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Träfflista för sökning "AMNE:(MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES Clinical Medicine Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine) "

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1.
  • Edvardsson, Kristina, et al. (författare)
  • 'Ultrasound is an invaluable third eye, but it can't see everything' : a qualitative study with obstetricians in Australia
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. - : BioMed Central. - 1471-2393 .- 1471-2393. ; 14
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Obstetric ultrasound has come to play a significant role in obstetrics since its introduction in clinical care. Today, most pregnant women in the developed world are exposed to obstetric ultrasound examinations, and there is no doubt that the advantages of obstetric ultrasound technique have led to improvements in pregnancy outcomes. However, at the same time, the increasing use has also raised many ethical challenges. This study aimed to explore obstetricians' experiences of the significance of obstetric ultrasound for clinical management of complicated pregnancy and their perceptions of expectant parents' experiences.Methods: A qualitative study was undertaken in November 2012 as part of the CROss-Country Ultrasound Study (CROCUS). Semi-structured individual interviews were held with 14 obstetricians working at two large hospitals in Victoria, Australia. Transcribed data underwent qualitative content analysis.Results: An overall theme emerged during the analyses, 'Obstetric ultrasound - a third eye', reflecting the significance and meaning of ultrasound in pregnancy, and the importance of the additional information that ultrasound offers clinicians managing the surveillance of a pregnant woman and her fetus. This theme was built on four categories: I:'Everyday-tool' for pregnancy surveillance, II: Significance for managing complicated pregnancy, III: Differing perspectives on obstetric ultrasound, and IV: Counselling as a balancing act. In summary, the obstetricians viewed obstetric ultrasound as an invaluable tool in their everyday practice. More importantly however, the findings emphasise some of the clinical dilemmas that occur due to its use: the obstetricians' and expectant parents' differing perspectives and expectations of obstetric ultrasound examinations, the challenges of uncertain ultrasound findings, and how this information was conveyed and balanced by obstetricians in counselling expectant parents.Conclusions: This study highlights a range of previously rarely acknowledged clinical dilemmas that obstetricians face in relation to the use of obstetric ultrasound. Despite being a tool of considerable significance in the surveillance of pregnancy, there are limitations and uncertainties that arise with its use that make counselling expectant parents challenging. Research is needed which further investigates the effects and experiences of the continuing worldwide rapid technical advances in surveillance of pregnancies.
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2.
  • Holmer, Hampus (författare)
  • Measuring global surgery, obstetrics and anaesthesia from health systems to patients
  • 2019
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • BackgroundWorldwide, an estimated 5 billion people lack access to safe, affordable surgical care when needed. This leads to millions of avertable deaths and unnecessary morbidity each year. To change this situation, urgent action is needed at many levels, but indicators and data have been lacking to guide improvement.AimsThe aim of this thesis was to describe and evaluate measurement of surgical public health. Organised according to the Lancet Commission on Global Surgery indicator framework, the thesis specifically aimed to: I. quantify global access to emergency obstetric care; II. describe the global distribution of specialist surgeons, anaesthesiologists and obstetricians; III. measure the rate and mortality of Caesarean sections in Sierra Leone, the country with the world’s highest maternal mortality; IV. to propose a new study design for collecting data on surgical outcomes; V. calculate the cost-effectiveness of surgical care, as exemplified by Ponseti club foot repair, and; VI. critically review the global data collection efforts of the six Lancet global surgery indicators.MethodsTo address these aims, a range of methodologies were employed: I. Available reports of national and sub-national data on the met need for emergency obstetric care were collected, reviewed and analysed; II. National data on the number and distribution of the specialist surgical workforce were collected; III. The rate and outcomes of Caesarean sections in Sierra Leone were analysed based on data from facilities and from the national Maternal Death Surveillance and Response system; IV. A protocol for collecting data on perioperative mortality of emergency abdominal surgery was developed; V. Cost effectiveness analysis was carried out for club foot repair; VI. Data on the six indicators proposed by the Lancet Commission on Global Surgery in 2015 were collected, and indicators analysed and critically reviewed.ResultsThe global met need for emergency obstetric care was 45% [interquartile range 28–57%], and the met need was significantly correlated with the proportion of births attended by skilled birth attendants. There were an estimated two million specialist surgeons, obstetricians and anaesthesiologists, of which only 20% serve the poorest half of the world. In 2016, the Sierra Leonean Caesarean section rate was 2.9% of all deliveries, with a perioperative mortality rate of 1.5%. A multicentre, international, prospective cohort study protocol for the measurement of perioperative mortality of emergency abdominal surgery was published. Clubfoot repair by the Ponseti method was highly cost-effective at 22 USD per averted Disability Adjusted Life Year. The six indicators proposed by The Lancet Commission on Global Surgery have been implemented to varying degrees, with definitional challenges as well as lack of commitment and structures for data collection.SignificanceMeasuring global surgery, obstetrics and anaesthesia – from health systems to patients explores methods of measuring surgical care in the context of a growing recognition of the need to increase access to safe, affordable surgical care around the globe. This research has provided baseline data on several indicators, some of which have been adopted by the WHO and the World Bank. Furthermore, it has critically reviewed the six indicators proposed for global implementation, and made suggestions for further improvement. Good quality indicators are paramount for guiding further efforts in global surgery, obstetrics and anaesthesia, with potential impact for surgical patients, families and societies today and in the future.
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3.
  • Derakhshan, A., et al. (författare)
  • Association of urinary bisphenols and triclosan with thyroid function during early pregnancy
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Environment International. - : Elsevier. - 0160-4120 .- 1873-6750. ; 133
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Bisphenols and triclosan are considered as potential thyroid disruptors. While mild alterations in maternal thyroid function can result in adverse pregnancy and child developmental outcomes, there is still uncertainty whether bisphenols or triclosan can interfere with thyroid function during pregnancy. Objectives: We aimed to investigate the association of urinary bisphenol A (BPA), bisphenol S (BPS), bisphenol F (BPF) and triclosan with early pregnancy thyroid function. Methods: This study was embedded in the Swedish Environmental Longitudinal, Mother and child, Asthma and allergy study (SELMA), a population-based prospective pregnancy cohort. In total, 1996 participants were included in the current study. Maternal urinary concentrations of three bisphenols and triclosan, collected at median (95% range) 10 (6–14) weeks of pregnancy as well as serum concentrations of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), total thyroxine (TT4), and total triiodothyronine (TT3) were measured. Results: Higher BPA levels were associated with lower TT4 concentrations (non-monotonic, P = 0.03), a lower FT4/FT3 ratio (β [SE] -0.02 [0.01], P = 0.03) and a lower TT4/TT3 ratio (β [SE] -0.73 [0.27], P = 0.008). Higher BPF levels were associated with a higher FT3 (β [SE] 0.01 [0.007], P = 0.04). There were no associations between other bisphenols or triclosan and absolute TSH, (F)T4 or (F)T3 concentrations. The association of BPA with thyroid function differed with gestational age. The negative association of BPA with FT4/FT3 and TT4/TT3 ratios was only apparent in early but not late gestation (P for interaction: 0.003, 0.008, respectively). Conclusion: These human data during pregnancy substantiate experimental findings suggesting that BPA could potentially affect thyroid function and deiodinase activities in early gestation.
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4.
  • Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf, 1957-, et al. (författare)
  • A Novel Approach to Chemical Mixture Risk Assessment—Linking Data from Population-Based Epidemiology and Experimental Animal Tests
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Risk Analysis. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 0272-4332 .- 1539-6924. ; 39:10, s. 2259-2271
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Humans are continuously exposed to chemicals with suspected or proven endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Risk management of EDCs presents a major unmet challenge because the available data for adverse health effects are generated by examining one compound at a time, whereas real-life exposures are to mixtures of chemicals. In this work, we integrate epidemiological and experimental evidence toward a whole mixture strategy for risk assessment. To illustrate, we conduct the following four steps in a case study: (1) identification of single EDCs (“bad actors”)—measured in prenatal blood/urine in the SELMA study—that are associated with a shorter anogenital distance (AGD) in baby boys; (2) definition and construction of a “typical” mixture consisting of the “bad actors” identified in Step 1; (3) experimentally testing this mixture in an in vivo animal model to estimate a dose–response relationship and determine a point of departure (i.e., reference dose [RfD]) associated with an adverse health outcome; and (4) use a statistical measure of “sufficient similarity” to compare the experimental RfD (from Step 3) to the exposure measured in the human population and generate a “similar mixture risk indicator” (SMRI). The objective of this exercise is to generate a proof of concept for the systematic integration of epidemiological and experimental evidence with mixture risk assessment strategies. Using a whole mixture approach, we could find a higher rate of pregnant women under risk (13%) when comparing with the data from more traditional models of additivity (3%), or a compound-by-compound strategy (1.6%).
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5.
  • Christenson, Anne, et al. (författare)
  • “…or else I close my ears” How women with obesity want to be approached and treated regarding gestational weight management : A qualitative interview study.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - : Public Library of Science. - 1932-6203. ; 14:9, s. 1-17
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: The importance of helping pregnant women maintain a healthy lifestyle and prevent excessive gestational weight gain is well recognized, but pregnant women do not always perceive communication about body weight as respectful or helpful. Furthermore, fear of inducing shame or guilt can prohibit some midwives from talking about body weight, especially if the woman has obesity. We aimed to explore what women of reproductive age with obesity regard to be the most important and relevant aspects when discussing gestational weight management. Methods: Qualitative interview study using focus groups and individual semi-structured interviews with 17 women of reproductive age (19–39 y) with obesity. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the data. Results: We identified three themes: 1) Importance of obtaining vital medical information; 2) A wish to feel understood and treated with respect; 3) Midwives’ approach is crucial in sensitive key situations, which include bringing up the subject of body weight, weighing, providing weight-related information, coaching lifestyle modification, dealing with emotional reactions and ending a conversation. Conclusions: A majority of the interviewed women wished to receive information about risks about obesity and gestational weight gain, and recommendations on weight management. However, the risk of midwives offending someone by raising the topic may be increased if the pregnant woman believe that gestational weight gain is uncontrollable by the individual. Also, several situations during maternity care meetings can be stigmatizing and make women less receptive to advice or support. Women suggest that a good working alliance is likely to be achieved if midwives have knowledge about the causes of obesity, take interest in the patients’ background, have a non-judgmental approach and refrain from giving unsolicited advice. 
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6.
  • Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf, et al. (författare)
  • The SELMA study : a birth cohort study in Sweden following more than 2000 mother-child pairs
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology. - Hoboken, USA : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0269-5022 .- 1365-3016. ; 26:5, s. 456-467
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background:  This paper describes the background, aim and study design for the Swedish SELMA study that aimed to investigate the importance of early life exposure during pregnancy and infancy to environmental factors with a major focus on endocrine disrupting chemicals for multiple chronic diseases/disorders in offspring.Methods: The cohort was established by recruiting women in the 10th week of pregnancy. Blood and urine from the pregnant women and the child and air and dust from home environment from pregnancy and infancy period have been collected. Questionnaires were used to collect information on life styles, socio-economic status, living conditions, diet and medical history.Results: Of the 8394 reported pregnant women, 6658 were invited to participate in the study. Among the invited women, 2582 (39%) agreed to participate. Of the 4076 (61%) non-participants, 2091 women were invited to a non-respondent questionnaire in order to examine possible selection bias. We found a self-selection bias in the established cohort when compared with the non-participant group, e.g. participating families did smoke less (14% vs. 19%), had more frequent asthma and allergy symptoms in the family (58% vs. 38%), as well as higher education among the mothers (51% vs. 36%) and more often lived in single-family houses (67% vs. 60%).Conclusions: These findings indicate that the participating families do not fully represent the study population and thus, the exposure in this population. However, there is no obvious reason that this selection bias will have an impact on identification of environmental risk factors.
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7.
  • Brennan, Donal J., et al. (författare)
  • Tumour-specific HMG-CoAR is an independent predictor of recurrence free survival in epithelial ovarian cancer
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: ; 10, s. 125-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Our group previously reported that tumour-specific expression of the rate-limiting enzyme in the mevalonate pathway, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutharyl-coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoAR) is associated with more favourable tumour parameters and a good prognosis in breast cancer. In the present study, the prognostic value of HMG-CoAR expression was examined in tumours from a cohort of patients with primary epithelial ovarian cancer. Methods: HMG-CoAR expression was assessed using immunohistochemistry (IHC) on tissue microarrays (TMA) consisting of 76 ovarian cancer cases, analysed using automated algorithms to develop a quantitative scoring model. Kaplan Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards modelling were used to estimate the risk of recurrence free survival (RFS). Results: Seventy-two tumours were suitable for analysis. Cytoplasmic HMG-CoAR expression was present in 65% (n = 46) of tumours. No relationship was seen between HMG-CoAR and age, histological subtype, grade, disease stage, estrogen receptor or Ki-67 status. Patients with tumours expressing HMG-CoAR had a significantly prolonged RFS (p = 0.012). Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that HMG-CoAR expression was an independent predictor of improved RFS (RR = 0.49, 95% CI (0.25-0.93); p = 0.03) when adjusted for established prognostic factors such as residual disease, tumour stage and grade. Conclusion: HMG-CoAR expression is an independent predictor of prolonged RFS in primary ovarian cancer. As HMG-CoAR inhibitors, also known as statins, have demonstrated anti-neoplastic effects in vitro, further studies are required to evaluate HMG-CoAR expression as a surrogate marker of response to statin treatment, especially in conjunction with current chemotherapeutic regimens.
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8.
  • Carlsson, Ing-Marie, 1961-, et al. (författare)
  • Maintaining power : Women's experiences from labour onset before admittance to maternity ward
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Midwifery. - Kidlington, UK : Churchill Livingstone. - 0266-6138 .- 1532-3099. ; 28:1, s. 86-92
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: in Sweden pregnant women are encouraged to remain at home until the active phase of labour. Recommendation is based on evidence, that women who seek care and are admitted in the latent phase of labour are subjected to more obstetric interventions and suffer more complications than women who remain at home until the active phase of labour. The aim of this study was to obtain a deeper understanding of how women, who remain at home until the active phase of labour, experience the period from labour onset until admission to labour ward. Method: interviews were conducted with 19 women after they had given birth to their first child. A Constructivist Grounded theory method was used. Findings: 'Maintaining power' was identified as the core category, explaining the women's experience of having enough power, when the labour started. Four related categories: to share the experience with another', to listen to the rhythm of the body', to distract oneself and to be encased in a glass vessel', explained how the women coped and thereby maintained power. Conclusions: the first time mothers in this study, who managed to stay at home during the latent phase of labour, had a sense of power that was expressed as a driving force towards the birth, a bodily and mental strength and the right to decide over their own bodies. This implies that women who maintain power have the ability to make choices during the birth process. The professionals need to be sensitive, supportive and respectful to women's own preferences in the health-care encounter, to promote the existing power throughout the birthing process. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.
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9.
  • Löfgren, Magnus, 1979- (författare)
  • Behavioral effects of female sex steroid hormones : models of PMS and PMDD in Wistar rats
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Stress- och könshormoners verkningar på centrala nervsystemet. - Umaå : Department of Clinical Sciences, Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Background Animal models can be used to mimic human conditions of psychopathology, and also as pre-clinical models to evaluate candidate drugs. With hormonal treatment it is possible to produce behavior in the rat which corresponds to the mental symptoms of pre-menstrual syndrome (PMS), and pre-menstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). PMS affects 25-30 % of all women in fertile age and 3-8% are diagnosed with the more severe condition PMDD. The cardinal mental symptoms are; irritability, mood-swings, depression, anxiety, fatigue, insomnia, difficulties with concentration and memory and learning difficulties. The symptoms of PMS/PMDD occur in the luteal phase in conjunction with increasing concentrations of progesterone (P4) and P4-metabolites. In anovulatory cycles the symptoms are absent. The hormones which produce the monthly reoccurring negative symptoms on mood are foremost the neuroactive metabolites; allopregnanolone (ALLO) and tetrahydro-deoxycorticosterone (THDOC). ALLO is produced by the corpus luteum, but can also be synthesized in the brain, both ALLO and THDOC can also be released from the adrenal cortex during stress. These steroids are active on the inhibitory GABA neurotransmitter system through the GABAA receptor, and the effects are similar to that of alcohol and benzodiazepines. These steroids have strong sedative and hypnotic effects. A paradox is that some individuals seem to react with negative mood on sex steroids while all fertile women have the cyclical steroid changes during the menstrual cycle. Some individuals are more sensitive to neuroactive steroids with influences of personality, heritability and stress factors. Aims The thesis aims were to develop pre-clinical animal models of PMS/PMDD and to investigate induction of ALLO tolerance, individual sensitivity to neurosteroids and the interactions between chronic social stress and neurosteroids. Methods In these studies male and female Wistar rats were used to test steroid hormone effects on learning and memory and behaviors analogous to negative mood symptoms. This was accomplished through hormonal treatment and a subsequent withdrawal period from P4 (P4) + estradiol (E2) (PEWD), or ALLO. To assess tolerance, memory and learning in the Morris water maze (MWM) was studied. Anxiety-like behaviors were tested with the elevated plus maze (EPM), open field test (OFT), and the intruder test (IT). The EPM or OFT was used to classify the rats as high or low responders on risk-taking and explorative behavior (HR/LR). For social ranking order assessment the tube test (TT) and food competition test (FCT) were used. Chronic social stress was accomplished through co-habituation with two older rats (chronic subordination stress). In female rats the estrous cycle followed using staining of vaginal smears. Concentration of corticosterone (CORT) was measured by radio-immuno-assay (RIA). Results In the MWM ALLO pre-treatment produced tolerance to the acute negative ALLO effects. Both male and female rats showed behavioral correlations between the EPM and OFT tests, and correlations were also seen in CORT levels. Individuals with the stable trait of high risk-taking and explorative behavior (HR) were more sensitive to PEWD induction of anxiety-like behavior. These animals also showed decreased CORT levels during withdrawal. Chronic subordination stress enhanced the response to PEWD on measures of locomotor activity and social anxiety-like behavior. Conclusions It is possible to induce tolerance to the negative ALLO effects on learning and memory. The animal models of anxiety-like behavior show an individual PEWD response profile where HR rats are more sensitive. Exposure to chronic social stress enhanced the PEWD response. Hence there are both inherent and environmental factors behind the behavioral response to steroid hormones in rats.
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