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Träfflista för sökning "AMNE:(MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES Clinical Medicine Clinical Laboratory Medicine) "

Sökning: AMNE:(MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES Clinical Medicine Clinical Laboratory Medicine)

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1.
  • Bin Kaderi, Mohamed Arifin, 1978- (författare)
  • Assessment of Novel Molecular Prognostic Markers in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia
  • 2010
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The clinical course of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is highly heterogeneous, which has prompted the search for biomarkers that can predict prognosis in this disease. The IGHV gene mutation status and certain genomic aberrations have been identified as reliable prognostic markers of clinical outcome for this disorder. However, the search for more feasible prognostic markers in CLL is still being pursued. Recently, certain single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the GNAS1, BCL2 and MDM2 genes and the RNA expression levels of the LPL, ZAP70, TCL1, CLLU1 and MCL1 genes were suggested as novel prognostic markers in CLL. In papers I-III, we performed genotyping analyses of the GNAS1 T393C, BCL2 -938C>A and MDM2 SNP309 polymorphisms in 268-418 CLL patients and related the genotypes with clinical data. Association studies between the polymorphisms and established prognostic markers (i.e. IGHV mutation status, genomic aberrations, CD38 expression) were also performed. Our studies did not find any significant relationship between these SNPs with either clinical outcome or other known prognostic markers in CLL. In paper IV, we measured the RNA expression levels of LPL, ZAP70, TCL1, CLLU1 and MCL1 in 252 CLL cases and correlated these levels with clinical outcome. Here, we verified that high expression of all these RNA-based markers, except MCL1, were associated with an unfavourable prognosis. We also confirmed a close relationship between IGHV mutation status and the RNA-based markers, especially for LPL and CLLU1 expression. Among the RNA-based markers, multivariate analysis revealed LPL expression as the strongest independent prognostic marker for overall survival and time to treatment. Furthermore, the RNA-based markers could add further prognostic information to established markers in subgroups of patients, with LPL expression status giving the most significant results. In summary, data from papers I-III could not verify the GNAS1 T393C, BCL2 -938C>A and MDM2 SNP309 polymorphisms as prognostic markers in CLL. Future SNP markers must hence be confirmed in large, independent cohorts before being proposed as prognostic marker in CLL. In paper IV, we conclude that LPL expression appears to be the strongest among the RNA-based markers for CLL prognostication. Further efforts to standardize LPL quantification are required before it can be applied in the clinical laboratory to predict clinical outcome in this disease.
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2.
  • Bäckryd, Emmanuel, et al. (författare)
  • High Levels of Cerebrospinal Fluid Chemokines Point to the Presence of Neuroinflammation in Peripheral Neuropathic Pain : A Cross-Sectional Study of Two Cohorts of Patients Compared to Healthy Controls
  • Ingår i: Uppsala Berzelii Technology Centre for Neurodiagnostics.
  • Annan publikation (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Animal models suggest that chemokines are important mediators in the pathophysiology of neuropathic pain. Indeed, these substances have been called “gliotransmitters”, a term that illustrates the close interplay between glial cells and neurons in the context of neuroinflammation and pain. However, evidence in humans is scarce. The aim of the study was to determine a comprehensive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) inflammatory profile for neuropathic pain patients. Our hypothesis was that we would thereby find indications of a postulated on-going process of central neuroinflammation.  CSF samples were collected from two cohorts of patients with neuropathic pain (n=11 and n=16, respectively) and healthy controls (n=11). The samples were analyzed with a multiplex proximity extension assay in which 92 inflammation-related proteins were measured simultaneously (Proseek® Multiplex Inflammation I, Olink Bioscience, Uppsala, Sweden). Univariate testing with control of false discovery rate, as well as orthogonal partial least squares – discriminant analysis, were used for statistical analyses.CSF levels of chemokines CXCL6, CXCL10, CCL8, CCL11, CCL23, as well as protein LAPTGF-beta-1, were significantly higher in both neuropathic pain cohorts compared to healthy controls, pointing to neuroinflammation in patients. These 6 proteins were also major results in a recent similar study in fibromyalgia patients. The findings need to be confirmed in larger cohorts, and the question of causality remains to be settled. Since it has been suggested that prevalent co-morbidities to chronic pain (e.g., depression, anxiety, poor sleep, and tiredness) also are associated with inflammation, it will be important to determine whether inflammation is a common mediator.
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3.
  • Lind, Anne-Li, et al. (författare)
  • Affinity Proteomics Applied to Patient CSF Identifies Protein Profiles Associated with Neuropathic Pain and Fibromyalgia
  • Ingår i: Berzelii Technology Centre of Neurodiagnostics.
  • Annan publikation (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Objective: Today, there are no biological tests on which to base pain diagnoses, treatment choices or to understand the biological processes underlying and accompanying chronic pain for the individual pain patient. Relevant biological markers would greatly aid in diagnosis and treatment of patients with chronic pain. Our study aimed to find proteins in CSF associated with fibromyalgia and neuropathic pain, two common and poorly understood chronic pain conditions.Methods: We have performed CSF protein profiling of 55 proteins using a 100-plex antibody suspension bead array. We collected, analyzed and compared CSF samples from 25 patients with neuropathic pain (two independent sets, n=14 patients for discovery and n=11 for verification), 40 patients with fibromyalgia and 135 controls without neurological disease from two different populations.Results: We found significant differences in CSF protein levels between patients and controls (p<0.05). Among these proteins, Apolipoprotein C1 (APOC1) was found to be increased in CSF of neuropathic pain patients compared to controls and there was a non-significant trend for increased levels also in fibromyalgia patient CSF. Ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase (ENPP2, Autotaxin) was increased in the CSF of fibromyalgia patients compared to all other groups including neuropathic pain patients.  Multivariate analysis revealed partially overlapping and partially distinct CSF profiles in neuropathic pain patients compared with fibromyalgia and controls for several other proteins including angiotensinogen (AGT), prostaglandin-H2 D-isomerase (PTGDS), neurexin-1 (NRXN1), superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) and superoxide dismutase 3 (SOD3).Conclusions: Our results, suggest that the CSF protein profiles of neuropathic pain and fibromyalgia patients may be different from each other and from those of controls. CSF levels of APOC1, ENPP2, AGT, PTGDS, NRXN1, SOD1 and SOD3 should be further investigated for their potential to serve as biomarkers of different kinds of pain pathophysiology.
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4.
  • Aulin, Cecilia, 1979- (författare)
  • Extracellular Matrix Based Materials for Tissue Engineering
  • 2010
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The extracellular matrix is (ECM) is a network of large, structural proteins and polysaccharides, important for cellular behavior, tissue development and maintenance. Present thesis describes work exploring ECM as scaffolds for tissue engineering by manipulating cells cultured in vitro or by influencing ECM expression in vivo. By culturing cells on polymer meshes under dynamic culture conditions, deposition of a complex ECM could be achieved, but with low yields. Since the major part of synthesized ECM diffused into the medium the rate limiting step of deposition was investigated. This quantitative analysis showed that the real rate limiting factor is the low proportion of new proteins which are deposited as functional ECM. It is suggested that cells are pre-embedded in for example collagen gels to increase the steric retention and hence functional deposition. The possibility to induce endogenous ECM formation and tissue regeneration by implantation of growth factors in a carrier material was investigated. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) is a growth factor known to be involved in growth and differentiation of bone and cartilage tissue. The BMP-2 processing and secretion was examined in two cell systems representing endochondral (chondrocytes) and intramembranous (mesenchymal stem cells) bone formation. It was discovered that chondrocytes are more efficient in producing BMP-2 compared to MSC. The role of the antagonist noggin was also investigated and was found to affect the stability of BMP-2 and modulate its effect. Finally, an injectable gel of the ECM component hyaluronan has been evaluated as delivery vehicle in cartilage regeneration. The hyaluronan hydrogel system showed promising results as a versatile biomaterial for cartilage regeneration, could easily be placed intraarticulary and can be used for both cell based and cell free therapies.
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5.
  • Malmström, Annika, 1957- (författare)
  • Studies for Better Treatment of Patients with Glioma
  • 2019
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • In Sweden annually over 500 people will be diagnosed with the malignant brain tumor glioma. They are graded from I-IV. The majority are glioblastoma (grade IV) (GBM), these being the most aggressive type. Median survival for those treated with standard of care is expected to be around 15 months. This tumor will mainly affect those 60 years or older.The studies in this thesis focus on treatment of patients with malignant gliomas grade III and IV. The aim of the studies is to improve the care of glioma patients. Papers I and II explored different therapeutic options in randomized trials, to facilitate individualized treatment recommendations. Findings from studies I and II, together with additional trials, demonstrated the importance of analyzing the tumor marker O6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) methylation status for survival of GBM patients treated with Temozolomide (TMZ). The third paper investigated how the analysis of this marker is implemented internationally.The first study (paper I, Nordic trial) investigated treatment options for patients 60 years or older with GBM. The trial compared standard radiotherapy (SRT) over 6 weeks versus hypofractionated radiotherapy (HRT) over 2 weeks versus single agent TMZ administered in up to six 4 weekly cycles. In all, 342 patients were included in the trial. This study demonstrated that those randomized to TMZ had superior survival as compared to SRT. In addition, quality of life (QoL) data also suggested a better QoL for TMZ treatment than for radiotherapy. The benefit of TMZ treatment seemed to be limited to those with the tumor molecular marker MGMT methylated (inactivated).The second trial (paper II, Neoadjuvant trial) studied whether integrating TMZ treatment with SRT for patients younger than 60 years with GBM (grade IV) and astrocytoma grade III would confer a survival benefit, if administered postoperatively, before the start of SRT (neoadjuvant). TMZ was provided for 2-3 four weekly cycles followed by SRT to patients randomized to neoadjuvant treatment and was compared to postoperative SRT alone. Although this trial could not illustrate any advantage of delaying the start of SRT while administering TMZ for the study cohort in general, for those included as astrocytoma grade III the median survival was found to be superior by 5 years when randomized to neoadjuvant TMZ. This trial also confirmed the importance of MGMT promoter methylation for the efficacy of TMZ.The third study (paper III) investigated international practices for analyzing tumor MGMT promoter methylation status. MGMT analysis can be conducted by various laboratory methods, which in some cases can provide opposing results regarding the MGMT methylation status of the patient´s tumor. This can lead to incorrect treatment recommendations. To establish which methods and cut-offs that are regularly used to determine tumor MGMT status in the clinic, an international survey was provided to those working in the field. We also inquired about opinions regarding an international consensus on how MGMT should be tested. The 152 respondents reported several methodologies and different cut-off levels also for the same method. A majority of respondents warrant international guidelines.In conclusion, the results of the 2 randomized trials contribute to individualized treatment recommendations for patients affected by GBM or astrocytoma grade III. The results of the survey regarding analyses of MGMT clarify the current problematic situation. The request of the respondents regarding international guidelines might contribute to their future development, so that personalized treatment recommendations can be improved.
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6.
  • Senkowski, Wojciech (författare)
  • High-throughput screening using multicellular tumor spheroids to reveal and exploit tumor-specific vulnerabilities
  • 2017
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • High-throughput drug screening (HTS) in live cells is often a vital part of the preclinical anticancer drug discovery process. So far, two-dimensional (2D) monolayer cell cultures have been the most prevalent model in HTS endeavors. However, 2D cell cultures often fail to recapitulate the complex microenvironments of in vivo tumors. Monolayer cultures are highly proliferative and generally do not contain quiescent cells, thought to be one of the main reasons for the anticancer therapy failure in clinic. Thus, there is a need for in vitro cellular models that would increase predictive value of preclinical research results. The utilization of more complex three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures, such as multicellular tumor spheroids (MCTS), which contain both proliferating and quiescent cells, has therefore been proposed. However, difficult handling and high costs still pose significant hurdles for application of MCTS for HTS.In this work, we aimed to develop novel assays to apply MCTS for HTS and drug evaluation. We also set out to identify cellular processes that could be targeted to selectively eradicate quiescent cancer cells. In Paper I, we developed a novel MCTS-based HTS assay and found that nutrient-deprived and hypoxic cancer cells are selectively vulnerable to treatment with inhibitors of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). We also identified nitazoxanide, an FDA-approved anthelmintic agent, to act as an OXPHOS inhibitor and to potentiate the effects of standard chemotherapy in vivo. Subsequently, in Paper II we applied the high-throughput gene-expression profiling method for MCTS-based drug screening. This led to discovery that quiescent cells up-regulate the mevalonate pathway upon OXPHOS inhibition and that the combination of OXPHOS inhibitors and mevalonate pathway inhibitors (statins) results in synergistic toxicity in this cell population. In Paper III, we developed a novel spheroid-based drug combination-screening platform and identified a set of molecules that synergize with nitazoxanide to eradicate quiescent cancer cells. Finally, in Paper IV, we applied our MCTS-based methods to evaluate the effects of phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors in PDE3A-expressing cell lines.In summary, this work illustrates how MCTS-based HTS yields potential to reveal and exploit previously unrecognized tumor-specific vulnerabilities. It also underscores the importance of cell culture conditions in preclinical drug discovery endeavors.
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7.
  • Westin, Jerker, et al. (författare)
  • A new computer method for assessing drawing impairment in Parkinson's disease
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Journal of Neuroscience Methods. - Amsterdam : Elsevier. - 0165-0270 .- 1872-678X. ; 190:1, s. 143-148
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A test battery, consisting of self-assessments and motor tests (tapping and spiral drawing tasks) was used on 9482 test occasions by 62 patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) in a telemedicine setting. On each test occasion, three Archimedes spirals were traced. A new computer method, using wavelet transforms and principal component analysis processed the spiral drawings to generate a spiral score. In a web interface, two PD specialists rated drawing impairment in spiral drawings from three random test occasions per patient, using a modification of the Bain & Findley 10-category scale. A standardised manual rating was defined as the mean of the two raters’ assessments. Bland-Altman analysis was used to evaluate agreement between the spiral score and the standardised manual rating. Another selection of spiral drawings was used to estimate the Spearman rank correlations between the raters (r = 0.87), and between the mean rating and the spiral score (r = 0.89). The 95% confidence interval for the method's prediction errors was ±1.5 scale units, which was similar to the differences between the human raters. In conclusion, the method could assess PD-related drawing impairments well comparable to trained raters.
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8.
  • Fredenberg, Erik, 1979-, et al. (författare)
  • A low-absorption x-ray energy filter for small-scale applications
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Optics Express. - 1094-4087 .- 1094-4087. ; 17:14, s. 11388-11398
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present an experimental and theoretical evaluation of an x-ray energy filter based on the chromatic properties of a prism-array lens (PAL). It is intended for small-scale applications such as medical imaging. The PAL approximates a Fresnel lens and allows for high efficiency compared to filters based on ordinary refractive lenses, however at the cost of a lower energy resolution. Geometrical optics was found to provide a good approximation for the performance of a flawless lens, but a field-propagation model was used for quantitative predictions. The model predicted a 0.29 ΔE/E energy resolution and an intensity gain of 6.5 for a silicon PAL at 23.5 keV. Measurements with an x-ray tube showed good agreement with the model in energy resolution and peak energy, but a blurred focal line contributed to a 29% gain reduction. We believe the blurring to be caused mainly by lens imperfections, in particular at the periphery of the lens.
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9.
  • Ahlander, Britt-Marie, 1954- (författare)
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Heart : Image quality, measurement accuracy and patient experience
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Background: Non-invasive diagnostic imaging of atherosclerotic coronary artery disease (CAD) is frequently carried out with cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) or myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (MPS). CMR is the gold standard for the evaluation of scar after myocardial infarction and MPS the clinical gold standard for ischemia. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is at times difficult for patients and may induce anxiety while patient experience of MPS is largely unknown.Aims: To evaluate image quality in CMR with respect to the sequences employed, the influence of atrial fibrillation, myocardial perfusion and the impact of patient information. Further, to study patient experience in relation to MRI with the goal of improving the care of these patients.Method: Four study designs have been used. In paper I, experimental cross-over, paper (II) experimental controlled clinical trial, paper (III) psychometric crosssectional study and paper (IV) prospective intervention study. A total of 475 patients ≥ 18 years with primarily cardiac problems (I-IV) except for those referred for MRI of the spine (III) were included in the four studies.Result: In patients (n=20) with atrial fibrillation, a single shot steady state free precession (SS-SSFP) sequence showed significantly better image quality than the standard segmented inversion recovery fast gradient echo (IR-FGRE) sequence (I). In first-pass perfusion imaging the gradient echo-echo planar imaging sequence (GREEPI) (n=30) had lower signal-to-noise and contrast–to-noise ratios than the steady state free precession sequence (SSFP) (n=30) but displayed a higher correlation with the MPS results, evaluated both qualitatively and quantitatively (II). The MRIAnxiety Questionnaire (MRI-AQ) was validated on patients, referred for MRI of either the spine (n=193) or the heart (n=54). The final instrument had 15 items divided in two factors regarding Anxiety and Relaxation. The instrument was found to have satisfactory psychometric properties (III). Patients who prior CMR viewed an information video scored significantly (lower) better in the factor Relaxation, than those who received standard information. Patients who underwent MPS scored lower on both factors, Anxiety and Relaxation. The extra video information had no effect on CMR image quality (IV).Conclusion: Single shot imaging in atrial fibrillation produced images with less artefact than a segmented sequence. In first-pass perfusion imaging, the sequence GRE-EPI was superior to SSFP. A questionnaire depicting anxiety during MRI showed that video information prior to imaging helped patients relax but did not result in an improvement in image quality.
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10.
  • Fredenberg, Erik, 1979- (författare)
  • Spectral Mammography with X-Ray Optics and a Photon-Counting Detector
  • 2009
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Early detection is vital to successfully treating breast cancer, and mammography screening is the most efficient and wide-spread method to reach this goal. Imaging low-contrast targets, while minimizing the radiation exposure to a large population is, however, a major challenge. Optimizing the image quality per unit radiation dose is therefore essential. In this thesis, two optimization schemes with respect to x-ray photon energy have been investigated: filtering the incident spectrum with refractive x-ray optics (spectral shaping), and utilizing the transmitted spectrum with energy-resolved photon-counting detectors (spectral imaging). Two types of x-ray lenses were experimentally characterized, and modeled using ray tracing, field propagation, and geometrical optics. Spectral shaping reduced dose approximately 20% compared to an absorption-filtered reference system with the same signal-to-noise ratio, scan time, and spatial resolution. In addition, a focusing pre-object collimator based on the same type of optics reduced divergence of the radiation and improved photon economy by about 50%. A photon-counting silicon detector was investigated in terms of energy resolution and its feasibility for spectral imaging. Contrast-enhanced tumor imaging with a system based on the detector was characterized and optimized with a model that took anatomical noise into account. Improvement in an ideal-observer detectability index by a factor of 2 to 8 over that obtained by conventional absorption imaging was found for different levels of anatomical noise and breast density. Increased conspicuity was confirmed by experiment. Further, the model was extended to include imaging of unenhanced lesions. Detectability of microcalcifications increased no more than a few percent, whereas the ability to detect large tumors might improve on the order of 50% despite the low attenuation difference between glandular and cancerous tissue. It is clear that inclusion of anatomical noise and imaging task in spectral optimization may yield completely different results than an analysis based solely on quantum noise.
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