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Träfflista för sökning "AMNE:(MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES Basic Medicine Immunology in the medical area) "

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1.
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2.
  • Heyman, Lovisa (författare)
  • Berries in Prevention of Metabolic Disease – focus on obesity, diabetes and gut microbiota
  • 2015
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The increasing prevalence of obesity is a worldwide health problem closely linked to diet and lifestyle factors. Obesity is associated with increased risk of several metabolic disorders including insulin resistance, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and type 2 diabetes. Hence, there is a great need to identify dietary strategies for the prevention of obesity and related diseases. This thesis investigates the potential of different berries to mediate beneficial health effects in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity and prediabetes. We found that supplementation with lingonberries, blackcurrants and bilberries reduced body weight gain, insulin resistance, low-grade inflammation and hepatic lipid accumulation in C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat diet. Supplementation with raspberries, crowberries, blackberries or prunes had no or small effects, whereas açai berries promoted development of obesity and fatty liver compared to the control group receiving high-fat diet without berries. Global hepatic gene expression analysis revealed that the phenotype in the lingonberry and bilberry groups was coupled to an anti-inflammatory effect, including downregulation of acute-phase proteins and inflammatory mediators. Mice receiving açai displayed an upregulation of steatosis markers and genes related to lipid synthesis, in line with the exacerbation of high-fat-induced fatty liver in these mice. The HELP-tagging assay was used to identify differentially methylated CpG sites in the lingonberry group compared to the high-fat control group. Lingonberries induced genome-wide and specific alterations of DNA methylation, however the significance of these findings remains to be established. Furthermore, different batches of lingonberries were found to have different capacity to prevent obesity. However lingonberries prevented low-grade inflammation, metabolic endotoxemia and modified the gut microbiota of high-fat fed mice, including increasing the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio. These findings were independent of effects on body weight gain and achieved regardless of the source of berries. The capacity of lingonberries to counteract negative outcomes of an unhealthy diet should be further evaluated in humans, including assessment of anti-inflammation and microbiota modulation. The generated knowledge about berries and their effects on metabolism may be useful in designing future dietary strategies aimed at preventing metabolic disease.
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3.
  • Bjermo, Helena, 1981- (författare)
  • Dietary Fatty Acids and Inflammation : Observational and Interventional Studies
  • 2011
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Dietary fat quality influences the risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. A low-grade inflammation is suggested to contribute to the disease development, often accompanied by obesity. Whereas n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have been considered anti-inflammatory, n-6 PUFA have been proposed to act pro-inflammatory. Saturated fatty acids (SFA) act pro-inflammatory in vitro. This thesis aimed to investigate effects of different fatty acids on low-grade inflammation in observational and interventional studies. In Paper I and II, fatty acid composition in serum cholesterol esters was used as objective marker of dietary fat quality and related to serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and other circulating inflammatory markers in two population-based cohorts, conducted in middle-aged men and elderly men and women, respectively. In Paper III and IV, the impact of diets differing in fat quality on inflammation and oxidative stress was investigated in randomised controlled studies, in subjects with metabolic syndrome and abdominal obesity. In Paper I and II, a low proportion of linoleic acid (18:2 n-6) in serum was associated with higher CRP concentrations, indicating that a low intake of vegetable fats may be related to low-grade inflammation. High CRP concentrations were also associated with high proportions of palmitoleic (16:1) and oleic (18:1) acids and high stearoyl coenzymeA desaturase index, possibly reflecting altered fat metabolism and/or high SFA intake in this population. When comparing two high-fat diets rich in either saturated or monounsaturated fat, and two low-fat diets with or without long-chain n-3 PUFA supplementation during 12 weeks (Paper III), no differences in inflammation or oxidative stress markers were observed. Moreover, a 10-week intervention (Paper IV) with high linoleic acid intake showed no adverse effects on inflammation or oxidative stress. Instead, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist and tumor necrosis factor receptor-2 decreased after linoleic acid intake compared with a diet high in SFA. The results in this thesis indicate that dietary n-6 PUFA found in vegetable fats is associated with lower inflammation marker levels, and to some extent reduces systemic inflammation when compared with SFA. Supplementation of n-3 PUFA did not exert any systemic anti-inflammatory effects, maybe due to a relatively low dose.
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4.
  • Rönmark, Eva, et al. (författare)
  • High incidence and persistence of airborne allergen sensitization up to age 19 years
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Allergy. European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0105-4538 .- 1398-9995. ; 72:5, s. 723-730
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Longitudinal population-based studies about the natural history of allergic sensitization are rare. The aim was to study incidence and persistence of airborne allergen sensitization up to young adulthood and risk factors for early and late onset of sensitization.METHODS: All children aged 7-8 years in two municipalities in Northern Sweden were invited to a parental questionnaire and skin prick tests (SPTs) to ten airborne allergens, and 2148 (88%) participated. The protocol was repeated at age 11-12 and 19 years, and 1516 participated in all three examinations.RESULTS: Prevalence of any positive SPT increased from 20.6% at age 7-8 years to 30.6% at 11-12 years, and 42.1% at 19 years. Animals were the primary sensitizers at age 7-8 years, 16.3%, followed by pollen, 12.4%. Mite and mold sensitization was low. Mean annual incidence of any positive SPT varied between 2.8 and 3.4/100 per year, decreased by age for animal, and was stable for pollen. Sensitization before age 7-8 years was independently associated with family history of allergy, OR 2.1 (95% CI 1.6-2.8), urban living, OR 1.9 (95% CI 1.2-2.9), and male sex, OR 1.3 (95% CI 1.0-1.7), and negatively associated with birth order, OR 0.8 (95% CI 0.7-1.0), and furry animals at home, OR 0.7 (95% CI 0.7-0.9). Incidence after age 11-12 years was associated only with family history of allergy. Multisensitization at age 19 years was significantly associated with early age at sensitization. Remission of sensitization was uncommon.CONCLUSION: The increasing prevalence of allergic sensitization by age was explained by high incidence and persistence. After age 11-12 years, the factors urban living, number of siblings, and male sex lost their importance.
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5.
  • Gustafsson, Lars, et al. (författare)
  • Infectious disease, reproductive effort and the cost of reproduction in birds
  • 1994
  • Ingår i: Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London: Series B. ; :346, s. 1655-1658
  • Tidskriftsartikel (populärvet., debatt m.m.)abstract
    • Reproductive effort can have profound effects on subsequent performance. Field experiments on the collared flycatcher (Ficedula albicollis) have demonstrated a number of trade-offs between life-history traits at different ages. The mechanism by which reproductive effort is mediated into future reproductive performance remains obscure. Anti-parasite adaptations such as cell-mediated immunity may probably also be costly. Hence the possibility exists of a trade-off between reproductive effort and the ability to resist parasitic infection. Serological tests on unmanipulated collared flycatchers show that pre-breeding nutritional status correlates positively with reproductive success and negatively with susceptibility to parasitism (viruses, bacteria and protozoan parasites). Both immune response and several indicators of infectious disease correlate negatively with reproductive success. Similar relations are found between secondary sexual characters and infection parameters. For brood-size-manipulated birds there was a significant interaction between experimentally increased reproductive effort and parasitic infection rate with regard to both current and future fecundity. It seems possible that the interaction between parasitic infection, nutrition and reproductive effort can be an important mechanism in the ultimate shaping of life-history variation in avian populations.
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6.
  • Jakobsson, Johan, et al. (författare)
  • Potential physiological and cellular mechanisms of exercise that decrease the risk of severe complications and mortality following sars-cov-2 infection
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Sports. - : MDPI. - 2075-4663. ; 9:9
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has unmasked mankind's vulnerability to biological threats. Although higher age is a major risk factor for disease severity in COVID-19, several predisposing risk factors for mortality are related to low cardiorespiratory and metabolic fitness, including obesity, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and hypertension. Reaching physical activity (PA) guideline goals contribute to protect against numerous immune and inflammatory disorders, in addition to multi-morbidities and mortality. Elevated levels of cardiorespiratory fitness, being non-obese, and regular PA improves immunological function, mitigating sustained low-grade systemic inflammation and age-related deterioration of the immune system, or immunosenescence. Regular PA and being non-obese also improve the antibody response to vaccination. In this review, we highlight potential physiological, cellular, and molecular mechanisms that are affected by regular PA, increase the host antiviral defense, and may determine the course and outcome of COVID-19. Not only are the immune system and regular PA in relation to COVID-19 discussed, but also the cardiovascular, respiratory, renal, and hormonal systems, as well as skeletal muscle, epigenetics, and mitochondrial function.
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7.
  • Bråbäck, Lennart, et al. (författare)
  • Confounding with familial determinants affects the association between mode of delivery and childhood asthma medication : a national cohort study
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Allergy, Asthma & Clinical Immunology. - : BioMed Central. - 1710-1484 .- 1710-1492. ; 9:1, s. 14-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Mode of delivery may affect the risk of asthma but the findings have not been consistent and factors shared by siblings may confound the associations in previous studies. METHODS: The association between mode of delivery and dispensed inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) (a marker of asthma) was examined in a register based national cohort (n=199 837). A cohort analysis of all first born children aged 2-5 and 6-9 years was performed. An age-matched sibling-pair analysis was also performed to account for shared genetic and environmental risk factors. RESULTS: Analyses of first-borns demonstrated that elective caesarean section was associated with an increased risk of dispensed ICS in both 2-5 (adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=1.19, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.09-1.29) and 6-9 (aOR=1.21, 1.09-1.34) age groups. In the sibling-pair analysis, the increased risk associated with elective caesarean section was confirmed in 2-5 year olds (aOR=1.22, 1.05-1.43) but not in 6-9 year olds (aOR=1.06, 0.78-1.44). Emergency caesarean section and vacuum extraction had some association with dispensed ICS in the analyses of first-borns but these associations were not confirmed in the sibling-pair analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Confounding by familial factors affects the association between mode of delivery and dispensed ICS. Despite this confounding, there was some evidence that elective caesarean section contributed to a modestly increased risk of dispensed ICS but only up to five years of age.
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8.
  • Bhandage, Amol K., 1988- (författare)
  • Glutamate and GABA signalling components in the human brain and in immune cells
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) are the principal excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters in the central nervous system (CNS). They both can activate their ionotropic and metabotropic receptors. Glutamate activates ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGlu - AMPA, kainate and NMDA receptors) and GABA activates GABA-A receptors which are modulated by many types of drugs and substances including alcohol. Using real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, I have shown that iGlu and/or GABA-A receptor subunits were expressed in the hippocampus dentate gyrus (HDG), orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DL-PFC), central amygdala (CeA), caudate and putamen of the human brain and their expression was altered by chronic excessive alcohol consumption. It indicates that excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission may have been altered in the brain of human alcoholics. It is possible that changes in one type of neurotransmitter system may drive changes in another. These brain regions also play a role in brain reward system. Any changes in them may lead to changes in the normal brain functions.Apart from the CNS, glutamate and GABA are also present in the blood and can be synthesised by pancreatic islet cells and immune cells. They may act as immunomodulators of circulating immune cells and can affect immune function through glutamate and GABA receptors. I found that T cells from human, rat and mouse lymph nodes expressed the mRNAs and proteins for specific GABA-A receptor subunits. GABA-evoked transient and tonic currents recorded using the patch clamp technique demonstrate the functional GABA-A channel in T cells. Furthermore, the mRNAs for specific iGlu, GABA-A and GABA-B receptor subunits and chloride cotransporters were detected in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from men, non-pregnant women, healthy and depressed pregnant women. The results indicate that the expression of iGlu, GABA-A and GABA-B receptors is related to gender, pregnancy and mental health and support the notion that glutamate and GABA receptors may modulate immune function. Intra- and interspecies variability exists in the expression and it is further influenced by physiological conditions.
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9.
  • Amoudruz, Petra, et al. (författare)
  • Maternal country of birth and previous pregnancies are associated with breast milk characteristics
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology. - 0905-6157 .- 1399-3038. ; 20:1, s. 19-29
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Populations in high infectious exposure countries are at low risk of some immune-mediated diseases such as Crohn’s disease and allergy. This low risk is maintained upon immigration to an industrialized country, but the offspring of such immigrants have a higher immune-mediated disease risk than the indigenous population. We hypothesize that early life exposures in a developing country shape the maternal immune system, which could have implications for the offspring born in a developed country with a low infectious load. The aim of this study was to investigate if exposures in childhood (indicated by country of origin) and subsequent exposures influence immunologic characteristics relevant to stimulation of offspring. Breast milk components among 64 mothers resident in Sweden, 32 of whom immigrated from a developing country, were examined using the ELISA and Cytometric Bead Array methods. Immigrants from a developing country had statistically significantly higher levels of breast milk interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8 and transforming growth factor-β1. A larger number of previous pregnancies were associated with down-regulation of several substances, statistically significant for soluble CD14 and IL-8. The results suggest that maternal country of birth may influence adult immune characteristics, potentially relevant to disease risk in offspring. Such a mechanism may explain the higher immune-mediated disease risk among children of migrants from a developing to developed country. Older siblings may influence disease risk through the action of previous pregnancies on maternal immune characteristics.
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10.
  • Yakymenko Alkaissi, Lina, 1988- (författare)
  • Bacterial epithelial interaction in intestinal inflammation
  • 2018
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The intestine is constantly exposed to bacteria, invading viruses and ingested food. The intestinal barrier serves as a gate preventing passage of harmful components, and at the same time maintaining absorption of nutrients and water. There are over 300 different bacteria species in the human gastrointestinal tract (GI) comprising over 10 times as many cells as the human body. These bacteria are both of commensal and pathogenic strains in which commensal bacteria and antimicrobial peptides have an important role of controlling the intestinal colonization. The intestinal flora is sampled by the membranous cells (M cells) that are present in the follicle associated epithelium (FAE). Antigens encounter immune cells found in Peyer’s patches located in the distal ileum with FAE overlaying them. Due to environmental factors, genetic predisposition, immune dysregulation or dysbiosis the balance can be shifted which, in turn, will lead to the defect in the barrier function, leading to the development of disorders such as Crohn’s disease (CD). CD is a chronic inflammation in the GI tract, often originating in the distal ileum in FAE and associated with an increased number of adherent invasive strains of bacteria. Specifically adherent invasive E.coli (AIEC) that have been isolated from the ileum and colon of CD patients.The aim of the present thesis was to study bacterial epithelial interaction during inflammation in in vivo, ex vivo and in vitro models.In the first project we found that that Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (FP), possess anti-inflammatory properties in the ileum of an in vivo DSS induced colitis mouse model.In the second project, we discovered that infliximab, known to have anti-inflammatory effects by binding soluble TNF and blocking TNF receptors, reduces bacterial transcytosis across colonic biopsies of CD patients and decreases transcytosis and internalization in cell monolayers in vitro. Moreover, we demonstrated that HM427 bacteria, isolated from colonic mucosa of CD patients, uses lipid raft formations to penetrate the barrier under the influence of TNF in an in vitro model.In project three, we demonstrated that LF82 bacteria, which is an adherent invasive strain of E.coli that has been isolated from the ileum of CD patients, exploits FAE of CD patients and non-IBD control patients to penetrate the barrier via the CEACAM6 receptor and long polar fimbriae. We further demonstrated that there is an increased expression of CEACM6 receptor in the FAE of CD patients, which leads to increased transcytosis of LF82 compared to non-IBD control group.In project four, our results suggested that human α-defensin 5 significantly decreases the passage of LF82 bacteria in an in vitro and ex vivo models. Moreover, we demonstrated that CD patients have a lower expression of human α-defensin 5 in the crypts compared to the non-IBD control patients.Taken together, our findings have given a novel insight into the etiology of CD and into the mechanisms involved in bacterial-epithelial interaction in CD.
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