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1.
  • Westius, Anders, et al. (författare)
  • View of life in persons with dementia
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Dementia. - London : Sage. - 1471-3012 .- 1741-2684. ; 8:4, s. 481-499
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: To study the view of life in dementia. The view of life of an individual is defined as a conception of reality, a central system of values and a basic emotional attitude.Method: Interviews with persons (N = 21) with mild to moderate dementia of the Alzheimer’s type. The interview data were interpreted with a phenomenological hermeneutical method.Results: Despite their cognitive deterioration it was possible to understand the view of life of the participants in the frame of their life story. Their view of life seemed to guide them towards selecting mainly emotionally powerful and value-oriented memories. No exceptional characteristics that could be traced to their dementia disease were found in the participants’ views of life. Conclusions: The view of life of the participants with mild to moderate dementia was vital for their life story and was not erased by dementia.Implications: In order to respect people with dementia as persons, caregivers should strive for gaining some knowledge of their view of life.
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2.
  • Westius, Anders, et al. (författare)
  • Views of life and sense of identity in people with Alzheimer's disease
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Ageing & Society. - Cambridge, United Kingdom : Cambridge university press. - 0144-686X .- 1469-1779. ; 30:7, s. 1257-1278
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Making it possible for people with Alzheimer's disease to retain a sense of identity during the process of the disease poses a great challenge to care-givers, professionals and family carers. The aim of this study is to elucidate the role of the view of life of people with Alzheimer's in framing their sense of identity. Is their view of life a vital aspect of their sense of identity? ‘View of life’ was interpreted as a vital aspect of sense of identity, understood as the individual's beliefs about their life history and about the attributes that characterised them. Twenty-one people with mild to moderate stages of Alzheimer's disease were interviewed about their life story. The narratives were interpreted using a phenomenological hermeneutic method. By telling their life story, the participants also narrated their view of life, i.e. their conception of reality, their central system of values and their basic emotional attitudes. By their own accounts, the origins of the narrators' central values and basic emotional attitudes were established in early life. They also expressed a sense of meaningfulness and continuity when looking back on their lives. The findings suggest that for a care-giver or confidant, having knowledge of a person with dementia's view of life is valuable when seeking to confirm that person's sense of identity.
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3.
  • Jemberie, Wossenseged Birhane, 1985-, et al. (författare)
  • Substance Use Disorders and COVID-19 : Multi-Faceted Problems Which Require Multi-Pronged Solutions
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: ; 11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • COVID-19 shocked health and economic systems leaving millions of people without employment and safety nets. The pandemic disproportionately affects people with substance use disorders (SUDs) due to the collision between SUDs and COVID-19. Comorbidities and risk environments for SUDs are likely risk factors for COVID-19. The pandemic, in turn, diminishes resources that people with SUD need for their recovery and well-being. This article presents an interdisciplinary and international perspective on how COVID-19 and the related systemic shock impact on individuals with SUDs directly and indirectly. We highlight a need to understand SUDs as biopsychosocial disorders and use evidence-based policies to destigmatize SUDs. We recommend a suite of multi-sectorial actions and strategies to strengthen, modernize and complement addiction care systems which will become resilient and responsive to future systemic shocks similar to the COVID-19 pandemic.
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4.
  • Svedberg, Petra, 1973-, et al. (författare)
  • The attitudes of patients and staff towards aspects of health promotion interventions in mental health services in Sweden
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Health Promotion International. - Oxford : Oxford University Press. - 0957-4824 .- 1460-2245. ; 24:3, s. 269-276
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The present study investigates attitudes towards aspects of health promotion in mental health services, as rated by patients and staff. The aim of the study was to investigate similarities and differences in attitudes towards health promotion interventions among patients and staff in mental health services, using a newly developed questionnaire, the Health Promotion Intervention Questionnaire (HPIQ). The study has a cross-sectional design and a sample of 141 patients and 140 staff were recruited to the study. The response rate was 59% for the patients and 50% for the staff. The participants were asked to rate the attitudes of the 19 items included in the HPIQ. The result showed that patients and staff in some cases share similar attitudes regarding aspects of health promotion intervention. According to both groups, empowerment is the most important intervention in health promotion. Significant differences between the ratings of patients and staff appeared regarding all subscales of HPIQ. Patients rated alliance and educational support significantly higher than staff and staff-rated empowerment and practical support significantly higher than patients. Based on these findings, it is of importance to meet patients' desire for information and knowledge in an interactive manner with an empowerment approach to promote health in mental health services.
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5.
  • Liljeroos, Maria, 1965-, et al. (författare)
  • Long-term effects of a dyadic psycho-educational intervention on caregiver burden and morbidity in partners of patients with heart failure : a randomized controlled trial
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Quality of Life Research. - Dordrecht : Springer Netherlands. - 0962-9343 .- 1573-2649. ; 26:2, s. 367-379
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundPartners of patients with heart failure provide both practical and emotional support. Many partners assume caregiving responsibilities without being aware of the burden related with this role.ObjectiveOur work has established that a psycho-educational intervention has benefits at 3, but not at 12 months for patients with heart failure. Further we had not described the long-term effects in caregivers. This study aimed to determine the 24-months effects of a dyadic psycho-educational intervention on caregiver burden and morbidity in partners of patients with heart failure and study factors associated with a change in caregiver burden.DesignA randomized controlled study design, with a follow-up assessment after 24 months.Setting and participantsPartners to patients with heart failure were recruited from two hospitals in the southeast of Sweden.InterventionA three session nurse-led psycho-educational program was tested and included psychosocial support to maintain the partners’ physical and mental functions, and perceived control. Several instrument were used to measure caregiver burden, perceived control, physical and mental health, depression and morbidity.ResultsOne hundred fifty-five partners were included. There were no significant differences in any index of caregiver burden or morbidity among the partners in the intervention and control groups after 24 months. Overall, the mean total caregiver burden was found to be significantly increased compared to baseline (36 ± 12 vs 38 ± 14, p < 0.05). A younger partner, less comorbidity, higher levels of perceived control, better physical health and less symptoms of depression in patients, and better mental health in the partners were factors associated with absence of increased caregiver burden over time.Discussion and conclusionOur intervention did not significantly decrease caregiver burden or morbidity. Over time, several aspects of burden increased in both groups. To improve outcomes, individualized and targeted interventions might be beneficial.
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6.
  • Gustavsson, Anders, et al. (författare)
  • Corrigendum to “Cost of disorders of the brain in Europe 2010” [Eur. Neuropsychopharmacol. 21 (2011) 718–779]
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: European Neuropsychopharmacology. - : Elsevier. - 0924-977X .- 1873-7862. ; 22:3, s. 237-238
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The spectrum of disorders of the brain is large, covering hundreds of disorders that are listed in either the mental or neurological disorder chapters of the established international diagnostic classification systems. These disorders have a high prevalence as well as short- and long-term impairments and disabilities. Therefore they are an emotional, financial and social burden to the patients, their families and their social network. In a 2005 landmark study, we estimated for the first time the annual cost of 12 major groups of disorders of the brain in Europe and gave a conservative estimate of €386 billion for the year 2004. This estimate was limited in scope and conservative due to the lack of sufficiently comprehensive epidemiological and/or economic data on several important diagnostic groups. We are now in a position to substantially improve and revise the 2004 estimates. In the present report we cover 19 major groups of disorders, 7 more than previously, of an increased range of age groups and more cost items. We therefore present much improved cost estimates. Our revised estimates also now include the new EU member states, and hence a population of 514 million people.
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7.
  • Gustafsson, Jan-Eric, et al. (författare)
  • School, Learning and Mental Health : A systematic review
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Barns och ungdomars psykiska hälsa. - Stockholm : Kungl. Vetenskapsakademien.
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Rapporten presenterar resultaten från en systematisk översikt av forskning om skola, lärande och barns psykiska hälsa. Kungliga Vetenskapsakademiens Hälsoutskottet har givit uppdraget att genomföra en sådan översikt till en arbetsgrupp som har arbetat med uppdraget från hösten 2008 till mars 2009. Det första syftet med översikten är att genomföra en kartläggning av forskning inom det breda fält som behandlar frågor om skola, lärande och barns och ungdomars psykiska hälsa. Det andra syftet är att genomföra en narrativ syntes av forskning som undersökt orsaksförhållanden mellan psykisk hälsa å ena sidan och skolresultat och lärande å den andra sidan. Det tredje syftet är att redovisa resultat från forskning som har studerat svenska barns och ungdomars erfarenheter och upplevelser av skola och undervisningssituationer. För att uppnå de första två syftena genomfördes systematiska litteratursökningar i bibliografiska databaser av artiklar publicerade i vetenskapliga internationella tidskrifter inom olika discipliner. Det tredje syftet undersöktes med litteratursökningar av kvalitativa svenska studier i bibliografiska databaser. Slutsatser På grundval dels av kartläggningen av forskning om skola, lärande och psykisk hälsa, dels av de två fördjupade översikterna kan följande slutsatser dras: • Omfattningen av forskning som undersöker relationerna mellan olika aspekter av skola och psykisk hälsa är begränsad och i synnerhet gäller detta forskning som undersöker organisationsfaktorer och undervisnings-faktorer, aktiviteter, läroplaners utformning, resurser, specialpedagogiskt stöd, och olika former av betyg och bedömning. • Tidiga svårigheter i skolan och i synnerhet läs- och skrivsvårigheter kan orsaka internaliserande och externaliserande psykiska problem. • Svårigheter i skola och psykiska problem tenderar att vara stabila över tid. • Skolrelaterade hälsoproblem tenderar att minska när eleverna börjar på gymnasiet och får tillgång till nya områden av aktiviteter, roller och valmöjligheter. • Att genomföra stora ansträngningar utan att detta leder till resultat är relaterat till utveckling av depression. Problem i skolan med skolresultat och prestationer orsakar inter-naliserande symptom för flickor under tonåren. • Det finns samband mellan olika typer av psykiska problem och de är också relaterade till ett brett spektrum av somatiska och psykosomatiska symptom. • Internaliserande och externaliserande psykiska problem har negativa effekter på skolprestationer genom mekanismer som är delvis ålders- och genusspecifika. • Kompetenser och prestationer i skolan är relaterade till psykisk hälsa. • Goda resultat i skolan har en positiv effekt på självuppfattning. • En god självuppfattning bidrar inte direkt till bättre resultat, men andra faktorer som är relaterade till självuppfattning (motivation och upplevd inre/yttre kontroll) påverkar lärande och resultat • Relationer med klasskamrater och lärare bidrar till processer som kopplar skolmisslyckande till psykisk ohälsa. Relationer med kamrater och lärare kan också skydda mot utvecklingen av psykiska problem. • Jämförelser med klasskamrater påverkar självuppfattningen, med effekter som varierar beroende på gruppsammansättning och typ av skola.
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8.
  • Johansson Capusan, Andrea, et al. (författare)
  • Childhood maltreatment and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in adults : a large twin study
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Psychological Medicine. - Cambridge : Cambridge University Press. - 0033-2917 .- 1469-8978. ; 46:12, s. 2637-2646
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundChildhood maltreatment (CM) has been associated with increased risk of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adults. It is, however, unclear whether this association is causal or due to familial confounding.MethodData from 18 168 adult twins, aged 20–46 years, were drawn from the population-based Swedish twin registry. Retrospective self-ratings of CM (emotional and physical neglect, physical and sexual abuse and witnessing family violence), and self-ratings for DSM-IV ADHD symptoms in adulthood were analysed. Possible familial confounding was investigated using a within twin-pair design based on monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins.esultsCM was significantly associated with increased levels of ADHD symptom scores in adults [regression coefficient: 0.40 standard deviations, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.37–0.43]. Within twin-pair analyses showed attenuated but significant estimates within DZ (0.29, 95% CI 0.21–0.36) and MZ (0.18, 95% CI 0.10–0.25) twin pairs. Similar results emerged for hyperactive/impulsive and inattentive ADHD symptom scores separately in association with CM. We conducted sensitivity analyses for early maltreatment, before age 7, and for abuse and neglect separately, and found similarly reduced estimates in DZ and MZ pairs. Re-traumatization after age 7 did not significantly influence results.ConclusionsCM was significantly associated with increased ADHD symptoms in adults. Associations were partly due to familial confounding, but also consistent with a causal interpretation. Our findings support cognitive neuroscience studies investigating neural pathways through which exposure to CM may influence ADHD. Clinicians treating adults with ADHD should be aware of the association with maltreatment.
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9.
  • Sindi, S., et al. (författare)
  • Sleep disturbances and later cognitive status: a multi-centre study
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Sleep Medicine. - : Elsevier. - 1389-9457 .- 1878-5506. ; 52:December, s. 26-33
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: To investigate the associations between sleep disturbances in mid-life and late-life and late-life cognitive status. Methods: In four population-based studies (three Swedish studies: H70 study, Kungsholmen Project (KP) and The Swedish Panel Study of Living Conditions of the Oldest Old (SWEOLD); and one Finnish study: Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Aging and Dementia (CAIDE)), participants provided self-reports on insomnia, nightmares and general sleep problems. Late-life cognitive status was measured by the Mini Mental State Exam (MMSE). The associations between late-life sleep disturbances and cognition 3-11 years later were investigated across all studies (n = 3210). Mean baseline ages were 70 (CAIDE, H70 and SWEOLD), and 84 years (KP). Additional analyses examined the association between midlife sleep and late-life cognition using CAIDE (21 and 31 years follow-up, n = 1306, mean age 50 years), and SWEOLD (20-24 years follow-up, n = 2068, mean age 58 years). Ordered logistic regressions, adjusted for potential baseline confounders, were used in the analyses. Results: Late-life sleep disturbances were associated with poorer cognition after 3-11 years (fully adjusted beta = -0.12, 95% CI = -0.24 to -0.01). Midlife nightmares and insomnia were also associated with lower MMSE scores (fully adjusted beta = -0.28, 95% CI = -0.49 to -0.07 and beta = -0.20, 95% CI = -0.39 to -0.01), although the latter association was attenuated after adjusting for lifestyle/health-related confounders. Midlife general sleep problems were not associated with late-life MMSE performance. Conclusions: Sleep disturbances and midlife nightmares were associated with lower MMSE scores, which suggests that sleep disturbances in earlier life stages can be associated with worse late-life cognition. (c) 2017 Published by Elsevier B.V.
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10.
  • Carlén, Kristina, et al. (författare)
  • Sense of coherence predicts adolescent mental health
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Affective Disorders. - : Elsevier. - 0165-0327 .- 1573-2517. ; 274, s. 1206-1210
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Strong sense of coherence (SOC) has been shown to predict good mental health among adults whereas its predictive value in adolescence is unclear. This life-course oriented prospective study explores whether SOC predicts mental health in a three-year follow-up. Methods: The data is part of the ongoing ‘Finnish Family Competence Study’ launched in 1986 in southwestern Finland (baseline n = 1287). The outcome variable was adolescent's mental health at 18 years of age, measured on the Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA) scale. The main predictor was Antonovsky's SOC score (1987) measured at the age of 15. A total of 498 adolescents were included in the present analyses. Poisson regression was used by univariate and multivariable models using the parents’ age and socioeconomic status and adolescents’ gender as covariates. Results: Multivariable analysis showed that a one-unit increase in SOC decreased the relative risk of a DAWBA-based diagnosis by 4 % (RR [95% CI] 0.96 [0.94–0.98], p < 0.001). Limitations: Typical of very long follow-up, as in our study of nearly two decades, a substantial proportion of the original population-based cohort was lost to follow-up weakening the representability of our cohort. Conclusions: Sense of coherence is a useful and clinically sensitive tool to predict mental health in adolescence. The easily administered, coping-oriented SOC questionnaire is an appropriate instrument in screening for adolescents who would benefit from supportive measures to strengthen their mental well-being.
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