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Sökning: AMNE:(LANTBRUKSVETENSKAPER Veterinärmedicin)

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  • Jacobsen, M, et al. (författare)
  • Refined candidate region specified by haplotype sharing for Escherichia coli F4ab/F4ac susceptibility alleles in pigs.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Animal Genetics. - 0268-9146 .- 1365-2052. ; 41, s. 21-25
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • P>Infection of the small intestine by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli F4ab/ac is a major welfare problem and financial burden for the pig industry. Natural resistance to this infection is inherited as a Mendelian recessive trait, and a polymorphism in the MUC4 gene segregating for susceptibility/resistance is presently used in a selection programme by the Danish pig breeding industry. To elucidate the genetic background involved in E. coli F4ab/ac susceptibility in pigs, a detailed haplotype map of the porcine candidate region was established. This region covers approximately 3.7 Mb. The material used for the study is a three generation family, where the founders are two Wild boars and eight Large White sows. All pigs have been phenotyped for susceptibility to F4ab/ac using an adhesion assay. Their haplotypes are known from segregation analysis using flanking markers. By a targeted approach, the candidate region was subjected to screening for polymorphisms, mainly focusing on intronic sequences. A total of 18 genes were partially sequenced, and polymorphisms were identified in GP5, CENTB2, APOD, PCYT1A, OSTalpha, ZDHHC19, TFRC, ACK1, MUC4, MUC20, KIAA0226, LRCH3 and MUC13. Overall, 227 polymorphisms were discovered in the founder generation. The analysis revealed a large haplotype block, spanning at least 1.5 Mb around MUC4, to be associated with F4ab/ac susceptibility.
  • Falkenberg Hansen, Kjetil, 1972- (författare)
  • The acoustics and performance of DJ scratching, Analysis and modelling
  • 2010
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis focuses on the analysis and modeling of scratching, in other words, the DJ (disk jockey) practice of using the turntable as a musical instrument. There has been experimental use of turntables as musical instruments since their invention, but the use is now mainly ascribed to the musical genre hip-hop and the playing style known as scratching. Scratching has developed to become a skillful instrument-playing practice with complex musical output performed by DJs. The impact on popular music culture has been significant, and for many, the DJ set-up of turntables and a mixer is now a natural instrument choice for undertaking a creative music activity. Six papers are included in this thesis, where the first three approach the acoustics and performance of scratching, and the second three approach scratch modeling and the DJ interface. Additional studies included here expand on the scope of the papers. For the acoustics and performance studies, DJs were recorded playing both demonstrations of standard performance techniques, and expressive performances on sensor-equipped instruments. Analysis of the data revealed that there are both differences and commonalities in playing strategies between musicians, and between expressive intentions. One characteristic feature of scratching is the range of standard playing techniques, but in performances it seems DJs vary the combination of playing techniques more than the rendering of these techniques. The third study describes some of the acoustic parameters of typical scratch improvisations and looks at which musical parameters are typically used for expressive performances. Extracted acoustic and performance parameters from the data show the functional ranges within which DJs normally play. Unlike traditional musical instruments, the equipment used for scratching was not intended to be used for creating music. The interface studies focus on traditional as well as new interfaces for DJs, where parameter mappings between input gestures and output signal are described. Standard performance techniques have been modeled in software called Skipproof, based on results from the first papers. Skipproof was used for testing other types of controllers than turntables, where complex DJ gestures could be manipulated using simplified control actions, enabling even non-experts to play expressively within the stylistic boundaries of DJ scratching. The last paper describes an experiment of using an existing hardware platform, the Reactable, to help designing and prototyping the interaction between different sound models and instrument interfaces, including scratching and Skipproof. In addition to the included papers, studies were conducted of expressivity, description of the emotional contents of scratching, DJ playing activities, and the coupling between playing techniques and sample. The physical affordances of the turntable, mixer and samples, as well as genre conventions of hip-hop, are assumed to explain some of the findings that distinguish scratching from other instrumental sounds or practices.
  • Olsson, Ulf (författare)
  • 1993
  • Licentiatavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • I fokus för detta arbete står friskvård inom arbetslivet som pedagogisk praktik med hälsoprofilsbedömning, en metod för undersökning och påverkan av människors hälsostatus och hälsovanor, som konkret exempel. En bakgrund till detta är framväxten av insatser för folkhälsa och den ökade betoning av friskvård inom arbetslivet som skett inom såväl privat som offentlig sektor. Friskvård handlar om människors levnadsvanor när det gäller kost, motion, stress, alkohol, tobak m.m.Hälsoprofilsbedömning och friskvårdspedagogik inom arbetslivet ses här ur två olika perspektiv. Ur det ena perspektivet behandlas verksamheten på dess egna villkor - som en metod att inom ramen för arbetslivet få till stånd ner hälsosamma livsstilar genom kontrakt mellan självständiga parter. Det andra perspektivet kan ses som kritiskt granskande. Här ifrågasätts premissema för hälsoprofilsbedömningen utifrån begrepp som makt och disciplinering. En inspirationskälla har därvid bland annat Michel Foucaults arbeten varit. Som empiriskt material för analysen används två avhandlingar som presenterar hälsoprofilbedömningen som metod.Ur dessa båda perspektiv erhålles två olika betraktelser om hälsoprofilsbedömning och friskvårdspedagogik inom arbetslivet - en rättvis och en orättvis. På basis av en kritisk pragmatisk ansats diskuteras möjligheten till ett samtal baserad på relationen mellan de båda betrakelserna.
  • Skoglund, Björn, 1975- (författare)
  • Following the mevalonate pathway to bone heal alley
  • 2007
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The mevalonate pathway is an important biosynthetic pathway, found in all cells of virtually all known pro- as well as eukaryotic organisms. This thesis is an investigation into the use of two drugs, originally developed for different applications, but both affecting the mevalonate pathway, in to models of fracture repair.Using two different rodent models of fracture repair, a commonly used cholesterol lowering drug (statin) and two drugs used to treat osteoporosis (bisphosphonate) were applied both systemically as well as locally in order to enhance fracture repair.Papers I and II investigate the potential of simvastatin to improve the healing of femoral fractures in mice. Papers III and IV explore the use of two bisphosphonates to improve early fixation of stainless steel screws into rat bone.The statin simvastatin lead to an increased strength of the healing cellus. The application of bisphosphonates increased early screw fixation.It seems clear that both drugs have uses in orthopaedic applications. One interesting avenue of further research would be to combine the two classes of drugs and see if we can get the benefits while at the same time diminishing the drawbacks.
  • Handlin, Linda, et al. (författare)
  • Associations between the Psychological Characteristics of the Human-Dog Relationship and Oxytocin and Cortisol Levels
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Anthrozoos. - : Taylor & Francis. - 0892-7936 .- 1753-0377. ; 25:2, s. 215-228
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of the present study was to explore possible correlations between dog owners' relationships with their dogs, as measured with the Monash Dog Owner Relationship Scale (MDORS), and oxytocin and cortisol levels in both the owners and their dogs. Ten female owners of male Labrador Retrievers completed the MDORS. The scores obtained from the single items, subscales, and total score of the MDORS were calculated. Ten blood samples were collected from each dog owner and her dog during a 60-minute interaction. Blood samples were analyzed for oxytocin and cortisol by Enzyme Immuno Assay (EIA) and mean values of oxytocin and cortisol were calculated in both owners and dogs. The MDORS scores obtained were correlated with basal and mean oxytocin and cortisol levels. The correlation analysis revealed some relationships between the scores of items in the MDORS that reflect the character of the dog-owner-relationship and the owners' hormone levels. For example, higher oxytocin levels in the owners were associated with greater frequency in kissing their dogs (rs = 0.864, p = 0.001). Lower cortisol levels in the owners were associated with their perception that it will be more traumatic when their dog dies (rs = -0.730, p = 0.025). The correlation analysis also revealed some relationships between the scores of items in the MDORS and the dogs' hormone levels. For example, greater frequency in owners kissing their dogs was associated with higher oxytocin levels in the dogs (rs = 0.753, p = 0.029). Six items in the subscale Perceived Costs, as well as the subscale itself, correlated significantly with the dogs' oxytocin levels (rs = 0.820, p = 0.007), that is, the lower the perceived cost, the higher the dogs' oxytocin levels. In addition, significant correlations between the oxytocin levels of the owners and the dogs were demonstrated. Possible mechanisms behind these correlations are discussed. In conclusion, the scores of some items and the subscales of the MDORS correlated with oxytocin, and to a lesser extent cortisol, levels in both the owners and dogs.
  • Handlin, Linda (författare)
  • Human-Human and Human-Animal Interaction : Some Common Physiological and Psychological Effects
  • 2010
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The aim of the present thesis was to investigate hormonal and physiological effects in mothers during a breastfeeding session and in dogs and their owners in response to short-term interaction. In study one, sixty-six mothers receiving either exogenous oxytocin infusion and/or epidural analgesia (EDA) during labor or intramuscular oxytocin injection post partum were studied. Oxytocin, prolactin, adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol levels, as well as blood pressure were measured during a breastfeeding session two days after birth. In response to breastfeeding two days after birth, the mothers displayed a pulsatile release of oxytocin and increasing prolactin levels. In addition, the activity in the HPA-axis was reduced and maternal blood pressure decreased. The results also show that EDA administration in combination with oxytocin during labor resulted insignificantly lower oxytocin levels and higher cortisol levels, as well as higher bloodpressure in response to breastfeeding two days after birth, compared to EDA administration alone. In addition, oxytocin infusions dose-dependently lowered the mothers’ endogenous oxytocin levels two days after birth. In study two, ten female dog owners and their male Labrador dogs participated, together with ten controls. Their levels of oxytocin, cortisol and insulin, as well as their heart rate, were measured. The connection between the quality of the dogowner relationship and hormone levels was also explored. Short-term interaction between dogs and their owners resulted in oxytocin release in both species and their cortisol levels and heart rate were also affected. Oxytocin levels and positive attitudes regarding the dog-owner relationship were positively correlated. In conclusion, both human-human and human-animal interactions induce oxytocin release and promote oxytocin mediated effects, such as decreasing cortisol levels and blood pressure. In addition, social interaction and oxytocin levels arepositively related.
  • Handlin, Linda, et al. (författare)
  • Short-Term Interaction between Dogs and Their Owners : Effects on Oxytocin, Cortisol, Insulin and Heart Rate-An Exploratory Study
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Anthrozoos. - : Taylor & Francis. - 0892-7936 .- 1753-0377. ; 24:3, s. 301-315
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of this exploratory study was to determine heart rate and the levels of oxytocin, cortisol, and insulin in dogs and their owners in response to a short-term interaction. In addition, the dogs' behavior was studied. The owners' responses were compared with those obtained from a control group. Ten female volunteers and their own male Labrador dogs participated in an experiment during which the owner stroked, petted, and talked with her dog during the first 3 minutes. Blood samples were collected from both dog and owner before (0) and at 1, 3, 5, 15, 30, and 60 minutes after the start of the interaction. Blood samples were analyzed by EIA. Heart rate was monitored telemetrically. The data were analyzed using linear mixed models and paired t-tests. The dogs' oxytocin levels were significantly increased 3 minutes after the start of the interaction (p = 0.027). Cortisol levels were significantly increased after 15 and 30 minutes (p = 0.004 and p = 0.022, respectively), and heart rate was significantly decreased after 55 minutes (p = 0.008). The dogs displayed normal behaviors during the experiment. The owners' oxylocin levels peaked between 1 and 5 minutes after interaction (p = 0.026). No such effect was seen in the controls. Cortisol levels displayed a significant decrease at 15 or 30 minutes in both owners and controls, and insulin levels did so at 60 minutes (p = 0.030, p = 0.002 and p = 0.002, p < 0.0001, respectively). Heart rate decreased significantly in the owners at 55 and 60 minutes (p = 0.0008) but not in the controls. In conclusion, short-term sensory interaction between dogs and their owners influences hormonal levels and heart rate. However, further studies need to be performed in order to better understand the effects of interaction between dogs and their owners.
  • Berg, Frida, et al. (författare)
  • The uncoupling protein 1 gene (UCP1) is disrupted in the pig lineage : A genetic explanation for poor thermoregulation in piglets
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: PLoS Genetics. - 1553-7390. ; 2:8, s. 1178-1181
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Piglets appear to lack brown adipose tissue, a specific type of fat that is essential for nonshivering thermogenesis in mammals, and they rely on shivering as the main mechanism for thermoregulation. Here we provide a genetic explanation for the poor thermoregulation in pigs as we demonstrate that the gene for uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) was disrupted in the pig lineage. UCP1 is exclusively expressed in brown adipose tissue and plays a crucial role for thermogenesis by uncoupling oxidative phosphorylation. We used long-range PCR and genome walking to determine the complete genome sequence of pig UCP1. An alignment with human UCP1 revealed that exons 3 to 5 were eliminated by a deletion in the pig sequence. The presence of this deletion was confirmed in all tested domestic pigs, as well as in European wild boars, Bornean bearded pigs, wart hogs, and red river hogs. Three additional disrupting mutations were detected in the remaining exons. Furthermore, the rate of nonsynonymous substitutions was clearly elevated in the pig sequence compared with the corresponding sequences in humans, cattle, and mice, and we used this increased rate to estimate that UCP1 was disrupted about 20 million years ago.
  • Carlsson, Hans-Erik, et al. (författare)
  • Separation of pair housed roosters is associated with transient increased fecal corticosterone excretion
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Research in Veterinary Science. - 0034-5288 .- 1532-2661. ; 86:1, s. 183-187
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Immunoreactive corticosterone and corticosterone metabolites (ICCM) were quantified in excreta of permanently single housed (n=10) and permanently pair housed (n=20) roosters. The pair housed roosters were separated and single housed, and ICCM were quantified in the droppings before and during 15 days after separation. There was no statistically significant difference in ICCM excretion in the droppings between the permanently single or pair housed roosters. After separation, however, the previously pair housed roosters showed a significantly transient elevated excretion of ICCM in droppings the second day after separation indicating that the separation and relocation is associated with an activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. The excretion of ICCM in droppings was not correlated to the concentration of ICCM in droppings. It is thus important that excretion of ICCM be expressed as amount excreted per time unit since the total excretion is dependant on both concentration of ICCM and amount of droppings produced.
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