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Träfflista för sökning "AMNE:(MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES Clinical Medicine Otorhinolaryngology) "

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  • Sundell, Anna Lena, 1970- (författare)
  • Children with orofacial clefts : dental caries and health-related quality of life
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Background. The current understanding on caries and enamel developmental defects prevalence and frequency, caries risk, health-related quality life (HRQoL) and stress response in young children with cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P) are sparse. In this thesis these aspects were investigated in 5- and 10- year-old children with CL/P in comparison to non-cleft children in the same ages.Design. The studies in this thesis have a cross-sectional case-control design. Participants. The study group consisted of 139 children with CL/P (80 children aged 5 years and 59 aged 10 years) and 313 non-cleft controls (144 children aged 5 years and 169 aged 10 years).Method. Caries was scored according to International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS II) and developmental enamel defects were measured as presence and frequency of hypoplasia and hypomineralization. Oral hygiene was assessed using Quigley-Hein plaque index. Stimulated saliva samples were analyzed for mutans streptococci, lactobacilli, buffering capacity and secretion rates. Information regarding children’s oral hygiene routines, dietary habits and fluoride exposure were collected with questionnaires. Caries risk was evaluated with algorithm-based software, Cariogram while HRQoL was perceived with KIDSCREEN-52. Stress response was analyzed with cortisol concentration in saliva at three different time points using a commercial competitive radioimmunoassay.Results. Caries prevalence (36% versus 18%) and caries frequency (1.2 dmfs versus 0.9 dmfs) was significantly higher in 5-year-old children with CL/P in comparison to non-cleft controls. In 10-yearolds no significant difference was found between children with CL/P and non-cleft controls in caries prevalence (47% versus 38%) or in caries frequency (0.7 DMFS versus 0.5 DMFS). Children with CL/P had significantly higher prevalence of enamel defects, higher counts of salivary lactobacilli and less good oral hygiene. The odds of being categorized with high caries risk were elevated in children with CL/P. Children with CL/P had similar HRQoL and salivary cortisol concentrations as non-cleft controls. However, 10-year-old boys with CL/P had significantly higher cortisol concentrations in the evening than non-cleft boys.Conclusions. Preschool children with CL/P seem to have more caries in the primary dentition than non-cleft controls. Children with CL/P had increased odds of being categorized as high caries risk individuals compared to controls. Some of the contributing factors seem to be higher prevalence of enamel defects, impaired oral hygiene and elevated salivary lactobacilli. Furthermore, as measured with the help of cortisol concentrations in saliva, children with CL/P were not more stressed than noncleft controls and their HRQoL was comparable to a European norm population. It appears that regular comprehensive preventive oral care in children with CL/P is effective in preventing caries development in permanent teeth. However, children with CL/P are at risk of caries development and preventive oral care should be implemented and started earlier than today.
  • Fältström, Anne, et al. (författare)
  • Functional Performance Among Active Female Soccer Players After Unilateral Primary Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Compared With Knee-Healthy Controls
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Sports Medicine. - : Sage Publications. - 0363-5465 .- 1552-3365. ; 45:2, s. 377-385
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Good functional performance with limb symmetry is believed to be important to minimize the risk of injury after a return to pivoting and contact sports after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR).Purpose: This study aimed to investigate any side-to-side limb differences in functional performance and movement asymmetries in female soccer players with a primary unilateral anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)–reconstructed knee and to compare these players with knee-healthy controls from the same soccer teams.Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3.Methods: This study included 77 active female soccer players at a median of 18 months after ACLR (interquartile range [IQR], 14.5 months; range, 7-39 months) and 77 knee-healthy female soccer players. The mean age was 20.1 ± 2.3 years for players with an ACL-reconstructed knee and 19.5 ± 2.2 years for controls. We used a battery of tests to assess postural control (Star Excursion Balance Test) and hop performance (1-legged hop for distance, 5-jump test, and side hop). Movement asymmetries in the lower limbs and trunk were assessed with the drop vertical jump and the tuck jump using 2-dimensional analyses.Results: The reconstructed and uninvolved limbs did not differ in any of the tests. In the 5-jump test, players with an ACL-reconstructed knee performed worse than controls (mean 8.75 ± 1.05 m vs 9.09 ± 0.89 m; P = .034). On the drop vertical jump test, the ACL-reconstructed limb had significantly less knee valgus motion in the frontal plane (median 0.028 m [IQR, 0.049 m] vs 0.045 m [IQR, 0.043 m]; P = .004) and a lower probability of a high knee abduction moment (pKAM) (median 69.2% [IQR, 44.4%] vs 79.8% [IQR, 44.8%]; P = .043) compared with the control players’ matched limb (for leg dominance). Results showed that 9% to 49% of players in both groups performed outside recommended guidelines on the different tests. Only 14 players with an ACL-reconstructed knee (18%) and 15 controls (19%) had results that met the recommended guidelines for all 5 tests (P = .837).Conclusion: The reconstructed and uninvolved limbs did not differ, and players with an ACL-reconstructed knee and controls differed only minimally on the functional performance tests, indicating similar function. It is worth noting that many players with an ACL-reconstructed knee and controls had movement asymmetries and a high pKAM pattern, which have previously been associated with an increased risk for both primary and secondary ACL injury in female athletes.
  • Manchaiah, Vinaya, et al. (författare)
  • Problems and Life Effects Experienced by Tinnitus Research Study Volunteers : An Exploratory Study Using the ICF Classification
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Journal of american academy of audiology. - Reston, VA, United States : American Academy of Audiology. - 1050-0545 .- 2157-3107. ; 29:10, s. 936-947
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Tinnitus is one of the most distressing hearing-related symptoms. It is often associated with a range of physiological and psychological complications, such as depression, anxiety, and insomnia. Hence, approaching tinnitus from a biopsychological perspective may be more appropriate than from purely a biomedical model.Objective: The present studywas aimed at determining the relationship between tinnitus and the problems and life effects experienced by UK-based tinnitus research study volunteers. Open-ended questions were used. Responses were classified using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) framework to understand the impact of tinnitus in a multidimensional manner using a biopsychosocial perspective.Research Design: A cross-sectional survey design was used.Study Sample: Study sample included a sample of 240 adults with tinnitus who were interested in undertaking an Internet-based intervention for tinnitus.Data Collection and Analysis: The data were collated using two open-ended questions. The first focused on problems related to having tinnitus and the second to life effects as a result of tinnitus. Responses were analyzed using a simplified content analysis approach to link concepts to ICF categories in accordance with established linking rules. A Wilcoxon signed-rank test was performed to compare the number of responses between the two questions. The most frequent responses related to body function involved ‘‘emotional functions’’ (b152), ‘‘sleep functions’’ (b134), ‘‘hearing functions’’ (b230), ‘‘sustaining attention’’ (b1400), and ‘‘energy level’’ (b1300). For activity limitations and participation restrictions they were ‘‘communicating with—receiving—spokenmessages’’ (d310), ‘‘socialization’’ (d9205), ‘‘handling stress and other psychological demands’’ (d240), and ‘‘recreation and leisure’’ (d920). The most frequently occurring responses related to environmental factors were ‘‘sound intensity’’ (e2500), ‘‘sound quality’’ (e2501), and ‘‘general products and technology for communication’’ (e1250). ‘‘Coping styles’’ was the most frequently occurring personal factor.Conclusions: The study highlights the use of open-ended questions in gathering useful information about the impact of tinnitus. The responses coded to ICF show that tinnitus impacts many domains, not only particularly body function, but also activity limitations and participation restrictions. The results demonstrate the heterogeneous nature of the impact of tinnitus on people affected.Results: There were 764 responses related to problems identified, 797 responses associated with life effects due to tinnitus, and 37 responses that did not fit into any ICF category. No significant differences were observed in the number of responses between the two questions. In addition, no significant association between the number of responses reported and demographic variables was found. Most of the problems and life effects experienced by tinnitus sufferers were related to body function, followed by activity limitations, and participation restrictions. Only a few responses were related to environmental and personal factors.
  • Ericsson, Elisabeth, 1959-, et al. (författare)
  • The role of information and instruction to children and parents in homemanagement after tonsil surgery - what is it helpful for them to know?
  • 2010
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES To create national recommendations for information after tonsil surgery to improve the management ofchildren. METHODS 1. A search of Medline addressing evidence on expectations and advice about medication and nonpharamacological techniques to relieve pain after tonsil surgery and 2. A questionnaire focusing on the routines for information before and after tonsil surgery was administrated to all ENT-clinics in Sweden with 99% response rate. RESULTS There is evidence that information has an empowering effect upon parents to feel more control over their child’s care. Lack of information leads to anxiety and increased perception of pain in the child. Children and parents who were given specific information related to pain and morbidity, reported less pain and were less anxious than those with no or insufficient information. Constructive information should be given gradually, starting preoperatively, to parents and children. A leaflet should contain sufficient information about what happens before, during and is to be expected after surgery, the risks and possible complications, and advice and recommendation of medication and non-pharmacological techniques. Results from the national enquiry (N=48) showed the provision of a variety of different written information from the various clinics, often insufficient. Based on these findings, an information leaflet for patients and a checklist based on the literature for the staff to use at discharge were developed (both will be available). CONCLUSIONS A checklist for the staff insures that parents and children get consistent advice. A leaflet provided before surgery helps children and parents with methods to relieve pain. This could decrease the number of complications and later consultations and give shorter recovery.
  • Proceedings from the Second International Interdisciplinary Conference on Perspectives and Limits of Dialogism in Mikhail Bakhtin, 3-5 June, 2009
  • 2010
  • Proceedings (redaktörskap) (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • (Preface) This conference focused on the core of Bakhtin’s theory, which concerns dialogue and dialogicality. The conference themes reflected his notion that the “I” and the “self”, the “you” and the “other” are embedded in each other so that each affects the other and as a whole they create a centrifugal force around which communication and life circle. The choice of the two-faced Janus figure as the symbol of the conference reflects the inward and outward aspects of communication’s inherent dialogue and dialogicality. As an ancient Roman god of beginnings and doorways, of the rising and setting sun, looking in opposite directions, Janus has been associated with polarities, that is, seeing different and contrasting aspects and characteristics. As a metaphor it describes Bakhtin’s view on dialogues and dialogicality within or between “selves” and “others”. As a metaphorical symbol it captured the intent, purpose and outcome of the conference as reflected in this collection of papers.
  • Wahlqvist, Moa, 1979- (författare)
  • Health and People with Usher syndrome
  • 2015
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The present thesis concerns people with Usher syndrome (USH) and their health. People with USH have a congenital hearing loss of various degrees and an eye disease with a progressive course; for some, the balance is also affected. Three clinical groups have been identified 1, 2 and 3, and 13 genes have currently been identified. USH is the most common cause of deafblindness. Clinical knowledge and the limited research that exists have shown that people with deafblindness can experience difficulties in everyday life. Depression, anxiety and social withdrawal have been described.The general aim of the present thesis was to describe the health of people with USH. The empirical material employed was based on an extensive survey in which people with USH answered two questionnaires concerning health, anxiety, depression, social trust, work, health-care, financial situation, and alcohol and drug use. The focus of the present thesis is on general health, physical health and psychological health, social trust and finance. Three studies in the present theses focus on USH1, 2 and 3, respectively; finally, the fourth study provides an in-group comparison of people with USH. The results of studies I and III are compared with a crosssection of the Swedish population. The results revealed poor physical and psychological health, a lack of social trust and a strained financial situation regardless of clinical diagnosis. The discussion stresses the importance of taking a biopsychosocial approach when describing the health of people with USH, in which previous research is lacking. Additional research should focus on the mechanisms at different levels that affect people with USH and their health from a life- course perspective. Furthermore, research should include a salutogenic perspective to explore the resources and strengths of people with USH.
  • Holck, Pernille, et al. (författare)
  • Interaction during intervention: conversations between professionals and children with cerebral palsy.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Communication & Medicine. An Interdisciplinary Journal of Healthcare, Ethics and Society. - : Equinox Publishing. - 1613-3625. ; 6:1, s. 49-60
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To develop interactional ability, conversation with both peers and adults is vital. However, for children with physical impairments, like cerebral palsy, interactions with adults often dominate. In this study, interaction between eight Swedish children with cerebral palsy, mean age 8.6 years, and their physiotherapists (PTs) and speech-language therapists (SLTs) was analysed during intervention across 16 dyads. The analysis of data focused on how quantitative, interactional and topical dominance was manifested by the PTs and the SLTs. In addition, mitigating strategies and use of feedback was investigated. Surprisingly, the only significant finding was in topic maintenance, where the PTs' conversations were more directed towards topics unrelated to the intervention context when compared to the conversations of the SLTs. Although not significant, the PTs tended to dominate by having a greater amount of talk, and the SLTs by asking many questions. It is discussed how the two professions may contribute to the development of interactional skills and pragmatic ability among children with cerebral palsy, given their professional training and focus of intervention.
  • Bruce, Barbro (författare)
  • Problems of language and communication in children; Identification and intervention
  • 2007
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis addresses identification and intervention of language and communication problems in children. The issue of identification is addressed in study I by investigating communicative ability in 18-month-old children, and in study II by exploring the prevalence of language and communication problems in children with complex problems, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The issue of intervention is addressed in studies III and IV by analysing verbal interaction in conversations, in which one of the participants is a child with specific language impairment (SLI). Study III explores how dialogues between children with SLI and typically developing peers (TLD) representing the same age (age peers), and the same language level (language peers) respectively, differ with respect to responsiveness, assertiveness and reciprocity. Study IV investigates interactional style and elicitation strategies of speech/language pathologists (SLP) during intervention, and how these factors influence the child with SLI. The results from study I show that receptive skills and symbolic play at 18 months of age are significantly associated with language ability three years later. Study II, in which language skills in children with ADHD were explored, indicates that language ability plays an important role for all other aspects of children's development and behaviour, with the exception of motor skills. Use of language and language comprehension caused these children many more problems than structural aspects of language production. Furthermore, reading and writing problems were found to be very frequent. Study III shows that dialogues between children with SLI and TLD age peers are characterized by more responsiveness and topic coherence than dialogues between children with SLI and TLD language peers. However, the children with SLI were more assertive, i.e., introduced more topics, in dialogues with language peers. Study IV indicates that the children with SLI talked more and had a higher mean length of utterance (MLU) in the free conversational context, whereas the individually selected grammatical targets occurred more often in the training context. In the conversational context the SLPs linked, i.e., attended, more to the child's focus and gave more feedback, while in the training context the individually selected grammatical targets occurred more often and the children were more frequently asked to follow instructions. The results have important clinical implications. First; screening procedures at Child Health Care (CHC) centres should be recommended to focus on receptive language skills and play behaviour, and not only on size of vocabulary at 18 months of age. Second; language skills, in particular language comprehension, language use and literacy skills were found to cause children with ADHD problems, and should therefore be assessed. Third; it is of great value for children with SLI to be in mixed groups with peers representing different ages and language levels, and to avoid the risk of not being selected as playmates. Fourth; increased awareness of how interactional style and elicitation strategies influence the developing language skills in children with SLI can be used in intervention planning, depending on the goals of the specific intervention procedures for the individual child.
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