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  • Stjernman, Henrik, et al. (författare)
  • Short health scale : a valid, reliable, and responsive instrument for subjective health assessment in Crohn's disease.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases. - New York, NY : Raven Press. - 1078-0998. ; 14:1, s. 47-52
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is an essential part of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) assessment. The Short Health Scale (SHS), an HRQoL questionnaire in which the patients rate the disease impact on 4 important aspects of subjective health (symptoms, function, worry, and general well-being) was demonstrated in a previous study to be valid, reliable, and responsive in patients with ulcerative colitis. The present study evaluates the SHS in patients with Crohn's disease (CD). METHODS: In all, 367 CD patients completed the SHS and 4 other HRQoL questionnaires (IBDQ, SF-36, RFIPC, and PGWB) at their regular outpatient visits. Then 330 patients completed the questionnaires at a second visit 6 months later. In addition, reliability data were obtained from repeat measurements 4 weeks after the first visit in 40 patients stable in remission. RESULTS: Patients in remission scored better on all 4 questions than those with active disease (P < 0.001). All 4 questions were strongly correlated with the corresponding dimensions of the other HRQoL questionnaires (r(s) = 0.74-0.83). Reliability was confirmed with strong test-retest correlations (r(s) = 0.69-0.82) and intraclass correlation coefficients (0.66-0.77). Patients who changed from remission to active disease or vice versa showed a significant change in all 4 SHS scores (P < 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: SHS is a valid, reliable and responsive HRQoL instrument also in patients with CD. It is easily completed by the patient and requires no further calculation by the investigator. SHS gives a comprehensive overview of the main aspects of the patient's subjective health perception and is a useful tool in both clinical practice and clinical studies.
  • Jonefjäll, Börje, et al. (författare)
  • IBS-like Symptoms in Patients with Ulcerative Colitis in Deep Remission Are Associated with Increased Levels of Serum Cytokines and Poor Psychological Well-being
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases. - 1078-0998. ; 22:11, s. 2630-2640
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal symptoms (GI) compatible with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are common in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) in remission. The causes of these symptoms remain to be clarified. Our aim was to investigate prevalence and factors associated with IBS-like symptoms in patients with UC in deep remission.METHODS: We included 298 patients with UC and used Mayo score, sigmoidoscopy, and fecal calprotectin to define deep remission versus active disease. Presence of IBS-like symptoms according to the Rome III criteria, severity of GI, extraintestinal and psychological symptoms, stress levels, and quality of life were measured with validated questionnaires. Serum cytokines and high-sensitive C-reactive peptide were determined.RESULTS: The criteria for deep remission was fulfilled by 132 patients (44%) and 24 of these fulfilled the Rome III criteria for IBS (18%). Patients with UC in deep remission with IBS-like symptoms had comparable levels of GI symptoms, non-GI somatic symptoms, and quality of life as patients with active UC. The patients with UC in deep remission with IBS-like symptoms had similar levels of fecal calprotectin as patients in deep remission without IBS-like symptoms (18 versus 31 μg/g, P = 0.11), but higher levels of serum cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-6, IL-13, IL-10 and IL-8, P < 0.05) and higher levels of anxiety (P < 0.001), depression (P = 0.02) and perceived stress (P = 0.03).CONCLUSIONS: IBS-like symptoms in patients with UC in deep remission are common, but not as prevalent as previously reported. Poor psychological well-being and increased serum cytokine levels, but not colonic low-grade inflammation, were associated with IBS-like symptoms.
  • Ludvigsson, Jonas F., et al. (författare)
  • A population-based study of coeliac disease, neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory diseases
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics. - 0269-2813. ; 25:11, s. 1317-1327
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background It has been suggested that coeliac disease (CD) is associated with several neurological diseases. However, the evidence of such an association is inconclusive as earlier research has often been based on small numbers with retrospective data collection. Aim To use Cox regression to examine the risk of neurological disease in individuals with CD. Methods Through Swedish national registers we identified some 14 000 individuals with a diagnosis of CD (1964–2003) and 70 000 reference individuals matched for age, sex, calendar year and county. Results Coeliac disease was associated with later polyneuropathy [hazard ratio (HR) = 3.4; 95% CI = 2.3–5.1]. We found no statistically significant association between CD and subsequent multiple sclerosis (HR = 0.9; 95% CI = 0.3–2.3), Parkinson’s disease (HR = 1.2; 95% CI = 0.8–1.9), Alzheimer’s disease (HR = 1.5; 95% CI = 0.9–2.6), hereditary ataxia (HR = 1.3; 95% CI = 0.5–3.6), the symptom ataxia (HR = 1.9; 95% CI = 0.6–6.2), Huntington’s disease (HR = 1.7; 95% CI = 0.3–8.6), myasthenia gravis (HR = 0.8; 95% CI = 0.2–3.8) or spinal muscular atrophy (HR = 0.5; 95% CI = 0.1–3.8). Prior polyneuropathy was associated with subsequent CD (odds ratio = 5.4; 95% CI = 3.6–8.2). Conclusions The association between CD and polyneuropathy indicates shared risks. We suggest that individuals with polyneuropathy routinely undergo screening for CD. There is no notable association between CD and other neurological outcomes investigated in this study.
  • Ludvigsson, Jonas F., et al. (författare)
  • Coeliac disease and the risk of fractures : a general population-based cohort study
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics. - Oxford : Blackwell Scientific. - 0269-2813. ; 25:3, s. 273-285
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Background: Earlier studies have suggested that untreated coeliac disease may be associated with osteoporosis, but results are contradictory for the risk of long-term fractures.Aim: To study the association between coeliac disease and fractures.Methods: We used Cox regresson to examine the future risk of hip fracture and fracture of any type in more than 13 000 individuals with coeliac disease and 65 000 age- and sex-matched reference individuals in a general population-based cohort.Results: During follow-up, 1365 first hip fractures and 4847 fractures of any type occurred. Coeliac disease was positively associated with subsequent hip fracture (hazard ratio = 2.1; 95% CI = 1.8-2.4) (in children: hazard ratio = 2.6; 95% CI = 1.1-6.2) and fractures of any type (hazard ratio = 1.4; 95% CI = 1.3-1.5) (in children: hazard ratio = 1.1; 95% CI = 1.0-1.2). The absolute excess risk of hip fractures in children with coeliac disease was 4/100 000 person-years. Incidence ratios for hip fracture in individuals with CD were around two both prior to diagnosis of coeliac disease and afterwards; this risk increase remained 20 years after diagnosis of coeliac disease.Conclusions: Individuals with coeliac disease, including children with coeliac disease, may be at increased risk of hip fracture and fracture of any type. Coeliac disease may be positively associated with long-term hip fracture risk.
  • Elfström, Peter, et al. (författare)
  • Risk of primary adrenal insufficiency in patients with celiac disease
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. - Chevy Chase, Md. : Endocrine Society. - 0021-972X. ; 92:9, s. 3595-3598
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: Earlier research has suggested a positive association between Addison’s disease (AD) and celiac disease (CD).Wehave here investigated the risk of AD in individuals with CD from a general population cohort.Methods: Through the Swedish national registers we identified 14,366 individuals with a diagnosis of CD (1964–2003) and 70,095 reference individuals matched for age, sex, calendar year, and county of residence. We used Cox regression to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for subsequent AD. Analyses were restricted to individuals with more than 1 yr of follow-up and without AD prior to study entry or within 1 yr after study entry. Conditional logistic regression estimated the odds ratio for CD in individuals with prior AD.Results: There was a statistically significantly positive association between CD and subsequent AD [HR _ 11.4; 95% confidence interval (CI) _ 4.4 –29.6]. This risk increase was seen in both children and adults and did not change with adjustment for diabetes mellitus or socioeconomic status. When we restricted reference individuals to inpatients, the adjusted HR for AD was 4.6 (95% CI _ 1.9 –11.4). Individuals with prior AD were at increased risk of CD (odds ratio _ 8.6; 95% CI _ 3.4 –21.8).Conclusions: This study found a highly increased risk of AD in individuals with CD. This relationship was independent of temporal sequence. We therefore recommend that individuals with AD should be screened for CD. We also suggest an increased awareness of AD in individuals with CD.
  • Elfström, Peter, et al. (författare)
  • Risk of Thyroid Disease in Individuals with Celiac Disease
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. - 0021-972X. ; 93:10, s. 3915-3921
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: It has been suggested that celiac disease is associated with thyroid disease. Earlier studies, however, have been predominately cross-sectional and have often lacked controls. There is hence a need for further research. In this study, we estimated the risk of thyroid disease in individuals with celiac disease from a general population cohort.Methods: A total of 14,021 individuals with celiac disease (1964–2003) and a matched reference population of 68,068 individuals were identified through the Swedish national registers. Cox regression estimated the risk of thyroid disease in subjects with celiac disease. Analyses were restricted to individuals with a follow-up ofmorethan 1 yr and withnothyroid disease before study entry or within 1 yr after study entry. Conditional logistic regression estimated the odds ratio for subsequent celiac disease in individuals with thyroid disease.Results: Celiac disease was positively associated with hypothyroidism [hazard ratio (HR)_4.4;95% confidence interval (CI) _ 3.4 –5.6; P _ 0.001], thyroiditis (HR _ 3.6; 95% CI _1.9–6.7; P _ 0.001) and hyperthyroidism (HR_2.9;95%CI_2.0–4.2; P_0.001). The highest risk estimates were found in children (hypothyroidism, HR _ 6.0 and 95% CI _ 3.4 –10.6; thyroiditis, HR _ 4.7 and 95% CI _ 2.1–10.5; hyperthyroidism, HR _ 4.8 and 95% CI _ 2.5–9.4). In post hoc analyses, where the reference population was restricted to inpatients, the adjusted HR was 3.4 for hypothyroidism (95% CI_2.7– 4.4; P_0.001), 3.3 for thyroiditis(95%CI_1.5–7.7; P_0.001), and 3.1 for hyperthyroidism (95% CI _ 2.0–4.8; P _ 0.001).Conclusion: Celiac disease is associated with thyroid disease, and these associations were seen regardless of temporal sequence. This indicates shared etiology and that these individuals are more susceptible to autoimmune disease.
  • Åkerman, Linda, 1983- (författare)
  • Aspects of the Pre-Diabetic Period in Type 1 Diabetes
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease characterized by insulin deficiency, due to immune-mediated destruction of beta cells. Current knowledge regarding the period preceding disease onset comes, to a large extent, from studying risk cohorts based on relatives of T1D-patients, as they have an increased disease risk. Among T1D patients in general, however, few have the disease in their immediate family. It is therefore important to study risk cohorts from the general population as well. An ongoing autoimmune reaction can often be seen in the blood long before disease onset, by detection of autoantibodies directed towards beta cell antigens. By autoantibody screening among participants in the ABIS (All Babies in the South-east of Sweden) cohort, we could identify a group of children from the general population with increased risk for T1D, positive for multiple autoantibodies. They were enrolled in a 2-year prospective follow-up aiming to characterize the prediabetic period and to identify factors indicative of progression/non-progression to T1D. We assessed glucose homeostasis and autoantibody titers over time, and searched for risk-biomarkers by analyzing the expression of immune-related genes (Th1-Th2-Th3) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from these children, in comparison to healthy children and newly diagnosed T1D patients. In the same groups we also compared serum micro RNA (miRNA) profiles, knowing that miRNA molecules have desirable biomarker properties. We found that two specific autoantibodies, IA2A and ZnT8A, were detected at higher concentrations in risk-individuals who progressed to overt T1D during or after the follow-up period, compared to those who still have not. We also observed disturbed glucose homeostasis long before onset in the progressors, but it was seen among those who remain symptom free as well. Further, we found support for the possible role of insulin resistance as an accelerator of the disease process. For gene expression and serum miRNA, few differences were observed between risk-individuals and healthy children overall. However, for PBMC gene expression and serum miRNA both, there were associations to beta cell function and glucose homeostasis, and for miRNA also to islet autoantibodies. Although specific profiles for prediction of disease onset or identification of risk-individuals could not be found, these results are interesting and deserve to be evaluated further. As part of another sub-study within ABIS, the effects of physical activity on glucose homeostasis were assessed in healthy schoolchildren. The level of physical activity, measured by pedometers, was related to insulin resistance and beta cell-stress, and decreased physical activity was associated with increased insulin resistance and load on the insulin-producing beta cells, already at school-age.
  • Elfström, Peter, 1974-, et al. (författare)
  • Cardiomyopathy, pericarditis and myocarditis in a population-based cohort of inpatients with coeliac disease
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Journal of Internal Medicine. - Oxford : Blackwell Publishing. - 0954-6820. ; 262:5, s. 545-554
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: We investigated the risk of myocarditis, cardiomyopathy, and pericarditis in patients with celiac disease (CD) from a general population cohort.Subjects and methods: Through the Swedish national registers we identified 9363 children and 4969 adults with a diagnosis of CD (1964–2003). These individuals were matched with upto five reference individuals for age, sex, calendar year and county (n = 69 851). Cox regression estimated hazard ratios (HRs) for later heart disease. Main outcome measures: Myocarditis, cardiomyopathy (any or dilated), and pericarditis defined according torelevant international classification of disease codes in the Swedish national inpatient register.Results: Celiac disease diagnosed in childhood was not associated with later myocarditis (HR = 0.2; 95% CI = 0.0–1.5), cardiomyopathy of any type (HR = 0.8; 95% CI = 0.2–3.7), or pericarditis (HR = 0.4; 95% CI = 0.1–1.9). Restricting our analyses to adulthood CD and heart disease diagnosed from 1987 and onwards in departments of cardiology ⁄ internal medicine, we found no association between CD and later myocarditis (HR = 2.1; 95% CI = 0.4–11.7), dilated cardiomyopathy (HR = 1.7; 95% CI = 0.4– 6.5) or pericarditis (HR = 1.5; 95% CI = 0.5–4.0).Conclusion: This study found no association between CD, later myocarditis, cardiomyopathy or pericarditis
  • Bergquist, Annika, et al. (författare)
  • Increased risk of primary sclerosing cholangitis and ulcerative colitis in first-degree relatives of patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. - 1542-3565. ; 6:8, s. 939-943
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background & Aims: The importance of genetic factors for the development of primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is incompletely understood. This study assessed the risk of PSC and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) among first-degree relatives of patients with PSC, compared with the first-degree relatives of a cohort without PSC. Methods: Subjects from the national Swedish cohort of PSC patients (n = 678) were matched for date of birth, sex, and region to up to 10 subjects without a diagnosis of PSC (n = 6347). Linkage through general population registers identified first-degree relatives of subjects in both the PSC and comparison cohorts (n = 34,092). Diagnoses among first-degree relatives were identified by using the Inpatient Register. Results: The risk of cholangitis was statistically significantly increased in offspring, siblings, and parents of the PSC patient cohort, compared with relatives of the comparison cohort, with the hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals, 11.5 (1.6–84.4), 11.1 (3.3–37.8), and 2.3 (0.9–6.1), respectively. The hazard ratios for ulcerative colitis (UC) among first-degree relatives of all PSC patients was 3.3 (2.3–4.9) and for Crohn's disease 1.4 (0.8–2.5). The risk of UC for relatives of PSC patients without IBD was also increased, 7.4 (2.9–18.9). Conclusions: First-degree relatives of patients with PSC run an increased risk of PSC, indicating the importance of genetic factors in the etiology of PSC. First-degree relatives of PSC patients without IBD are also at an increased risk of UC, which might indicate shared genetic susceptibility factors for PSC and UC. 
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