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1.
  • Högberg, Cecilia, et al. (författare)
  • Immunochemical faecal occult blood tests in primary care and the risk of delay in the diagnosis of colorectal cancer
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care. - : Informa Healthcare. - 0281-3432 .- 1502-7724. ; 31:4, s. 209-214
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective. To evaluate the value, risks, and shortcomings of immunochemical faecal occult blood tests (iFOBTs) in the diagnosis of colorectal cancer (CRC) and adenomas with high-grade dysplasia (HGD) in patients initially presenting to primary care. Design. A retrospective population-based study. Setting and subjects. All 495 cases of CRC and adenomas with HGD diagnosed in the county of Jamtland, Sweden from 2005 to 2009. Results. Of 495 patients 323 (65%) initially presented to primary care. IFOBTs were performed in 215 of 323 (67%) patients. The sensitivity of iFOBT for CRC and adenomas with HGD was 88% (83% when patients with a history of rectal bleeding were excluded). Of 34 patients with anaemia found en passant, 10 had negative iFOBTs. Time to diagnosis was longer for patients with negative iFOBTs (p < 0.0005). Conclusion. IFOBT might be helpful in selecting which patients to refer for colonoscopy. However, iFOBT has a limited sensitivity as a diagnostic test for CRC and adenomas with HGD. Relying only on iFOBT for colonoscopy referral could delay diagnosis, especially for patients with anaemia found en passant.
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2.
  • Lytsy, Per, 1968- (författare)
  • Power of the Pill : Views about Cardiovascular Risk and the Risk-reducing Effect of Statins
  • 2010
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Medical treatments with statins are prescribed to patients with increased risk of cardiovascular events. The benefits from statin treatment are well documented in clinical trials, but long-term adherence in patients is low, indicating that patients have an uncertainty about the necessity and benefits of treatment. The aims of this thesis were to investigate how patients and doctors view different aspects of statin treatment. Further aims were to investigate if the cardiovascular risk level in patients affects their views about different aspects of statin treatment. Yet further aims were to compare health behaviours and views about risk factors in patients using statins to a non-treated population. Data was obtained from patients (n = 829), doctors (n = 330) and a population sample (n = 720) using postal questionnaires. Views about the effect of statin treatment were assessed in different ways for patients and doctors. Patients based their assessments on their own situation, and doctors’ treatment decisions and assessments of anticipated effect of treatment were based on two hypothetical patient cases. The results indicate that patients greatly overestimate the general effect of statins, compared to efficacy results reported from clinical trials. Patients’ previous coronary heart disease or high overall risk were factors not associated with their views and expectations of treatment effect. Statin users with an internally perceived health control and patients satisfied with their doctor’s treatment explanation reported higher beliefs in treatment necessity and benefits. Statin users reported having better health behaviours and generally rated risk factors as more important than the non-treated population. Doctors had suboptimal understanding of the number of patients expected to benefit following five years of statin treatment and had a varying understanding of statins’ ability to prolong life. Overall the results illustrate that patients and doctors have different perspectives and views of the benefits from statin treatment which puts emphasis on how statin treatment is discussed in the clinical setting.
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3.
  • Liljeroos, Maria, 1965-, et al. (författare)
  • Long-term effects of a dyadic psycho-educational intervention on caregiver burden and morbidity in partners of patients with heart failure : a randomized controlled trial
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Quality of Life Research. - Dordrecht : Springer Netherlands. - 0962-9343 .- 1573-2649. ; 26:2, s. 367-379
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundPartners of patients with heart failure provide both practical and emotional support. Many partners assume caregiving responsibilities without being aware of the burden related with this role.ObjectiveOur work has established that a psycho-educational intervention has benefits at 3, but not at 12 months for patients with heart failure. Further we had not described the long-term effects in caregivers. This study aimed to determine the 24-months effects of a dyadic psycho-educational intervention on caregiver burden and morbidity in partners of patients with heart failure and study factors associated with a change in caregiver burden.DesignA randomized controlled study design, with a follow-up assessment after 24 months.Setting and participantsPartners to patients with heart failure were recruited from two hospitals in the southeast of Sweden.InterventionA three session nurse-led psycho-educational program was tested and included psychosocial support to maintain the partners’ physical and mental functions, and perceived control. Several instrument were used to measure caregiver burden, perceived control, physical and mental health, depression and morbidity.ResultsOne hundred fifty-five partners were included. There were no significant differences in any index of caregiver burden or morbidity among the partners in the intervention and control groups after 24 months. Overall, the mean total caregiver burden was found to be significantly increased compared to baseline (36 ± 12 vs 38 ± 14, p < 0.05). A younger partner, less comorbidity, higher levels of perceived control, better physical health and less symptoms of depression in patients, and better mental health in the partners were factors associated with absence of increased caregiver burden over time.Discussion and conclusionOur intervention did not significantly decrease caregiver burden or morbidity. Over time, several aspects of burden increased in both groups. To improve outcomes, individualized and targeted interventions might be beneficial.
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4.
  • Liljeroos, Maria (författare)
  • Caring needs in patient-partner dyads affected by heart failure : An evaluation of the long-term effects of a dyadic psycho-educational intervention
  • 2017
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Introduction: As medical treatment has improved, patients with heart failure (HF) now live longer and care mostly takes place at home with partners providing the main assistance. Taking care of an ill or disabled individual imposes a well-documented burden on the partner’s healthrelated quality of life. The awareness of partners’ burdensome situation is increasing, but few interventions have targeted the needs of patientpartner dyads with HF. The results have been inconclusive and give no clear guidance on how interventional programmes should be designed to improve both patient and partner outcomes.Aim: The overall aim of this thesis was to evaluate the effects of a psychoeducational intervention delivered to patient-partner dyads with HF during long-term follow-up, and to explore the dyads’ perceived caring needs.Methods: The thesis is based on four papers that used both quantitative and qualitative data. Study I and II used a randomized controlled design with a follow-up assessment after 24 months including 155 patientpartner dyads. The control group received care as usual. The intervention group received care as usual, and in addition they participated in the nurse-led psycho-educational intervention. Data was collected using questionnaires before and 24 months after the intervention, in order to determine the long-term effects on patients and partners regarding health related quality of life, perceived control, symptoms of depression and partners’ caregiver burden (I, II). A conceptual health promotion model inspired the intervention. To describe how the model was applied, a qualitative approach analysing nurses’ documentation of the sessions with 71 dyads in the intervention group (III) was used. Study IV has an explorative design. To further explore the dyads’ perceived caring needs, focus groups interviews with 19 patient-partner dyads with heart failure (IV) were performed.Results: The intervention did not have any significant effect on physical or mental health- related quality of life, depressive symptoms, or perceived control over the heart failure among the dyads (I) or caregiver burden in the partners (II) after 24 months. Furthermore, time to first event did not differ significantly between the dyads in the intervention group and the control group (I, II). As for the partners, both the intervention and control group reported decreased physical health between the baseline assessment and the 24-month follow-up (I). The intervention was composed of three components; 1) cognitive 2) supportive, and 3) behavioural component. The analysis of the nurses’ documentation confirmed the coverage of all the components and the analysis revealed a vide range of caring needs among the dyads (III). The dyads described a need to learn about HF to be able to manage everyday life. Regular outpatient clinic visits and access to telephone support were vital and both the patient and the partner need to be present at the clinic visits. Meeting others who are in the same situation and sharing the burden in nurse-led group sessions was proposed as an opportunity to support each other and others (IV).Conclusions: Over the 24-month follow-up period, the intervention had a neutral effect on health- related quality of life, depressive symptoms and perceived control over the HF among the dyads, and on partners’ caregiver burden. Considering the fact that partners serve as a critical extension of the formal healthcare system, and that both patients and partners ask for more support, it will become crucial to find new ways to support dyads affected by heart failure. This thesis may be viewed as a first step in trying to understand dyads’ perceived caring needs, and it can serve as a guide in clinical work and when designing new dyadic interventions.
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5.
  • Möllerberg, Marie-Louise, et al. (författare)
  • The effects of a cancer diagnosis on the health of a patient's partner : a population-based registry study of cancer in Sweden
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Cancer Care. - : John Wiley and Sons Inc.. - 0961-5423 .- 1365-2354. ; 25:5, s. 744-752
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of this population-based registry study was to explore how cancer influences the health of partners, by examining the onset of new diagnoses for partners, health care use and health care costs among partners living with patients with cancer. The sample consisted of partners of patients with cancer (N = 10 353) and partners of age- and sex-matched controls who did not have cancer (N = 74 592). Diagnoses, health care use and health care costs were studied for a continuous period starting 1 year before the date of cancer diagnosis and continued for 3 years. One year after cancer diagnosis, partners of patients with cancer had significantly more mood disorders, reactions to severe stress and ischaemic heart disease than they exhibited in the year before the diagnosis. Among partners of patients with cancer, the type of cancer was associated with the extent and form of increased health care use and costs; both health care use and costs increased among partners of patients with liver cancer, lung cancer, colon cancer and miscellaneous other cancers. The risk of poorer health varied according to the type of cancer diagnosed, and appeared related to the severity and prognosis of that diagnosis.
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6.
  • Westman, Anders, 1946- (författare)
  • Musculoskeletal pain in primary health care : a biopsychosocial perspective for assessment and  treatment
  • 2010
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Long-term musculoskeletal pain is a large public health problem with serious consequences for both the individual and society. Psychosocial factors have been shown to be good predictors of long-term disability and play an important role in the transition from acute to chronic pain. Early identification and intervention of those that run the risk of developing long-term disability would offer a great opportunity for reducing costs and personal suffering. The overall aim of this thesis was to assess a biopsychosocial approach to the assessment and management of musculoskeletal pain patients in primary health care. To this end, biopsychosocial assessment and treatment methods were tested in two different populations of primary care patients suffering pain. Results indicated that improvements in quality of life and work capacity one year after early multimodal rehabilitation were basically maintained after five years. The most salient prognostic factors determining return to work were educational level and the individual’s perceived health (Study I). Psychosocial factors as measured by the Örebro Musculoskeletal Pain Screening Questionnaire (ÖMPSQ) were related to disability and perceived health three years after treatment for non-acute pain problems (Study II). The experimental group in the controlled multimodal pain rehabilitation programme had lower health care utilization and a reduced risk of using large amounts of medication after three years compared with the participants in the control group. However, there were no significant differences between the groups on variables such as work capacity, function, catastrophizing and pain (Study III). Distinct profiles of catastrophizing, fear-avoidance beliefs, and distress were extracted and meaningfully related to future sick leave and dysfunction (Study IV). Our findings provide support for the biopsychosocial model and highlight the importance of psychosocial factors in long-term outcome. The results underscore the need for early identification of patients at risk. Further, multimodal treatment that covers not only biological but also psychosocial factors seems to be a key to successful treatment, and ideally this intervention should be matched to the patients' needs.
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7.
  • Ödesjö, Helena, et al. (författare)
  • Pay for performance associated with increased volume of medication reviews but not with less inappropriate use of medications among the elderly - an observational study
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care. - : Taylor & Francis. - 0281-3432 .- 1502-7724. ; 35:3, s. 271-278
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: A pay for performance programme was introduced in 2009 by a Swedish county with 1.6 million inhabitants. A process measure with payment linked to coding for medication reviews among the elderly was adopted. We assessed the association with inappropriate medication for five years after baseline. Design and setting: Observational study that compared medication for elderly patients enrolled at primary care units that coded for a high or low volume of medication reviews. Patients: 144,222 individuals at 196 primary care centres, age 75 or older. Main outcome measures: Percentage of patients receiving inappropriate drugs or polypharmacy during five years at primary care units with various levels of reported medication reviews. Results: The proportion of patients with a registered medication review had increased from 3.2% to 44.1% after five years. The high-coding units performed better for most indicators but had already done so at baseline. Primary care units with the lowest payment for coding for medication reviews improved just as well in terms of inappropriate drugs as units with the highest payment - from 13.0 to 8.5%, compared to 11.6 to 7.4% and from 13.6 to 7.2% vs 11.8 to 6.5% for polypharmacy. Conclusions: Payment linked to coding for medication reviews was associated with an increase in the percentage of patients for whom a medication review had been registered. However, the impact of payment on quality improvement is uncertain, given that units with the lowest payment for medication reviews improved equally well as units with the highest payment.
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8.
  • Gonzalez, Manuel, et al. (författare)
  • Effect of a lifestyle-focused electronic patient support application for improving risk factor management, self-rated health, and prognosis in post-myocardial infarction patients : study protocol for a multi-center randomized controlled trial
  • Ingår i: Trials. - : BioMed Central (BMC). - 1745-6215. ; 20:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programs addressing risk factor management, educational interventions, and exercise contribute to reduce mortality after myocardial infarction (MI). However, the fulfillment of guideline-recommended CR targets is currently unsatisfactory. eHealth, i.e., the use of electronic communication for healthcare, including the use of mobile smartphone applications combined with different sensors and interactive computerized programs, offers a new array of possibilities to provide clinical care. The present study aims to assess the efficacy of a web-based application (app) designed to support persons in adhering to lifestyle advice and medication as a complement to traditional CR programs for improvement of risk factors and clinical outcomes in patients with MI compared with usual care. METHODS/DESIGN: An open-label multi-center randomized controlled trial is being conducted at different CR centers from three Swedish University Hospitals. The aim is to include 150 patients with MI < 75 years of age who are confident smartphone and/or Internet users. In addition to participation in CR programs according to the usual routine at each center, patients randomized to the intervention arm will receive access to the web-based app. A CR nurse reviews the patients' self-reported data twice weekly through a medical interface at the clinic. The primary outcome of the study will be change in submaximal exercise capacity (in watts) between 2 and 4 weeks after discharge and when the patient has completed his/her exercise program at the CR center, usually around 3-6 months post-discharge. Secondary outcomes include changes in self-reported physical activity, objectively assessed physical activity by accelerometry, self-rated health, dietary, and smoking habits, body mass index, blood pressure, blood lipids, and glucose/HbA1c levels between inclusion and follow-up visits during the first year post-MI. Additionally, we will assess uptake and adherence to the application, the number of CR staff contacts, and the incidence of cardiovascular events at 1 and 3 years after the MI. Patient recruitment started in 2016, and the first study results are expected in the beginning of 2019. DISCUSSION: The present study will add evidence to whether electronic communication can be used to improve traditional CR programs for patients after MI. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03260582 . Retrospectively registered on 24 August 2017.
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9.
  • Ahlander, Britt-Marie, 1954- (författare)
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Heart : Image quality, measurement accuracy and patient experience
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Background: Non-invasive diagnostic imaging of atherosclerotic coronary artery disease (CAD) is frequently carried out with cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) or myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (MPS). CMR is the gold standard for the evaluation of scar after myocardial infarction and MPS the clinical gold standard for ischemia. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is at times difficult for patients and may induce anxiety while patient experience of MPS is largely unknown.Aims: To evaluate image quality in CMR with respect to the sequences employed, the influence of atrial fibrillation, myocardial perfusion and the impact of patient information. Further, to study patient experience in relation to MRI with the goal of improving the care of these patients.Method: Four study designs have been used. In paper I, experimental cross-over, paper (II) experimental controlled clinical trial, paper (III) psychometric crosssectional study and paper (IV) prospective intervention study. A total of 475 patients ≥ 18 years with primarily cardiac problems (I-IV) except for those referred for MRI of the spine (III) were included in the four studies.Result: In patients (n=20) with atrial fibrillation, a single shot steady state free precession (SS-SSFP) sequence showed significantly better image quality than the standard segmented inversion recovery fast gradient echo (IR-FGRE) sequence (I). In first-pass perfusion imaging the gradient echo-echo planar imaging sequence (GREEPI) (n=30) had lower signal-to-noise and contrast–to-noise ratios than the steady state free precession sequence (SSFP) (n=30) but displayed a higher correlation with the MPS results, evaluated both qualitatively and quantitatively (II). The MRIAnxiety Questionnaire (MRI-AQ) was validated on patients, referred for MRI of either the spine (n=193) or the heart (n=54). The final instrument had 15 items divided in two factors regarding Anxiety and Relaxation. The instrument was found to have satisfactory psychometric properties (III). Patients who prior CMR viewed an information video scored significantly (lower) better in the factor Relaxation, than those who received standard information. Patients who underwent MPS scored lower on both factors, Anxiety and Relaxation. The extra video information had no effect on CMR image quality (IV).Conclusion: Single shot imaging in atrial fibrillation produced images with less artefact than a segmented sequence. In first-pass perfusion imaging, the sequence GRE-EPI was superior to SSFP. A questionnaire depicting anxiety during MRI showed that video information prior to imaging helped patients relax but did not result in an improvement in image quality.
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10.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)
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