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Träfflista för sökning "AMNE:(MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES Health Sciences) "

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1.
  • Amundin, Mats, et al. (författare)
  • A proposal to use distributional models to analyse dolphin vocalisation
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Vocal Interactivity in-and-between Humans, Animals and Robots, VIHAR 2017. - 9782956202905 ; , s. 31-32
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper gives a brief introduction to the starting points of an experimental project to study dolphin communicative behaviour using distributional semantics, with methods implemented for the large scale study of human language.
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2.
  • Schötz, Susanne, et al. (författare)
  • Phonetic Characteristics of Domestic Cat Vocalisations
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Melody in Human--Cat Communication (Meowsic). ; , s. 5-6
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The cat (Felis catus, Linneaus 1758) has lived around or with humans for at least 10,000 years, and is now one of the most popular pets of the world with more than 600 millionindividuals. Domestic cats have developed a more extensive, variable and complex vocal repertoire than most other members of the Carnivora, which may be explained by their social organisation, their nocturnal activity and the long period of association between mother and young. Still, we know surprisingly little about the phonetic characteristics of these sounds, and about the interaction between cats and humans.Members of the research project Melody in human–cat communication (Meowsic) investigate the prosodic characteristics of cat vocalisations as well as the communication between human and cat. The first step includes a categorisation of cat vocalisations. In the next step it will be investigated how humans perceive the vocal signals of domestic cats. This paper presents an outline of the project which has only recently started.
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3.
  • Grünloh, Christiane, et al. (författare)
  • "why do they need to check me?" patient participation through ehealth and the doctor-patient relationship : Qualitative study
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Journal of Medical Internet Research. - : J M I R Publications, Inc.. - 1438-8871 .- 1438-8871. ; 20:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Roles in the doctor-patient relationship are changing and patient participation in health care is increasingly emphasized. Electronic health (eHealth) services such as patient accessible electronic health records (PAEHRs) have been implemented to support patient participation. Little is known about practical use of PAEHR and its effect on roles of doctors and patients. Objective: This qualitative study aimed to investigate how physicians view the idea of patient participation, in particular in relation to the PAEHR system. Hereby, the paper aims to contribute to a deeper understanding of physicians' constructions of PAEHR, roles in the doctor-patient relationship, and levels and limits of involvement. Methods: A total of 12 semistructured interviews were conducted with physicians in different fields. Interviews were transcribed, translated, and a theoretically informed thematic analysis was performed. Results: Two important aspects were identified that are related to the doctor-patient relationship: roles and involvement. The physicians viewed their role as being the ones to take on the responsibility, determining treatment options, and to be someone who should be trusted. In relation to the patient's role, lack of skills (technical or regarding medical jargon), motives to read, and patients' characteristics were aspects identified in the interviews. Patients were often referred to as static entities disregarding their potential to develop skills and knowledge over time. Involvement captures aspects that support or hinder patients to take an active role in their care. Conclusions: Literature of at least two decades suggests an overall agreement that the paternalistic approach in health care is inappropriate, and a collaborative process with patients should be adopted. Although the physicians in this study stated that they, in principle, were in favor of patient participation, the analysis found little support in their descriptions of their daily practice that participation is actualized. As seen from the results, paternalistic practices are still present, even if professionals might not be aware of this. This can create a conflict between patients who strive to become more informed and their questions being interpreted as signs of critique and mistrust toward the physician. We thus believe that the full potential of PAEHRs is not reached yet and argue that the concept of patient empowerment is problematic as it triggers an interpretation of "power" in health care as a zero-sum, which is not helpful for the maintenance of the relationship between the actors. Patient involvement is often discussed merely in relation to decision making; however, this study emphasizes the need to include also sensemaking and learning activities. This would provide an alternative understanding of patients asking questions, not in terms of "monitoring the doctor" but to make sense of the situation.
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4.
  • Posthumanistiska nyckelstexter
  • 2012. - 1
  • Ingår i: The Posthumanities Hub. - Lund : Studentlitteratur AB.
  • Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Den här boken introducerar några viktiga författare på samtidsaktuella teoriområden. Donna Haraway, Karen Barad, Rosi Braidotti, Michel Callon, Gilles Deleuze, Félix Guattari, Michel Serres och Annemarie Mol presenteras i boken, som också innehåller översatta texter av dessa namn. Boken ger en bakgrund till och en överblick över ett område i intensiv teoriutveckling. Här presenteras den så kallade materiella, posthumana eller ontologiska vändningen. Här kartläggs grunderna för olika posthumanistiska förhållningssätt till de både mänskliga och icke-mänskliga (djur, miljö, teknik) krafterna i vår värld så som de begreppsliggjorts inom filosofi, feministisk teori, kulturstudier och samhällsvetenskapliga studier av naturvetenskap, medicin och teknik. Genom lästips och en omfattande litteraturlista öppnar boken för fortsatta studier och vidare diskussioner. Avslutningsvis finns också en omfattande ordlista med viktiga nyckelbegrepp som i sig ger en introduktion till ett heterogent forskningsfält. Boken riktar sig till studenter, doktorander och andra nyfikna forskare inom olika tvärvetenskapliga eller disciplinära former av humaniora och samhällsvetenskap.POSTHUMANISTISKA NYCKELTEXTER ger i de inledande kapitlen en överblick och en introduktion till posthumanistiska studier och till materiell-semiotik. Här behandlas tankeströmningar som rör det humanas natur, humanismens etik och humanvetenskapernas framtid. Boken ger en introduktion till det som inom genusvetenskap och tekniksociologi kommit att kallas den ontologiska vändningen mot de materiaaliteter och världsliga relationer som både gör och förgör oss. Här kartläggs grunderna för posthumanistiska förhållningssätt till de både mänskliga och icke-mänskliga (djur, miljö, teknik) dimensionerna av vår värld så som de begreppsliggjorts inom filosofi, feministisk teori, kulturstudier och sociala studier av vetenskap och teknik. POSTHUMANISTISKA NYCKELTEXTER erbjuder introduktioner till viktiga författare och översättningar av nyckeltexter skrivna av Donna Haraway, Karen Barad, Rosi Braidotti, Michel Callon, Gilles Deleuze med Felix Guattari, Michel Serres och Annemarie Mol. Boken innehåller även en omfattande ordlista med viktiga nyckelbegrepp som i sig ger en introduktion till ett mångfaldigt forskningsfält.
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5.
  • Virtanen, Marianna, et al. (författare)
  • Long working hours and alcohol use : systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies and unpublished individual participant data.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: BMJ (Clinical research ed.). - 1756-1833 .- 0959-8138. ; 350, s. Art. no. g7772-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To quantify the association between long working hours and alcohol use.DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies and unpublished individual participant data.DATA SOURCES: A systematic search of PubMed and Embase databases in April 2014 for published studies, supplemented with manual searches. Unpublished individual participant data were obtained from 27 additional studies.REVIEW METHODS: The search strategy was designed to retrieve cross sectional and prospective studies of the association between long working hours and alcohol use. Summary estimates were obtained with random effects meta-analysis. Sources of heterogeneity were examined with meta-regression.RESULTS: Cross sectional analysis was based on 61 studies representing 333 693 participants from 14 countries. Prospective analysis was based on 20 studies representing 100 602 participants from nine countries. The pooled maximum adjusted odds ratio for the association between long working hours and alcohol use was 1.11 (95% confidence interval 1.05 to 1.18) in the cross sectional analysis of published and unpublished data. Odds ratio of new onset risky alcohol use was 1.12 (1.04 to 1.20) in the analysis of prospective published and unpublished data. In the 18 studies with individual participant data it was possible to assess the European Union Working Time Directive, which recommends an upper limit of 48 hours a week. Odds ratios of new onset risky alcohol use for those working 49-54 hours and ≥55 hours a week were 1.13 (1.02 to 1.26; adjusted difference in incidence 0.8 percentage points) and 1.12 (1.01 to 1.25; adjusted difference in incidence 0.7 percentage points), respectively, compared with working standard 35-40 hours (incidence of new onset risky alcohol use 6.2%). There was no difference in these associations between men and women or by age or socioeconomic groups, geographical regions, sample type (population based v occupational cohort), prevalence of risky alcohol use in the cohort, or sample attrition rate.CONCLUSIONS: Individuals whose working hours exceed standard recommendations are more likely to increase their alcohol use to levels that pose a health risk.
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6.
  • Huvila, Isto, et al. (författare)
  • Differences in Health Information Literacy Competencies Among Older Adults, Elderly and Younger Citizens
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Information Literacy in Everyday Life. - Berlin : Springer. - 9783030134716 - 9783030134723 ; , s. 136-143
  • Bokkapitel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To address the research gap on age-based differences in health information literacy (HIL), we investigated how younger (born 1960–) and older adults (1946–1960), and elderly citizens (–1945) differed from each other by their HIL competencies. Data were collected with an online survey of patients using the Swedish national electronic health record system. Altogether, 2,587 users responded. One-way ANOVA with post hoc tests revealed several differences between the groups: younger adults were less likely to value health information than older adults; older adults and elderly were least likely to compare information from multiple sources and had trouble in determining health information needs; older adults were most likely to have trouble understanding health terminology and the elderly to have difficulties in understanding medicinal package labels. The study shows that HIL is not necessarily improving or declining but adapting to challenges of advanced age. © 2019, Springer Nature Switzerland AG.
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7.
  • Johansson, Karin, et al. (författare)
  • Patients' experiences of support for learning to live with diabetes to promote health and well-being : A lifeworld phenomenological study
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being. - : CoAction Publishing. - 1748-2623 .- 1748-2631. ; 11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Learning to live with diabetes in such a way that the new conditions will be a normal and natural part of life imposes requirements on the person living with diabetes. Previous studies have shown that there is no clear picture of what and how the learning that would allow persons to incorporate the illness into their everyday life will be supported. The aim of this study is to describe the phenomenon of support for learning to live with diabetes to promote health and well-being, from the patient’s perspective. Data were collected by interviews with patients living with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. The interviews were analysed using a reflective lifeworld approach. The results show that reflection plays a central role for patients with diabetes in achieving a new understanding of the health process, and awareness of their own responsibility was found to be the key factor for such a reflection. The constituents are responsibility creating curiosity and willpower, openness enabling support, technology verifying bodily feelings, a permissive climate providing for participation and exchanging experiences with others. The study concludes that the challenge for caregivers is to create interactions in an open learning climate that initiates and supports reflection to promote health and well-being.
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8.
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9.
  • Salminen, Vesa, et al. (författare)
  • Ontology based service environment supports successful aging
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Advances in Human Factors, Business Management and Leadership. - : Springer. - 9783319603728 - 9783319603711 ; , s. 40-51
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aging individuals living independently at home need new kinds of services. Digitalization of services and the wellbeing data gathered from the individual creates an opportunity for optimized and punctual services. It is important to pilot the new technology solutions at actual home and well-being environments to get certainty of usability, flexibility and accessibility of the digitalized services for citizens and nurses. The implementation of digitalization has to happen according to ethical rules and take the values and individual capabilities into account. The data gathered through digital equipment can be used in optimizing service processes. However, there is missing generic data as common ontology of service process and semantic architecture to use the gathered data for service optimization. In the article is introduced what type of ontology based semantic architecture could be used in social and health care and how geriatric data should be integrated in caring elderly people.
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10.
  • Olsson, Yvonne, et al. (författare)
  • Health and Social Service Access Among Family Caregivers of People with Parkinson's Disease
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Parkinson's Disease. - : IOS Press. - 1877-7171 .- 1877-718X. ; 6:3, s. 581-587
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Being a family caregiver for a person with Parkinson's disease (PD) can negatively impact health and wellbeing, but it appears less clear to what extent caregivers' health/social service needs are met. Objective: We explored the extent to which PD family caregivers experience sufficient access to health/social services, as compared to age-matched controls; and the associations between this and demographic and health-related variables. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 66 PD family caregivers and 79 age-matched control subjects including the SF-36 health survey, the Nottingham Health Profile Sleep section (NHP-Sleep), and questions regarding contacts with various health/social related services and whether these were perceived as sufficient. Results: People reporting insufficient access (n = 29) were more often PD family caregivers than controls (83% vs. 37%), did more often have a disease of their own (79% vs. 46%), and reported poorer health according to the SF-36 and the NHP-Sleep. Being a PD family caregiver (OR, 8.90), reporting more pain (OR, 1.02) and having an own disease (OR, 3.46) were independently associated with insufficient health/social service access. Conclusions: Our results imply that those in greatest need for health/social services (i.e., those with poorer health, an own disease, and who are PD family caregivers) are those whose health/social service needs are least met. Larger studies are needed for firmer conclusions and regarding how unmet health/social service needs impacts caregiver health and wellbeing. Health/social service providers should not only focus on patients but also consider their family members' needs.
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