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Träfflista för sökning "AMNE:(AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES Veterinary Science Other Veterinary Science) "

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1.
  • Amundin, Mats, et al. (författare)
  • A proposal to use distributional models to analyse dolphin vocalisation
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Vocal Interactivity in-and-between Humans, Animals and Robots, VIHAR 2017. - 9782956202905 ; , s. 31-32
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper gives a brief introduction to the starting points of an experimental project to study dolphin communicative behaviour using distributional semantics, with methods implemented for the large scale study of human language.
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2.
  • Moore, Jason W., 1971- (författare)
  • Environmental crises and the metabolic rift in world-historical perspective
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Organization & environment. - 1086-0266 .- 1552-7417. ; 13:2, s. 123-157
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This article proposes a new theoretical framework to study the dialectic of capital and nature over the longue durée of world capitalism. The author proposes that today’s global ecological crisis has its roots in the transition to capitalism during the long sixteenth century. The emergence of capitalism marked not only a decisive shift in the arenas of politics, economy, and society, but a fundamental reorganization of world ecology, characterized by a “metabolic rift,” a progressively deepening rupture in the nutrient cycling between the country and the city. Building upon the historical political economy of Marx, Foster, Arrighi, and Wallerstein, the author proposes a new research agenda organized around the concept of systemic cycles of agro-ecological transformation. This agenda aims at discerning the ways in which capitalism’s relationship to nature developed discontinuously over time as recurrent ecological crises have formed a decisive moment of world capitalist crisis, forcing successive waves of restructuring over long historical time.
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3.
  • Handlin, Linda (författare)
  • Human-Human and Human-Animal Interaction : Some Common Physiological and Psychological Effects
  • 2010
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The aim of the present thesis was to investigate hormonal and physiological effects in mothers during a breastfeeding session and in dogs and their owners in response to short-term interaction. In study one, sixty-six mothers receiving either exogenous oxytocin infusion and/or epidural analgesia (EDA) during labor or intramuscular oxytocin injection post partum were studied. Oxytocin, prolactin, adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol levels, as well as blood pressure were measured during a breastfeeding session two days after birth. In response to breastfeeding two days after birth, the mothers displayed a pulsatile release of oxytocin and increasing prolactin levels. In addition, the activity in the HPA-axis was reduced and maternal blood pressure decreased. The results also show that EDA administration in combination with oxytocin during labor resulted insignificantly lower oxytocin levels and higher cortisol levels, as well as higher bloodpressure in response to breastfeeding two days after birth, compared to EDA administration alone. In addition, oxytocin infusions dose-dependently lowered the mothers’ endogenous oxytocin levels two days after birth. In study two, ten female dog owners and their male Labrador dogs participated, together with ten controls. Their levels of oxytocin, cortisol and insulin, as well as their heart rate, were measured. The connection between the quality of the dogowner relationship and hormone levels was also explored. Short-term interaction between dogs and their owners resulted in oxytocin release in both species and their cortisol levels and heart rate were also affected. Oxytocin levels and positive attitudes regarding the dog-owner relationship were positively correlated. In conclusion, both human-human and human-animal interactions induce oxytocin release and promote oxytocin mediated effects, such as decreasing cortisol levels and blood pressure. In addition, social interaction and oxytocin levels arepositively related.
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4.
  • Olsson, Ulf (författare)
  • OM FRISKVÅRDSPEDAGOGIK I ARBETSLIVET. : EN O/RÄTTVIS BETRAKTELSE.
  • 1993
  • Licentiatavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • I fokus för detta arbete står friskvård inom arbetslivet som pedagogisk praktik med hälsoprofilsbedömning, en metod för undersökning och påverkan av människors hälsostatus och hälsovanor, som konkret exempel. En bakgrund till detta är framväxten av insatser för folkhälsa och den ökade betoning av friskvård inom arbetslivet som skett inom såväl privat som offentlig sektor. Friskvård handlar om människors levnadsvanor när det gäller kost, motion, stress, alkohol, tobak m.m.Hälsoprofilsbedömning och friskvårdspedagogik inom arbetslivet ses här ur två olika perspektiv. Ur det ena perspektivet behandlas verksamheten på dess egna villkor - som en metod att inom ramen för arbetslivet få till stånd ner hälsosamma livsstilar genom kontrakt mellan självständiga parter. Det andra perspektivet kan ses som kritiskt granskande. Här ifrågasätts premissema för hälsoprofilsbedömningen utifrån begrepp som makt och disciplinering. En inspirationskälla har därvid bland annat Michel Foucaults arbeten varit. Som empiriskt material för analysen används två avhandlingar som presenterar hälsoprofilbedömningen som metod.Ur dessa båda perspektiv erhålles två olika betraktelser om hälsoprofilsbedömning och friskvårdspedagogik inom arbetslivet - en rättvis och en orättvis. På basis av en kritisk pragmatisk ansats diskuteras möjligheten till ett samtal baserad på relationen mellan de båda betrakelserna.
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5.
  • Handlin, Linda, et al. (författare)
  • Associations between the Psychological Characteristics of the Human-Dog Relationship and Oxytocin and Cortisol Levels
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Anthrozoos. - : Taylor & Francis. - 0892-7936 .- 1753-0377. ; 25:2, s. 215-228
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of the present study was to explore possible correlations between dog owners' relationships with their dogs, as measured with the Monash Dog Owner Relationship Scale (MDORS), and oxytocin and cortisol levels in both the owners and their dogs. Ten female owners of male Labrador Retrievers completed the MDORS. The scores obtained from the single items, subscales, and total score of the MDORS were calculated. Ten blood samples were collected from each dog owner and her dog during a 60-minute interaction. Blood samples were analyzed for oxytocin and cortisol by Enzyme Immuno Assay (EIA) and mean values of oxytocin and cortisol were calculated in both owners and dogs. The MDORS scores obtained were correlated with basal and mean oxytocin and cortisol levels. The correlation analysis revealed some relationships between the scores of items in the MDORS that reflect the character of the dog-owner-relationship and the owners' hormone levels. For example, higher oxytocin levels in the owners were associated with greater frequency in kissing their dogs (rs = 0.864, p = 0.001). Lower cortisol levels in the owners were associated with their perception that it will be more traumatic when their dog dies (rs = -0.730, p = 0.025). The correlation analysis also revealed some relationships between the scores of items in the MDORS and the dogs' hormone levels. For example, greater frequency in owners kissing their dogs was associated with higher oxytocin levels in the dogs (rs = 0.753, p = 0.029). Six items in the subscale Perceived Costs, as well as the subscale itself, correlated significantly with the dogs' oxytocin levels (rs = 0.820, p = 0.007), that is, the lower the perceived cost, the higher the dogs' oxytocin levels. In addition, significant correlations between the oxytocin levels of the owners and the dogs were demonstrated. Possible mechanisms behind these correlations are discussed. In conclusion, the scores of some items and the subscales of the MDORS correlated with oxytocin, and to a lesser extent cortisol, levels in both the owners and dogs.
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6.
  • Handlin, Linda, et al. (författare)
  • Short-Term Interaction between Dogs and Their Owners : Effects on Oxytocin, Cortisol, Insulin and Heart Rate-An Exploratory Study
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Anthrozoos. - : Taylor & Francis. - 0892-7936 .- 1753-0377. ; 24:3, s. 301-315
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of this exploratory study was to determine heart rate and the levels of oxytocin, cortisol, and insulin in dogs and their owners in response to a short-term interaction. In addition, the dogs' behavior was studied. The owners' responses were compared with those obtained from a control group. Ten female volunteers and their own male Labrador dogs participated in an experiment during which the owner stroked, petted, and talked with her dog during the first 3 minutes. Blood samples were collected from both dog and owner before (0) and at 1, 3, 5, 15, 30, and 60 minutes after the start of the interaction. Blood samples were analyzed by EIA. Heart rate was monitored telemetrically. The data were analyzed using linear mixed models and paired t-tests. The dogs' oxytocin levels were significantly increased 3 minutes after the start of the interaction (p = 0.027). Cortisol levels were significantly increased after 15 and 30 minutes (p = 0.004 and p = 0.022, respectively), and heart rate was significantly decreased after 55 minutes (p = 0.008). The dogs displayed normal behaviors during the experiment. The owners' oxylocin levels peaked between 1 and 5 minutes after interaction (p = 0.026). No such effect was seen in the controls. Cortisol levels displayed a significant decrease at 15 or 30 minutes in both owners and controls, and insulin levels did so at 60 minutes (p = 0.030, p = 0.002 and p = 0.002, p < 0.0001, respectively). Heart rate decreased significantly in the owners at 55 and 60 minutes (p = 0.0008) but not in the controls. In conclusion, short-term sensory interaction between dogs and their owners influences hormonal levels and heart rate. However, further studies need to be performed in order to better understand the effects of interaction between dogs and their owners.
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7.
  • Forslund, Kerstin, et al. (författare)
  • Acute chest pain emergencies : spouses' prehospital experiences
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: International emergency nursing. - 1878-013X. ; 16:4, s. 233-240
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The call to the Emergency Medical Dispatch Centre is often a person's first contact with the health-care system in cases of acute illness or injury and acute chest pain is a common reason for calling. The aim was to illuminate how spouses to persons with acute chest pain experienced the alarm situation, the emergency call and the prehospital emergency care. Interviews were conducted with nineteen spouses. A phenomenological-hermeneutic approach was used for the analyses. The themes responsibility and uneasiness emerged as well as an overall theme of aloneness. Being a spouse to a person in need of acute medical and nursing assistance was interpreted as "Being responsible and trying to preserve life" and "Being able to manage the uneasiness and having trust in an uncertain situation." When their partners' life was at risk the spouses were in an escalating spiral of worry, uncertainty, stress, fear of loss, feeling of loneliness and desperation. They had to manage emotional distress and felt compelled to act to preserve life, a challenging situation.
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8.
  • Peterson, Gunnel, 1959- (författare)
  • Neck muscle function in individuals with persistent pain and disability after whiplash injury
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Background: Neck pain and disability are common after whiplash injury. One year after the accident up to 50 % still have symptoms called whiplash associated disorders (WAD). Despite decades of research the cause of persistent pain and disability are largely unknown and effective treatment and diagnostic tools are lacking. Altered neck muscle function may cause pain and disability, and real-time non-invasive methods that investigate both superficial and deep neck muscle function need to be evaluated.Aim: The general aim of the work presented in this thesis was to investigate mechanical neck muscle function and evaluate effects of three different exercise interventions related to neck muscle function in individuals with persistent pain and disability after whiplash injury.Method: The thesis comprised two studies, reported in four papers. Study A was a prospective randomized controlled trail with 216 participants. The effects of three exercise interventions; neck-specific exercises, neck-specific exercises with behavioral approach and prescription of physical activity were evaluated. Neck muscle endurance, perceived pain following testing, kinesiophobia and satisfaction with treatment were compared between the three groups (paper I). Study B was an experimental case-control study with participants consecutively recruited from the randomized controlled trial. Deformation and deformation rates in the neck muscles were investigated with real-time ultrasound imaging during ten repetitive arm elevations (paper II-IV). To investigate ventral neck muscles, 26 individuals with WAD were compared with 26 healthy controls (paper II). The dorsal neck muscles were investigated in paper III, including 40 individuals with WAD and 40 controls. In total 46 individuals, 23 with WAD and 23 healthy controls were included in paper IV to develop ventral neck muscle interaction models.Results: Paper I: Participants in the two neck-specific exercise groups (with and without behavioral approach) showed increased dorsal neck muscle endurance (p = 0.003), decreased pain intensity following testing (p = 0.04) and were more satisfied with treatment (p < 0.001) than participants in the prescribed physical activity group. Kinesiophobia did not significantly differ between groups (p > 0.12).Paper II: Deformation and deformation rate showed linear positive relationship between ventral muscle pairs in healthy controls, especially between superficial and deep neck muscles. This relationship was weaker or absent in the WAD group.Paper III: The WAD group had higher deformation rates in the deepest dorsal neck muscles during the first and tenth (only women) arm elevations compared to the control group (p < 0.04). Women in the WAD group showed a weaker linear relationship between the two deepest dorsal neck muscles compared to women in the control group.Paper IV: The results revealed two different ventral neck muscle models in individuals with WAD and healthy controls (R2Y = 0.72, Q2Y = 0.59). The models were capable to detect different neck muscle interplay in people with WAD.Conclusion: Neck-specific exercise intervention with or without a behavioral approach appears to improve neck muscle endurance in individuals with persistent WAD. Decreased pain after the neck muscle endurance test also suggests improved tolerance of load in these two groups. Altered mechanical neck muscle function was revealed in individuals with WAD indicating decreased muscular support for maintain a stable cervical spine during repetitive arm elevations. The results show great promise for improved diagnosis of neck muscle function in WAD.
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9.
  • Wiszmeg, Andréa, et al. (författare)
  • Transforming trash to treasure Cultural ambiguity in foetal cell research
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine. - : BioMed Central (BMC). - 1747-5341. ; 16
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Rich in different kind of potent cells, embryos are used in modern regenerative medicine and research. Neurobiologists today are pushing the boundaries for what can be done with embryos existing in the transitory margins of medicine. Therefore, there is a growing need to develop conceptual frameworks for interpreting the trans‐ formative cultural, biological and technical processes involving these aborted, donated and marginal embryos. This article is a contribution to this development of frameworks.Methods: This article examines different emotional, cognitive and discursive strategies used by neurobiologists in a foetal cell transplantation trial in Parkinson’s disease research, using cells harvested from aborted embryos. Two inter‐ views were analysed in the light of former observations in the processing laboratories, using the anthropologist Mary Douglas’s concept of pollution behaviour and the linguist, philosopher, psychoanalyst and feminist Julia Kristeva’s concept of the abjective to explain and make sense of the findings.Results: The findings indicate that the labour performed by the researchers in the trial work involves transforming the foetal material practically, as well as culturally, from trash to treasure. The transformation process contains different phases, and in the interview material we observed that the foetal material or cells were considered objects, subjects or rejected as abject by the researchers handling them, depending on what phase of process or practice they referred to or had experience of. As demonstrated in the analysis, it is the human origin of the cell that makes it abjective and activates pollution discourse, when the researchers talk of their practice.Conclusions: The marginal and ambiguous status of the embryo that emerges in the accounts turns the scientists handling foetal cells into liminal characters in modern medicine. Focusing on how practical as well as emotional and cultural strategies and rationalizations of the researchers emerge in interview accounts, this study adds insights on the rationale of practically procuring, transforming and utilizing the foetal material to the already existing studies focused on the donations. We also discuss why the use and refinement of a tissue, around which there is practical consensus but cultural ambiguity, deserves further investigation.Keywords: Foetal cells, Embryos, Abortion, Transplantation, Pollution behaviour, Ritual, Foetal waste, Abject, Embryonic ambiguity
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10.
  • Lerner, Henrik, 1975- (författare)
  • Health in Non-human Organisms
  • 2020. - 1 uppl
  • Ingår i: Explaining Health Across the Sciences. - Cham : Springer Nature. - 9783030526627 - 9783030526634 ; , s. 333-346
  • Bokkapitel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This chapter analyses attempts made to define health for non-human organisms. This could be done either as a bottom-up approach finding a common denominator that all organisms share, or as a top-down approach which starts with a certain valuable criterion that those organisms share. Through this chapter I will discuss both approaches. I will briefly discuss the concept of organism and why I only choose to discuss biological organisms. This chapter will also further develop a categorization of health definitions that acknowledges the variety of the different kinds of definitions. This is done as a two-level categorization consisting of categories and versions of these categories. I will go through relevant categories and versions in order to be able to say which could be fruitful to use as well as where science needs to be heading.
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