techniques in order to measure the ACS response. The DNA is amplified via RCA to generate RCA coils with a specific size that is dependent on the amplification time. After about 75 min of amplification we obtain an average RCA coil diameter of about 1 µm. We determine a theoretical limit of detection (LOD) in the range of 11 attomole (corresponding to an analyte concentration of 55 fM for a sample volume of 200 µL) from the ACS dynamic response after the MNPs have bound to the RCA coils and the measured ACS readout noise. We also discuss further possible improvements of the LOD.
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