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  • Amundin, Mats, et al. (författare)
  • A proposal to use distributional models to analyse dolphin vocalisation
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Vocal Interactivity in-and-between Humans, Animals and Robots, VIHAR 2017. - 9782956202905 ; , s. 31-32
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper gives a brief introduction to the starting points of an experimental project to study dolphin communicative behaviour using distributional semantics, with methods implemented for the large scale study of human language.
  • Moore, Jason W., 1971- (författare)
  • Environmental crises and the metabolic rift in world-historical perspective
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Organization & environment. - 1086-0266 .- 1552-7417. ; 13:2, s. 123-157
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This article proposes a new theoretical framework to study the dialectic of capital and nature over the longue durée of world capitalism. The author proposes that today’s global ecological crisis has its roots in the transition to capitalism during the long sixteenth century. The emergence of capitalism marked not only a decisive shift in the arenas of politics, economy, and society, but a fundamental reorganization of world ecology, characterized by a “metabolic rift,” a progressively deepening rupture in the nutrient cycling between the country and the city. Building upon the historical political economy of Marx, Foster, Arrighi, and Wallerstein, the author proposes a new research agenda organized around the concept of systemic cycles of agro-ecological transformation. This agenda aims at discerning the ways in which capitalism’s relationship to nature developed discontinuously over time as recurrent ecological crises have formed a decisive moment of world capitalist crisis, forcing successive waves of restructuring over long historical time.
  • Wiszmeg, Andréa, et al. (författare)
  • Transforming trash to treasure Cultural ambiguity in foetal cell research
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine. - : BioMed Central (BMC). - 1747-5341. ; 16
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Rich in different kind of potent cells, embryos are used in modern regenerative medicine and research. Neurobiologists today are pushing the boundaries for what can be done with embryos existing in the transitory margins of medicine. Therefore, there is a growing need to develop conceptual frameworks for interpreting the trans‐ formative cultural, biological and technical processes involving these aborted, donated and marginal embryos. This article is a contribution to this development of frameworks.Methods: This article examines different emotional, cognitive and discursive strategies used by neurobiologists in a foetal cell transplantation trial in Parkinson’s disease research, using cells harvested from aborted embryos. Two inter‐ views were analysed in the light of former observations in the processing laboratories, using the anthropologist Mary Douglas’s concept of pollution behaviour and the linguist, philosopher, psychoanalyst and feminist Julia Kristeva’s concept of the abjective to explain and make sense of the findings.Results: The findings indicate that the labour performed by the researchers in the trial work involves transforming the foetal material practically, as well as culturally, from trash to treasure. The transformation process contains different phases, and in the interview material we observed that the foetal material or cells were considered objects, subjects or rejected as abject by the researchers handling them, depending on what phase of process or practice they referred to or had experience of. As demonstrated in the analysis, it is the human origin of the cell that makes it abjective and activates pollution discourse, when the researchers talk of their practice.Conclusions: The marginal and ambiguous status of the embryo that emerges in the accounts turns the scientists handling foetal cells into liminal characters in modern medicine. Focusing on how practical as well as emotional and cultural strategies and rationalizations of the researchers emerge in interview accounts, this study adds insights on the rationale of practically procuring, transforming and utilizing the foetal material to the already existing studies focused on the donations. We also discuss why the use and refinement of a tissue, around which there is practical consensus but cultural ambiguity, deserves further investigation.Keywords: Foetal cells, Embryos, Abortion, Transplantation, Pollution behaviour, Ritual, Foetal waste, Abject, Embryonic ambiguity
  • Åsberg, Cecilia, 1974-, et al. (författare)
  • Biology is a feminist issue : Interview with Lynda Birke
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: The European Journal of Women's Studies. - London : Sage Publications. - 1350-5068 .- 1461-7420. ; 17:4, s. 413-423
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This is an interview with Professor Lynda Birke (University of Chester, UK), one of the key figures of feminist science studies. She is a pioneer of feminist biology and of materialist feminist thought, as well as of the new and emerging field of hum-animal studies (HAS). This interview was conducted over email in two time periods, in the spring of 2008 and 2010. The format allowed for comments on previous writings and an engagement in an open-ended dialogue. Professor Birke talks about her key arguments and outlooks on a changing field of research. The work of this English biologist is typical of a long and continuous feminist engagement with biology and ontological matters that reaches well beyond the more recently articulated material turn of feminist theory. It touches upon feminist issues beyond the usual comfort zones of gender constructionism and human-centred research. Perhaps less recognized than for instance the names of Donna Haraway or Karen Barad, Lynda Birkes oeuvre is part of the same long-standing and twofold critique from feminist scholars qua trained natural scientists. On the one hand, theirs is a powerful critique of biological determinism; on the other, an acutely observed contemporary critique of how merely cultural or socially reductionist approaches to the effervescently lively and biological might leave the corporeal, environmental or non-human animal critically undertheorized within feminist scholarship. In highlighting the work and arguments of Lynda Birke, it is hoped here to provide an accessible introduction to the critical questions and challenges that circumvent contemporary discussions within feminist technoscience as theory and political practice.
  • Lerner, Henrik, 1975- (författare)
  • Health in Non-human Organisms
  • 2020. - 1 uppl
  • Ingår i: Explaining Health Across the Sciences. - Cham : Springer Nature. - 9783030526627 - 9783030526634 ; , s. 333-346
  • Bokkapitel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This chapter analyses attempts made to define health for non-human organisms. This could be done either as a bottom-up approach finding a common denominator that all organisms share, or as a top-down approach which starts with a certain valuable criterion that those organisms share. Through this chapter I will discuss both approaches. I will briefly discuss the concept of organism and why I only choose to discuss biological organisms. This chapter will also further develop a categorization of health definitions that acknowledges the variety of the different kinds of definitions. This is done as a two-level categorization consisting of categories and versions of these categories. I will go through relevant categories and versions in order to be able to say which could be fruitful to use as well as where science needs to be heading.
  • Lerner, Henrik, 1975-, et al. (författare)
  • Towards a healthy concept of health
  • 2020. - 2 uppl
  • Ingår i: One Health. - Wallingford : CABI Publishing. - 9781789242577 - 9781789242591 - 9781789242584 ; , s. 52-56
  • Bokkapitel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This chapter analyses the concept of One Health and focuses on the two words in the concept with the aim to better explain what the terms ‘one’ and ‘health’ refer to. First, making a distinction between the usage of the terms ‘One Health approaches’, which refers to all appraoches with a multispecies and multi- or interdisciplinary scope, and ‘One Health’, which refers to a specific kind of approach being made. Second, the One Health definition set forth in this book was compared to three other definitions of One Health, and pros and cons were identified. Additionally, the meaning of ‘one’ was discussed, showing the need for an interdisciplinary approach. Finally, the meaning of ‘health’ was shown to be complex, both regarding which definition of health to choose and on which level (individual, population or ecosystem) to apply it. A non-speciesist definition of health is needed, which could be either a bottom up or top-down definition. Further discussions within the One Health approaches are needed.
  • Forslund, Kerstin, et al. (författare)
  • Acute chest pain emergencies : spouses' prehospital experiences
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: International emergency nursing. - 1878-013X. ; 16:4, s. 233-240
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The call to the Emergency Medical Dispatch Centre is often a person's first contact with the health-care system in cases of acute illness or injury and acute chest pain is a common reason for calling. The aim was to illuminate how spouses to persons with acute chest pain experienced the alarm situation, the emergency call and the prehospital emergency care. Interviews were conducted with nineteen spouses. A phenomenological-hermeneutic approach was used for the analyses. The themes responsibility and uneasiness emerged as well as an overall theme of aloneness. Being a spouse to a person in need of acute medical and nursing assistance was interpreted as "Being responsible and trying to preserve life" and "Being able to manage the uneasiness and having trust in an uncertain situation." When their partners' life was at risk the spouses were in an escalating spiral of worry, uncertainty, stress, fear of loss, feeling of loneliness and desperation. They had to manage emotional distress and felt compelled to act to preserve life, a challenging situation.
  • Falkenberg Hansen, Kjetil, 1972- (författare)
  • The acoustics and performance of DJ scratching, Analysis and modelling
  • 2010
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis focuses on the analysis and modeling of scratching, in other words, the DJ (disk jockey) practice of using the turntable as a musical instrument. There has been experimental use of turntables as musical instruments since their invention, but the use is now mainly ascribed to the musical genre hip-hop and the playing style known as scratching. Scratching has developed to become a skillful instrument-playing practice with complex musical output performed by DJs. The impact on popular music culture has been significant, and for many, the DJ set-up of turntables and a mixer is now a natural instrument choice for undertaking a creative music activity. Six papers are included in this thesis, where the first three approach the acoustics and performance of scratching, and the second three approach scratch modeling and the DJ interface. Additional studies included here expand on the scope of the papers. For the acoustics and performance studies, DJs were recorded playing both demonstrations of standard performance techniques, and expressive performances on sensor-equipped instruments. Analysis of the data revealed that there are both differences and commonalities in playing strategies between musicians, and between expressive intentions. One characteristic feature of scratching is the range of standard playing techniques, but in performances it seems DJs vary the combination of playing techniques more than the rendering of these techniques. The third study describes some of the acoustic parameters of typical scratch improvisations and looks at which musical parameters are typically used for expressive performances. Extracted acoustic and performance parameters from the data show the functional ranges within which DJs normally play. Unlike traditional musical instruments, the equipment used for scratching was not intended to be used for creating music. The interface studies focus on traditional as well as new interfaces for DJs, where parameter mappings between input gestures and output signal are described. Standard performance techniques have been modeled in software called Skipproof, based on results from the first papers. Skipproof was used for testing other types of controllers than turntables, where complex DJ gestures could be manipulated using simplified control actions, enabling even non-experts to play expressively within the stylistic boundaries of DJ scratching. The last paper describes an experiment of using an existing hardware platform, the Reactable, to help designing and prototyping the interaction between different sound models and instrument interfaces, including scratching and Skipproof. In addition to the included papers, studies were conducted of expressivity, description of the emotional contents of scratching, DJ playing activities, and the coupling between playing techniques and sample. The physical affordances of the turntable, mixer and samples, as well as genre conventions of hip-hop, are assumed to explain some of the findings that distinguish scratching from other instrumental sounds or practices.
  • Halden, AN, et al. (författare)
  • Retention and maternal transfer of brominated dioxins in zebrafish (Danio rerio) and effects on reproduction, aryl hydrocarbon receptor-regulated genes, and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: AQUATIC TOXICOLOGY. - Oxford : Elsevier. - 0166-445X .- 1879-1514. ; 102:3-4, s. 150-161
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Abstract: Brominated dioxins have recently been detected in Baltic Sea biota. Due to their similarities to the highly toxic chlorinated dioxins, concern has been raised about their potential biological effects. The present study investigated retention and effects of brominated dioxins in adult zebrafish, as well as maternal transfer and effects on offspring. We exposed adult zebrafish for nine weeks via feed to 2,3,7,8-tetrabromodibenzo-p-dioxin (TBDD) or to a mixture of brominated dioxins (Baltic Sea mixture), which was designed to reflect relative concentrations found in Baltic Sea biota. We studied spawning success, gonad morphology, hepatic vitellogenin gene expression, and offspring early life-stage development to investigate effects on zebrafish reproduction. Hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity and hepatic expression of a number of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR)-regulated genes were studied to investigate if the brominated dioxins can activate gene transcription through the AHR pathway in zebrafish. In addition, glutathione reductase activity and expression of genes involved in adaptive responses to intracellular stress were studied to investigate potential stress effects of brominated dioxins. After nine weeks of exposure, all brominated dioxins spiked to the feed were detected in female fish and transferred to eggs. Exposure to the Baltic Sea mixture and TBDD clearly induced AHR-regulated genes and EROD activity. Exposure to TBDD reduced spawning success, altered ovarian morphology and reduced hepatic vitellogenin gene expression, which implies that TBDD has a similar effect pattern as the chlorinated analogue. Overall, our results show that dietary exposure to sublethal concentrations of brominated dioxins may impair reproductive physiology in fish and induce AHR-regulated genes. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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