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Träfflista för sökning "AMNE:(MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES Basic Medicine Physiology) "

Sökning: AMNE:(MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES Basic Medicine Physiology)

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  • Ponsot, Elodie, 1973-, et al. (författare)
  • Skeletal muscle telomere length is not impaired in healthy physically active old women and men
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Muscle and Nerve. - 0148-639X .- 1097-4598. ; 37:4, s. 467-472
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>We have previously shown that the number of satellite cells is lower in old than young men and women. The aim of this study was to further explore the effects of aging on the regenerative potential of skeletal muscle in 16 young and 26 old men and women with comparable physical activity level (young, 25 +/- 4 years; old, 75 +/- 4 years). Mean and minimum telomere lengths were determined using Southern blot analyses on biopsies obtained from the tibialis anterior muscle. There were no significant age or gender effects on mean and minimal telomeric lengths, suggesting that the replicative potential in the remaining satellite cells in the tibialis anterior muscle is not impaired with increasing age and the existence of in vivo regulatory mechanisms allowing the maintenance of telomere length. These results imply that moderate physical activity regularly performed by old subjects is not associated with accelerated telomere loss.</p>
  • Ruiz, Jonatan R., et al. (författare)
  • Homocysteine levels in children and adolescents are associated with the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase 677C&gt;T genotype, but not with physical activity, fitness or fatness : the European Youth Heart Study
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Nutrition. - Cambridge : Cambridge university press. - 0007-1145 .- 1475-2662. ; 97:2, s. 255-262
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>To examine the associations of total plasma homocysteine (tHcy) with physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness and fatness in children and adolescents, a cross-sectional study of 301 children (9–10 years old) and 379 adolescents (15–16 years old) was conducted. Physical activity was measured by accelerometry. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured with a maximal ergometer bike test. Body fat was derived from the sum of five skinfold thicknesses. Genotyping for the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C&gt;T polymorphism was done by DNA sequencing. Fasting tHcy level was the outcome variable. Multiple regressions were used to determine the degree to which variance in tHcy was explained by physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness and body fat, after controlling for potential confounders including MTHFR 677C&gt;T genotype. tHcy levels were neither associated with any measure of level and pattern of physical activity nor with data on cardiorespiratory fitness, or body fat, in any age group after controlling for potential confounders including MTHFR 677C&gt;T and even when subgroups 677TT and 677CC+CT were analysed separately. Mean values of tHcy were significantly higher in the TT subgroup compared with CC and CT subgroups in children (TT 7·4 μmol/l, CC 6·3 μmol/l, CT 6·6 μmol/l, <em>P</em> &lt; 0·001 and <em>P</em> = 0·019, respectively) and adolescents (TT 16·9 μmol/l, CC 8·3 μmol/l, CT 9·0 μmol/l, both <em>P</em> &lt; 0·001). The results suggest that physical activity, fitness and body fat are not associated with tHcy levels in children and adolescents, even after controlling for presence of the MTHFR 677C&gt;T genotype, the main influence on tHcy levels in these subjects.</p>
  • Eliason, Gabriella, et al. (författare)
  • Physical performance and muscular characteristics in different stages of COPD
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports. - Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Inc.. - 0905-7188 .- 1600-0838. ; 19:6, s. 865-870
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>This study has examined exercise capacity and muscle morphology in patients with different severities of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Twenty-three patients and 12 healthy matched controls were recruited. Based on the severity of airflow obstruction, patients were divided into two subgroups. Exercise capacity was determined using a 6-min walk test. Muscle fiber composition, fiber area and number of satellite cells/muscle fiber were determined in muscle biopsies using immunohistochemistry. A progressive decline in exercise capacity was noted with ascending disease severity. Furthermore, a correlation between reduction in exercise capacity and changes in muscle fiber composition was observed in COPD. The group with severe and very severe COPD had a lower proportion of type I and a higher proportion of type IIa fibers compared with the other groups. In severe and very severe COPD, a reduction in fiber area of type IIa fibers was also seen. The number of satellite cells/muscle fiber did not differ between the groups. In conclusion, a decline in exercise capacity occurs already in mild and moderate COPD, indicating that the 6-min walk test is a reliable indicator of disease severity. Furthermore, changes in skeletal muscle morphology are associated with disease severity while muscle regenerative capacity is not altered.</p>
  • Norrman, Eva, et al. (författare)
  • Optimization of image process parameters through factorial experiments using a flat panel detector
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Physics in Medicine and Biology. - Bristol : IOP publishing. - 0031-9155 .- 1361-6560. ; 52:17, s. 5263-5276
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>In the optimization process of lumbar spine examinations, factorial experiments were performed addressing the question of whether the effective dose can be reduced and the image quality maintained by adjusting the image processing parameters. A 2(k)-factorial design was used which is a systematic and effective method of investigating the influence of many parameters on a result variable. Radiographic images of a Contrast Detail phantom were exposed using the default settings of the process parameters for lumbar spine examinations. The image was processed using different settings of the process parameters. The parameters studied were ROI density, gamma, detail contrast enhancement (DCE), noise compensation, unsharp masking and unsharp masking kernel (UMK). The images were computer analysed and an image quality figure (IQF) was calculated and used as a measurement of the image quality. The parameters with the largest influence on image quality were noise compensation, unsharp masking, unsharp masking kernel and detail contrast enhancement. There was an interaction between unsharp masking and kernel indicating that increasing the unsharp masking improved the image quality when combined with a large kernel size. Combined with a small kernel size however the unsharp masking had a deteriorating effect. Performing a factorial experiment gave an overview of how the image quality was influenced by image processing. By adjusting the level of noise compensation, unsharp masking and kernel, the IQF was improved to a 30% lower effective dose.</p>
  • Bjermo, Helena, 1981- (författare)
  • Dietary Fatty Acids and Inflammation Observational and Interventional Studies
  • 2011
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>Dietary fat quality influences the risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. A low-grade inflammation is suggested to contribute to the disease development, often accompanied by obesity. Whereas n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have been considered anti-inflammatory, n-6 PUFA have been proposed to act pro-inflammatory. Saturated fatty acids (SFA) act pro-inflammatory <em>in vitro</em>.</p> <p>This thesis aimed to investigate effects of different fatty acids on low-grade inflammation in observational and interventional studies. In Paper I and II, fatty acid composition in serum cholesterol esters was used as objective marker of dietary fat quality and related to serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and other circulating inflammatory markers in two population-based cohorts, conducted in middle-aged men and elderly men and women, respectively. In Paper III and IV, the impact of diets differing in fat quality on inflammation and oxidative stress was investigated in randomised controlled studies, in subjects with metabolic syndrome and abdominal obesity.</p> <p>In Paper I and II, a low proportion of linoleic acid (18:2 n-6) in serum was associated with higher CRP concentrations, indicating that a low intake of vegetable fats may be related to low-grade inflammation. High CRP concentrations were also associated with high proportions of palmitoleic (16:1) and oleic (18:1) acids and high stearoyl coenzymeA desaturase index, possibly reflecting altered fat metabolism and/or high SFA intake in this population. When comparing two high-fat diets rich in either saturated or monounsaturated fat, and two low-fat diets with or without long-chain n-3 PUFA supplementation during 12 weeks (Paper III), no differences in inflammation or oxidative stress markers were observed. Moreover, a 10-week intervention (Paper IV) with high linoleic acid intake showed no adverse effects on inflammation or oxidative stress. Instead, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist and tumor necrosis factor receptor-2 decreased after linoleic acid intake compared with a diet high in SFA.</p> <p>The results in this thesis indicate that dietary n-6 PUFA found in vegetable fats is associated with lower inflammation marker levels, and to some extent reduces systemic inflammation when compared with SFA. Supplementation of n-3 PUFA did not exert any systemic anti-inflammatory effects, maybe due to a relatively low dose.</p>
  • Jörntell, Henrik, et al. (författare)
  • Reciprocal bidirectional plasticity of parallel fiber receptive fields in cerebellar Purkinje cells and their afferent interneurons.
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Neuron. - Cell Press. - 0896-6273. ; 34:5, s. 797-806
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The highly specific relationships between parallel fiber (PF) and climbing fiber (CF) receptive fields in Purkinje cells and interneurons suggest that normal PF receptive fields are established by CF-specific plasticity. To test this idea, we used PF stimulation that was either paired or unpaired with CF activity. Conspicuously, unpaired PF stimulation that induced long-lasting, very large increases in the receptive field sizes of Purkinje cells induced long-lasting decreases in receptive field sizes of their afferent interneurons. In contrast, PF stimulation paired with CF activity that induced long-lasting decreases in the receptive fields of Purkinje cells induced long-lasting, large increases in the receptive fields of interneurons. These properties, and the fact the mossy fiber receptive fields were unchanged, suggest that the receptive field changes were due to bidirectional PF synaptic plasticity in Purkinje cells and interneurons.
  • Kadi, Fawzi, et al. (författare)
  • The behaviour of satellite cells in response to exercise : what have we learned from human studies?
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Pflügers Archiv : European Journal of Physiology. - 0031-6768 .- 1432-2013. ; 451:2, s. 319-327
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>Understanding the complex role played by satellite cells in the adaptive response to exercise in human skeletal muscle has just begun. The development of reliable markers for the identification of satellite cell status (quiescence/activation/proliferation) is an important step towards the understanding of satellite cell behaviour in exercised human muscles. It is hypothesised currently that exercise in humans can induce (1) the activation of satellite cells without proliferation, (2) proliferation and withdrawal from differentiation, (3) proliferation and differentiation to provide myonuclei and (4) proliferation and differentiation to generate new muscle fibres or to repair segmental fibre injuries. In humans, the satellite cell pool can increase as early as 4 days following a single bout of exercise and is maintained at higher level following several weeks of training. Cessation of training is associated with a gradual reduction of the previously enhanced satellite cell pool. In the elderly, training counteracts the normal decline in satellite cell number seen with ageing. When the transcriptional activity of existing myonuclei reaches its maximum, daughter cells generated by satellite cell proliferation are involved in protein synthesis by enhancing the number of nuclear domains. Clearly, delineating the events and the mechanisms behind the activation of satellite cells both under physiological and pathological conditions in human skeletal muscles remains an important challenge.</p>
  • Kadi, Fawzi, et al. (författare)
  • The effects of regular strength training on telomere length in human skeletal muscle
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. - 0195-9131 .- 1530-0315. ; 40:1, s. 82-87
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>PURPOSE: The length of DNA telomeres is an important parameter of the proliferative potential of tissues. A recent study has reported abnormally short telomeres in skeletal muscle of athletes with exercise-associated fatigue. This important report raises the question of whether long-term practice of sports might have deleterious effects on muscle telomeres. Therefore, we aimed to compare telomere length of a group of power lifters (PL; N = 7) who trained for 8 +/- 3 yr against that of a group of healthy, active subjects (C; N = 7) with no history of strength training. METHODS: Muscle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis, and the mean and minimum telomeric restriction fragments (TRF) (telomere length) were determined, using the Southern blot protocol previously used for the analysis of skeletal muscle. RESULTS: There was no abnormal shortening of telomeres in PL. On the contrary, the mean (P = 0.07) and the minimum (P = 0.09) TRF lengths in PL tended to be higher than in C. In PL, the minimum TRF length was inversely correlated to the individual records in squat (r = -0.86; P = 0.01) and deadlift (r = -0.88; P = 0.01). CONCLUSION: These results show for the first time that long-term training is not associated with an abnormal shortening of skeletal muscle telomere length. Although the minimum telomere length in PL remains within normal physiological ranges, a heavier load put on the muscles means a shorter minimum TRF length in skeletal muscle.</p>
  • Kadi, Fawzi, et al. (författare)
  • The number of satellite cells in slow and fast fibres from human vastus lateralis muscle
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Histochemistry and Cell Biology. - 0948-6143 .- 1432-119X. ; 126:1, s. 83-87
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>The aim of this investigation was to study the distribution of satellite cells in slow (type I fibres) and fast (type II fibres) fibres from human vastus lateralis muscle. This muscle is characterised by a mixed fibre type composition and is considered as the site of choice for biopsies in research work and for clinical diagnosis. Biopsy samples were obtained from five healthy young volunteers and a total of 1,747 type I fibres and 1,760 type II fibres were assessed. Satellite cells and fibre type composition were studied on serial muscle cross-sections stained with specific monoclonal antibodies. From a total of 218 satellite cells, 116 satellite cells were found in contact with type I fibres (53.6+/-8% of the satellite cells associated to type I fibres) and 102 satellite cells in contact with type II fibres (46.4+/-8% of the satellite cells associated to type II fibres). There was no significant difference (P=0.4) between the percentages of satellite cells in contact with type I and with type II fibres. Additionally, there was no relationship between the mean number of satellite cells per fibre and the mean cross-sectional area of muscle fibres. In conclusion, our results show that there is no fibre type-specific distribution of satellite cells in a human skeletal muscle with mixed fibre type composition.</p>
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