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1.
  • Amundin, Mats, et al. (författare)
  • A proposal to use distributional models to analyse dolphin vocalisation
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Vocal Interactivity in-and-between Humans, Animals and Robots, VIHAR 2017. - 978-2-9562029-0-5 ; s. 31-32
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>This paper gives a brief introduction to the starting points of an experimental project to study dolphin communicative behaviour using distributional semantics, with methods implemented for the large scale study of human language.</p>
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2.
  • Schötz, Susanne, et al. (författare)
  • Phonetic Characteristics of Domestic Cat Vocalisations
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Melody in Human--Cat Communication (Meowsic).
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>The cat (Felis catus, Linneaus 1758) has lived around or with humans for at least 10,000 years, and is now one of the most popular pets of the world with more than 600 millionindividuals. Domestic cats have developed a more extensive, variable and complex vocal repertoire than most other members of the Carnivora, which may be explained by their social organisation, their nocturnal activity and the long period of association between mother and young. Still, we know surprisingly little about the phonetic characteristics of these sounds, and about the interaction between cats and humans.</p><p>Members of the research project Melody in human–cat communication (Meowsic) investigate the prosodic characteristics of cat vocalisations as well as the communication between human and cat. The first step includes a categorisation of cat vocalisations. In the next step it will be investigated how humans perceive the vocal signals of domestic cats. This paper presents an outline of the project which has only recently started.</p>
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3.
  • Osvalder, Anna-Lisa, 1961-, et al. (författare)
  • Considering the importance of user profiles in interface design
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: User Interfaces. - 978-953-7619 ; s. 23
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • User profile is a popular term widely employed during product design processes by industrial companies. Such a profile is normally intended to represent real users of a product. The ultimate purpose of a user profile is actually to help designers to recognize or learn about the real user by presenting them with a description of a real user’s attributes, for instance; the user’s gender, age, educational level, attitude, technical needs and skill level. The aim of this chapter is to provide information on the current knowledge and research about user profile issues, as well as to emphasize the importance of considering these issues in interface design. In this chapter, we mainly focus on how users’ difference in expertise affects their performance or activity in various interaction contexts. Considering the complex interaction situations in practice, novice and expert users’ interactions with medical user interfaces of different technical complexity will be analyzed as examples: one focuses on novice and expert users’ difference when interacting with simple medical interfaces, and the other focuses on differences when interacting with complex medical interfaces. Four issues will be analyzed and discussed: (1) how novice and expert users differ in terms of performance during the interaction; (2) how novice and expert users differ in the perspective of cognitive mental models during the interaction; (3) how novice and expert users should be defined in practice; and (4) what are the main differences between novice and expert users’ implications for interface design. Besides describing the effect of users’ expertise difference during the interface design process, we will also pinpoint some potential problems for the research on interface design, as well as some future challenges that academic researchers and industrial engineers should face in practice.
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4.
  • Ge, Chenjie, et al. (författare)
  • Enlarged Training Dataset by Pairwise GANs for Molecular-Based Brain Tumor Classification
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: IEEE Access. - 2169-3536. ; 8:1, s. 22560-22570
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper addresses issues of brain tumor subtype classification using Magnetic Resonance Images (MRIs) from different scanner modalities like T1 weighted, T1 weighted with contrast-enhanced, T2 weighted and FLAIR images. Currently most available glioma datasets are relatively moderate in size, and often accompanied with incomplete MRIs in different modalities. To tackle the commonly encountered problems of insufficiently large brain tumor datasets and incomplete modality of image for deep learning, we propose to add augmented brain MR images to enlarge the training dataset by employing a pairwise Generative Adversarial Network (GAN) model. The pairwise GAN is able to generate synthetic MRIs across different modalities. To achieve the patient-level diagnostic result, we propose a post-processing strategy to combine the slice-level glioma subtype classification results by majority voting. A two-stage course-to-fine training strategy is proposed to learn the glioma feature using GAN-augmented MRIs followed by real MRIs. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme, experiments have been conducted on a brain tumor dataset for classifying glioma molecular subtypes: isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) mutation and IDH1 wild-type. Our results on the dataset have shown good performance (with test accuracy 88.82%). Comparisons with several state-of-the-art methods are also included.
5.
  • Toschke, Audré M., et al. (författare)
  • Paternal smoking is associated with a decreased prevalence of type 1 diabetes mellitus among offspring in two national British birth cohort studies (NCDS and BCS70)
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Journal of Perinatal Medicine. - Berlin : Walter de Gruyter. - 0300-5577 .- 1619-3997. ; 35:1, s. 43-7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>AB Aims: An association between paternal age and type 1 diabetes (IDDM) among their offspring was recently reported as well as transgenerational responses in humans. This paper aims to assess the association of markers for prenatal exposures with IDDM. Methods: We analysed data from two birth cohorts in Great Britain on 5214 cohort members from the National Child Development Study (NCDS) and 6068 members of the 1970 British Birth Cohort Study (BCS70) with full information on IDDM and explanatory variables using multivariate logistic regression. Results: IDDM prevalence was 0.7% (95% CI 0.5-1.0%; n = 38) in the NCDS and 0.4% (95% CI 0.3-0.6%; n = 27) in the BCS70 cohort. Paternal age was not associated with IDDM possibly due to lack of sample power. Unex-pectedly, a lowered prevalence of IDDM was observed among offspring of smoking fathers in both cohorts, with a combined odds ratio of 0.44 (95% CI 0.25-0.75). This association could not be explained by maternal smoking prior to, during or after pregnancy, number of siblings, parental social class, maternal and paternal age, or cohort. Maternal smoking in pregnancy did not alter the IDDM prevalence among offspring. Conclusions: This unexpected finding may be explained by germ-line mutations or other mechanisms associated with paternal smoking. This phenomenon should be investigated and these results should not be used as a justification for smoking. Paternal exposures may be important in determining IDDM risk.</p>
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6.
  • Westius, Anders, et al. (författare)
  • View of life in persons with dementia
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Dementia. - London : Sage. - 1471-3012 .- 1741-2684. ; 8:4, s. 481-499
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Objective: To study the view of life in dementia. The view of life of an individual is defined as a conception of reality, a central system of values and a basic emotional attitude.Method: Interviews with persons (N = 21) with mild to moderate dementia of the Alzheimer’s type. The interview data were interpreted with a phenomenological hermeneutical method.Results: Despite their cognitive deterioration it was possible to understand the view of life of the participants in the frame of their life story. Their view of life seemed to guide them towards selecting mainly emotionally powerful and value-oriented memories. No exceptional characteristics that could be traced to their dementia disease were found in the participants’ views of life. Conclusions: The view of life of the participants with mild to moderate dementia was vital for their life story and was not erased by dementia.Implications: In order to respect people with dementia as persons, caregivers should strive for gaining some knowledge of their view of life.</p>
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7.
  • Westius, Anders, et al. (författare)
  • Views of life and sense of identity in people with Alzheimer's disease
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Ageing & Society. - Cambridge, United Kingdom : Cambridge university press. - 0144-686X .- 1469-1779. ; 30:7, s. 1257-1278
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Making it possible for people with Alzheimer's disease to retain a sense of identity during the process of the disease poses a great challenge to care-givers, professionals and family carers. The aim of this study is to elucidate the role of the view of life of people with Alzheimer's in framing their sense of identity. Is their view of life a vital aspect of their sense of identity? ‘View of life’ was interpreted as a vital aspect of sense of identity, understood as the individual's beliefs about their life history and about the attributes that characterised them. Twenty-one people with mild to moderate stages of Alzheimer's disease were interviewed about their life story. The narratives were interpreted using a phenomenological hermeneutic method. By telling their life story, the participants also narrated their view of life, <em>i.e</em>. their conception of reality, their central system of values and their basic emotional attitudes. By their own accounts, the origins of the narrators' central values and basic emotional attitudes were established in early life. They also expressed a sense of meaningfulness and continuity when looking back on their lives. The findings suggest that for a care-giver or confidant, having knowledge of a person with dementia's view of life is valuable when seeking to confirm that person's sense of identity.</p>
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8.
  • Friberg, Örjan, et al. (författare)
  • Incidence, microbiological findings, and clinical presentation of sternal wound infections after cardiac surgery with and without local gentamicin prophylaxis
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. - Berlin : Springer. - 0934-9723 .- 1435-4373. ; 26:2, s. 91-97
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Sternal wound infection (SWI) is a serious complication after cardiac surgery. In a previous randomized controlled trial, the addition of local collagen-gentamicin in the sternal wound before wound closure was found to significantly reduce the incidence of postoperative wound infections compared with the routine intravenous prophylaxis of isoxazolyl-penicillin only. The aims of the present study were to analyse the microbiological findings of the SWIs from the previous trial as well as to correlate these findings with the clinical presentation of SWI. Differences in clinical presentation of SWIs, depending on the causative agent, could be identified. Most infections had a late, insidious onset, and the majority of these were caused by staphylococci, predominantly coagulase-negative staphylococci. The clinically most fulminant infections were caused by gram-negative bacteria and presented early after surgery. Local administration of gentamicin reduced the incidence of SWIs caused by all major, clinically important bacterial species. Propionibacterium acnes was identified as a possible cause of SWI and may be linked to instability in the sternal fixation. There was no indication of an increase in the occurrence of gentamicin-resistant bacterial isolates in the treatment group. Furthermore, the addition of local collagen-gentamicin reduced the incidence of SWIs caused by methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci. This technique warrants further evaluation as an alternative to prophylactic vancomycin in settings with a high prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.</p>
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9.
  • Landgren, Ola, et al. (författare)
  • Personal and family history of autoimmune diabetes mellitus and susceptibility to young-adult-onset Hodgkin lymphoma
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - 0020-7136 .- 1097-0215. ; 118:2, s. 449-452
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Young-adult-onset (15-44 years of age) Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is believed to arise as a consequence of late primary infection in susceptible individuals. The properties of this susceptibility remain little understood. We have previously reported an increased occurrence of HL in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and among their offspring, suggesting that susceptibility to autoimmunity might be of importance also in the pathogenesis of HL. To explore this hypothesis, we assessed the association of personal and family history of diabetes mellitus, with risk of subsequent HL in a population-based case-control study, including as cases all individuals diagnosed with HL above 15 years of age 1964-1999 (n = 6,873) in Sweden, and matched population controls (n = 12,565). First-degree relatives of cases and controls were identified through linkage with the Multi-generation Register. We identified discharges listing diabetes mellitus through linkage with the Inpatient Register (1964-2000). We used odds ratios (OR) as measures of relative risk. Cases with young-adult-onset HL were less likely to have a personal (OR =0.5, 95% CI 0.2-1.1) or family (OR =0.7, 95% CI 0.6-0.8) history of diabetes mellitus. In contrast, HL diagnosed at older ages was neither associated with a personal (OR =1.0) nor family (OR =1.0) history of diabetes mellitus. These findings suggests that characteristics of the immune system associated with conditions such as diabetes mellitus type I are of importance in the pathogenesis of young-adult-onset HL.</p> <p>Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.</p>
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10.
  • Stattin, Pär, et al. (författare)
  • Surveillance and deferred treatment for localized prostate cancer : Population based study in the National Prostate Cancer Register of Sweden
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of Urology. - Baltimore : Williams and Wilkins. - 0022-5347 .- 1527-3792. ; 180:6, s. 2423-2430
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>PURPOSE: To what extent active surveillance and deferred treatment for localized risk prostate cancer are used is unclear. We assessed the use of surveillance and of deferred treatment in a population based, nationwide cohort in Sweden.</p> <p>MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the National Prostate Cancer Register of Sweden, with a 98% coverage vs the compulsory Swedish Cancer Registry, we identified 8,304 incident cases of prostate cancer in 1997 to 2002 with age younger than 70 years, clinical local stage T1 or 2, N0 or Nx, M0 or Mx and serum prostate specific antigen less than 20 ng/ml. Data were extracted from medical charts for 7,782 of these men (94%) at a median of 4 years after diagnosis.</p> <p>RESULTS: Primary treatment was surveillance for 2,065 men (26%), radical prostatectomy for 3,722 (48%), radiotherapy for 1,632 (21%) and hormonal treatment for 363 (5%). Men on surveillance had lower local tumor stage, grade and prostate specific antigen, and were older than those who received active primary treatment (p &lt;0.001). After a median surveillance of 4 years 711 men (34%) on surveillance had received deferred treatment, which was radical prostatectomy for 279 (39%), radiotherapy for 212 (30%) and hormonal treatment for 220 (30%).</p> <p>CONCLUSIONS: Surveillance was a common treatment for patients younger than 70 years with localized prostate cancer in Sweden in 1997 to 2002, 26% of men with localized prostate cancer started surveillance and after a median followup of 4 years, 66% of these men remained on surveillance.</p>
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