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  • Gustavsson, Anders, et al. (författare)
  • Cost of disorders of the brain in Europe 2010.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: European Neuropsychopharmacology. - Amsterdam : Elsevier. - 0924-977X .- 1873-7862. ; 21:10, s. 718-79
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The spectrum of disorders of the brain is large, covering hundreds of disorders that are listed in either the mental or neurological disorder chapters of the established international diagnostic classification systems. These disorders have a high prevalence as well as short- and long-term impairments and disabilities. Therefore they are an emotional, financial and social burden to the patients, their families and their social network. In a 2005 landmark study, we estimated for the first time the annual cost of 12 major groups of disorders of the brain in Europe and gave a conservative estimate of €386 billion for the year 2004. This estimate was limited in scope and conservative due to the lack of sufficiently comprehensive epidemiological and/or economic data on several important diagnostic groups. We are now in a position to substantially improve and revise the 2004 estimates. In the present report we cover 19 major groups of disorders, 7 more than previously, of an increased range of age groups and more cost items. We therefore present much improved cost estimates. Our revised estimates also now include the new EU member states, and hence a population of 514 million people.AIMS: To estimate the number of persons with defined disorders of the brain in Europe in 2010, the total cost per person related to each disease in terms of direct and indirect costs, and an estimate of the total cost per disorder and country.METHODS: The best available estimates of the prevalence and cost per person for 19 groups of disorders of the brain (covering well over 100 specific disorders) were identified via a systematic review of the published literature. Together with the twelve disorders included in 2004, the following range of mental and neurologic groups of disorders is covered: addictive disorders, affective disorders, anxiety disorders, brain tumor, childhood and adolescent disorders (developmental disorders), dementia, eating disorders, epilepsy, mental retardation, migraine, multiple sclerosis, neuromuscular disorders, Parkinson's disease, personality disorders, psychotic disorders, sleep disorders, somatoform disorders, stroke, and traumatic brain injury. Epidemiologic panels were charged to complete the literature review for each disorder in order to estimate the 12-month prevalence, and health economic panels were charged to estimate best cost-estimates. A cost model was developed to combine the epidemiologic and economic data and estimate the total cost of each disorder in each of 30 European countries (EU27+Iceland, Norway and Switzerland). The cost model was populated with national statistics from Eurostat to adjust all costs to 2010 values, converting all local currencies to Euro, imputing costs for countries where no data were available, and aggregating country estimates to purchasing power parity adjusted estimates for the total cost of disorders of the brain in Europe 2010.RESULTS: The total cost of disorders of the brain was estimated at €798 billion in 2010. Direct costs constitute the majority of costs (37% direct healthcare costs and 23% direct non-medical costs) whereas the remaining 40% were indirect costs associated with patients' production losses. On average, the estimated cost per person with a disorder of the brain in Europe ranged between €285 for headache and €30,000 for neuromuscular disorders. The European per capita cost of disorders of the brain was €1550 on average but varied by country. The cost (in billion €PPP 2010) of the disorders of the brain included in this study was as follows: addiction: €65.7; anxiety disorders: €74.4; brain tumor: €5.2; child/adolescent disorders: €21.3; dementia: €105.2; eating disorders: €0.8; epilepsy: €13.8; headache: €43.5; mental retardation: €43.3; mood disorders: €113.4; multiple sclerosis: €14.6; neuromuscular disorders: €7.7; Parkinson's disease: €13.9; personality disorders: €27.3; psychotic disorders: €93.9; sleep disorders: €35.4; somatoform disorder: €21.2; stroke: €64.1; traumatic brain injury: €33.0. It should be noted that the revised estimate of those disorders included in the previous 2004 report constituted €477 billion, by and large confirming our previous study results after considering the inflation and population increase since 2004. Further, our results were consistent with administrative data on the health care expenditure in Europe, and comparable to previous studies on the cost of specific disorders in Europe. Our estimates were lower than comparable estimates from the US.DISCUSSION: This study was based on the best currently available data in Europe and our model enabled extrapolation to countries where no data could be found. Still, the scarcity of data is an important source of uncertainty in our estimates and may imply over- or underestimations in some disorders and countries. Even though this review included many disorders, diagnoses, age groups and cost items that were omitted in 2004, there are still remaining disorders that could not be included due to limitations in the available data. We therefore consider our estimate of the total cost of the disorders of the brain in Europe to be conservative. In terms of the health economic burden outlined in this report, disorders of the brain likely constitute the number one economic challenge for European health care, now and in the future. Data presented in this report should be considered by all stakeholder groups, including policy makers, industry and patient advocacy groups, to reconsider the current science, research and public health agenda and define a coordinated plan of action of various levels to address the associated challenges.RECOMMENDATIONS: Political action is required in light of the present high cost of disorders of the brain. Funding of brain research must be increased; care for patients with brain disorders as well as teaching at medical schools and other health related educations must be quantitatively and qualitatively improved, including psychological treatments. The current move of the pharmaceutical industry away from brain related indications must be halted and reversed. Continued research into the cost of the many disorders not included in the present study is warranted. It is essential that not only the EU but also the national governments forcefully support these initiatives.
  • Dahlén, A, et al. (författare)
  • Analysis of the distribution and frequency of trisomy 7 in vivo in synovia from patients with osteoarthritis and pigmented villonodular synovitis
  • Ingår i: Cancer Genetics and Cytogenetics. - : Elsevier. - 0165-4608. ; 131:1, s. 19-24
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Osteoarthritis (OA) and pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) are disorders associated with trisomy 7. The aim of the present study was to determine the frequency and distribution of the cells with +7 in vivo by analyzing sections of paraffin-embedded synovia from patients affected by OA, PVNS, other forms of synovitis [hemorragic synovitis (HS) and chronic synovitis (CS)], and from individuals without joint disease. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), using a centromeric probe for chromosome 7, showed that the mean frequency of trisomic nuclei in 5-microm sections was highest in PVNS (9.0%), followed by CS (5.9%), OA (5.6%), and HS (4.6%), whereas trisomic nuclei were rare (0.7%) in normal tissue. When 8-microm sections were studied, the frequencies of trisomic cells in OA and control synovia increased to 6.7% and 1.5%, respectively. Trisomic nuclei were found in all cases, including those for which cytogenetic analysis of short-term cultures had not disclosed any trisomic cells. Overall, the trisomic cells were scattered within the tissue. However, small clusters of cells with +7 were found in three cases. By hematoxylin-eosin staining of the slides used for FISH analysis it could be shown that the clustered trisomic cells were proliferating synoviocytes within villous extensions of the synovial membrane.
  • Hommel, Ami, et al. (författare)
  • Influence of optimised treatment of people with hip fracture on time to operation, length of hospital stay, reoperations and mortality within 1 year
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Injury. - : Elsevier. - 0020-1383 .- 1879-0267. ; 39:10, s. 1164-1174
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Hip fractures are a major cause of hospital stay among the elderly, and result in increased disability and mortality. In this study from 1 April 2003 to 31 March 2004, the influence of optimised treatment of hip fracture on time to operation, length of hospital stay, reoperations and mortality within 1 year were investigated. Comparisons were made between the first 210 patients in the period and the last 210 patients, who followed the new clinical pathway introduced at the University Hospital in Lund, Sweden. Early surgery, within 24h, was not associated with reduced mortality, but was significantly associated with reduced length of stay (p<0.001). Significantly more cases of osteosynthesis for femoral neck fracture were reoperated compared with all other types of surgery (p<0.001) when reoperations with extraction of the hook pins in healed fractures were excluded. Mortality was significantly higher among men than women at 4 (p=0.025) and 12 (p=0.001) months after fracture and among medically fit patients with administrative delay to surgery compared with patients with no delay (p<0.001).
  • Norinder, A, et al. (författare)
  • Costs for screening, intervention and hospital treatment generated by the Malmö Preventive Project: a large-scale community screening programme.
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Journal of Internal Medicine. - : Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Ltd. - 1365-2796. ; 251:1, s. 44-52
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to estimate retrospectively the costs of health care resources used in the Malmö Preventive Project, Sweden and estimate the costs of in-patient care that were avoided because of early intervention. SETTING AND SUBJECTS: A large-scale community intervention programme was conducted from 1974 to 1992 in Malmö, Sweden with the aim of reducing morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), alcohol related illnesses, and breast cancer. Between 1974 and 1992, 33 336 male and female subjects were screened for hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, type-2 diabetes and alcohol abuse. Intervention programmes that included life-style modifications, follow-up visits with physicians and nurses and drug therapy were offered to about 25% of screened subjects. METHODS: Recruitment costs were generated through out the screening period. Intervention costs were estimated for 5 years after screening. Excess in-patient care costs were estimated by subtracting hospital consumption for an unscreened, matched cohort from that of the screened cohort over follow-up periods of 13-19 years. Intervention and excess in-patient care costs were estimated until 1996. RESULTS: The net expenditures for recruitment and intervention was SEK253 million and saved costs for in-patient care of SEK143 millions (1998 prices). Considering the opportunity cost of the resources used in the study, the net cost rises to about SEK200 millions. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that only part of the intervention costs were offset by reduction in future morbidity health care costs. This is in line with results from prospective analyses of other primary prevention programmes.
  • Sylwander, C., et al. (författare)
  • The impact of chronic widespread pain on health status and long-term health predictors: a general population cohort study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders. - London : BioMed Central. - 1471-2474. ; 21:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Chronic widespread pain (CWP) has a negative impact on health status, but results have varied regarding gender-related differences and reported health status. The aim was to study the impact of CWP on health status in women and men aged 35-54 years in a sample of the general population. The aim was further to investigate lifestyle-related predictors of better health status in those with CWP in a 12- and 21-year perspective. Method A general population cohort study including 975 participants aged 35-54 years, with a 12- and 21-year follow-up. CWP was measured with a pain mannequin, and the questionnaire included questions on lifestyles factors with SF-36 for measurement of health status. Differences in health status were analysed with independent samples t-test and health predictors with logistic regression analysis. Results The prevalence of CWP was higher in women at all time points, but health status was reduced in both women and men with CWP (p < 0.001) with no gender differences of clinical relevance. At the 12-year follow-up, a higher proportion of women than men had developed CWP (OR 2.04; CI 1.27-3.26), and at the 21-year follow-up, a higher proportion of men had recovered from CWP (OR 3.79; CI 1.00-14.33). In those reporting CWP at baseline, a better SF-36 health status (Physical Functioning, Vitality or Mental Health) at the 12-year follow-up was predicted by male gender, having personal support, being a former smoker, and having no sleeping problems. In the 21-year follow-up, predictors of better health were male gender, a weekly intake of alcohol, and having no sleeping problems. Conclusion Women and men with CWP have the same worsening of health status, but men recover from CWP to a greater extent in the long-term. Being male, having social support, being a former smoker, and having no sleeping problems were associated with better health status in those with CWP.
  • Hägglund, Gunnar, et al. (författare)
  • Prevention of dislocation of the hip in children with cerebral palsy. The first ten years of a population-based prevention programme.
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery: British Volume. - : British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery. - 2044-5377. ; 87:1, s. 95-101
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In 1994, a register for cerebral palsy and a health-care programme were started in southern Sweden with the aim of preventing dislocation of the hip in children with cerebral palsy. It involved all children with cerebral palsy born in 1992 or later. None of the 206 affected children born between 1992 and 1997 has developed a dislocation following the introduction of the prevention programme. Another 48 children moved into the area and none developed any further dislocation. Of the 251 children with cerebral palsy, aged between five and 11 years, living in the area on January 1, 2003, only two had a dislocated hip. One boy had moved into the area at age of nine with a dislocation and a girl whose parents chose not to participate in the programme developed bilateral dislocation. One boy, whose condition was considered to be too poor for preventative surgery, developed a painful dislocation of the hip at the age of five years and died three years later. Eight of 103 children in a control group, consisting of all children with cerebral palsy living in the area between 1994 and 2002, and born between 1990 and 1991, developed a dislocation of the hip before the age of six years. The decreased incidence of dislocation after the introduction of the prevention programme was significant (p < 0.001). Dislocation of the hip in cerebral palsy remains a serious problem, and prevention is important. Our screening programme and early intervention when lateral displacement of the femoral head was detected appear to be successful.
  • Cöster, Marcus E., et al. (författare)
  • Physical function tests predict incident falls : A prospective study of 2969 men in the Swedish Osteoporotic Fractures in Men study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health. - : SAGE Publications. - 1403-4948 .- 1651-1905. ; 48:20
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims: Falls are common in the elderly population, and fall-related injuries are a major health issue. We investigated the ability of simple physical tests to predict incident falls. Methods: The Swedish Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) study includes 3014 population-based men aged 69–81 years at the start of the study. These men performed five different physical tests at baseline: right-hand grip strength, left-hand grip strength, timed stand test, 6 m walking test (time and steps) and narrow walking test. During the first study year, we asked participants to fill out questionnaires regarding falls 4, 8 and 12 months after baseline. A total of 2969 men completed at least one questionnaire and were included in this study. We used generalised estimating equations and logarithmic regression models to estimate odds ratios for fallers and recurrent fallers (more than one fall during the one-year examination period) in each quartile of men for each physical test. Results: The proportions of fallers and recurrent fallers were higher in the lowest quartile of the physical tests than in the other three quartiles combined for all physical tests. A reduction of one standard deviation in respective physical test resulted in a 13–21% higher risk of becoming a faller and a 13–31% higher risk of becoming a recurrent faller. Conclusions: Low results on simple physical tests is a risk factor for incident falls in elderly Swedish men and may facilitate identification of high-risk individuals suitable for fall-intervention programs.
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