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Träfflista för sökning "AMNE:(MEDICIN OCH HÄLSOVETENSKAP) AMNE:(Annan medicin och hälsovetenskap) "

Sökning: AMNE:(MEDICIN OCH HÄLSOVETENSKAP) AMNE:(Annan medicin och hälsovetenskap)

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  • Amundin, Mats, et al. (författare)
  • A proposal to use distributional models to analyse dolphin vocalisation
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Vocal Interactivity in-and-between Humans, Animals and Robots, VIHAR 2017. - 978-2-9562029-0-5 ; s. 31-32
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>This paper gives a brief introduction to the starting points of an experimental project to study dolphin communicative behaviour using distributional semantics, with methods implemented for the large scale study of human language.</p>
  • Posthumanistiska nyckelstexter
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: The Posthumanities Hub. - 1. - Lund : Studentlitteratur AB. - 978-91-44-05747-7
  • Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Den här boken introducerar några viktiga författare på samtidsaktuella teoriområden. Donna Haraway, Karen Barad, Rosi Braidotti, Michel Callon, Gilles Deleuze, Félix Guattari, Michel Serres och Annemarie Mol presenteras i boken, som också innehåller översatta texter av dessa namn. Boken ger en bakgrund till och en överblick över ett område i intensiv teoriutveckling. Här presenteras den så kallade materiella, posthumana eller ontologiska vändningen. Här kartläggs grunderna för olika posthumanistiska förhållningssätt till de både mänskliga och icke-mänskliga (djur, miljö, teknik) krafterna i vår värld så som de begreppsliggjorts inom filosofi, feministisk teori, kulturstudier och samhällsvetenskapliga studier av naturvetenskap, medicin och teknik. Genom lästips och en omfattande litteraturlista öppnar boken för fortsatta studier och vidare diskussioner. Avslutningsvis finns också en omfattande ordlista med viktiga nyckelbegrepp som i sig ger en introduktion till ett heterogent forskningsfält. Boken riktar sig till studenter, doktorander och andra nyfikna forskare inom olika tvärvetenskapliga eller disciplinära former av humaniora och samhällsvetenskap.</p><p>POSTHUMANISTISKA NYCKELTEXTER ger i de inledande kapitlen en överblick och en introduktion till posthumanistiska studier och till materiell-semiotik. Här behandlas tankeströmningar som rör det humanas natur, humanismens etik och humanvetenskapernas framtid. Boken ger en introduktion till det som inom genusvetenskap och tekniksociologi kommit att kallas den ontologiska vändningen mot de materiaaliteter och världsliga relationer som både gör och förgör oss. Här kartläggs grunderna för posthumanistiska förhållningssätt till de både mänskliga och icke-mänskliga (djur, miljö, teknik) dimensionerna av vår värld så som de begreppsliggjorts inom filosofi, feministisk teori, kulturstudier och sociala studier av vetenskap och teknik. </p><p>POSTHUMANISTISKA NYCKELTEXTER erbjuder introduktioner till viktiga författare och översättningar av nyckeltexter skrivna av Donna Haraway, Karen Barad, Rosi Braidotti, Michel Callon, Gilles Deleuze med Felix Guattari, Michel Serres och Annemarie Mol. Boken innehåller även en omfattande ordlista med viktiga nyckelbegrepp som i sig ger en introduktion till ett mångfaldigt forskningsfält.</p>
  • Schötz, Susanne, et al. (författare)
  • Phonetic Characteristics of Domestic Cat Vocalisations
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Melody in Human--Cat Communication (Meowsic).
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>The cat (Felis catus, Linneaus 1758) has lived around or with humans for at least 10,000 years, and is now one of the most popular pets of the world with more than 600 millionindividuals. Domestic cats have developed a more extensive, variable and complex vocal repertoire than most other members of the Carnivora, which may be explained by their social organisation, their nocturnal activity and the long period of association between mother and young. Still, we know surprisingly little about the phonetic characteristics of these sounds, and about the interaction between cats and humans.</p><p>Members of the research project Melody in human–cat communication (Meowsic) investigate the prosodic characteristics of cat vocalisations as well as the communication between human and cat. The first step includes a categorisation of cat vocalisations. In the next step it will be investigated how humans perceive the vocal signals of domestic cats. This paper presents an outline of the project which has only recently started.</p>
  • Petersson, Jesper, 1974- (författare)
  • Medicine At A Distance In Sweden: Spatiotemporal Matters In Accomplishing Working Telemedicine
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Science Studies. - 0786-3012. ; 24:2, s. 43-62
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper examines the accomplishment of making technology work, using the discourse around telemedicine in Swedish healthcare during 1994-2003. The paper will compare four projects launched in the mid-1990s and policymakers’ visions of healthcare through telemedicine. I will employ a sociotechnical approach developed within Actor-Network Theory that understands functioning technology not as something intrinsic but as an outcome of an ongoing process of negotiations. In the paper, I will extend the sociotechnical approach of what constitutes working technology to include spatiotemporal matters. I will also approach the closely related issue of space that has become a concern of Actor-Network Theory scholars interested in the accomplishment and continued workings of technology as it travels. In this discussion, an emphasis on fixed relations (network space) has been challenged by investigations into changing relations (fluid space). This paper suggests that in order to travel well, technology must be both fixed and fluid.⁰
  • Osvalder, Anna-Lisa, 1961-, et al. (författare)
  • Considering the importance of user profiles in interface design
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: User Interfaces. - 978-953-7619 ; s. 23
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • User profile is a popular term widely employed during product design processes by industrial companies. Such a profile is normally intended to represent real users of a product. The ultimate purpose of a user profile is actually to help designers to recognize or learn about the real user by presenting them with a description of a real user’s attributes, for instance; the user’s gender, age, educational level, attitude, technical needs and skill level. The aim of this chapter is to provide information on the current knowledge and research about user profile issues, as well as to emphasize the importance of considering these issues in interface design. In this chapter, we mainly focus on how users’ difference in expertise affects their performance or activity in various interaction contexts. Considering the complex interaction situations in practice, novice and expert users’ interactions with medical user interfaces of different technical complexity will be analyzed as examples: one focuses on novice and expert users’ difference when interacting with simple medical interfaces, and the other focuses on differences when interacting with complex medical interfaces. Four issues will be analyzed and discussed: (1) how novice and expert users differ in terms of performance during the interaction; (2) how novice and expert users differ in the perspective of cognitive mental models during the interaction; (3) how novice and expert users should be defined in practice; and (4) what are the main differences between novice and expert users’ implications for interface design. Besides describing the effect of users’ expertise difference during the interface design process, we will also pinpoint some potential problems for the research on interface design, as well as some future challenges that academic researchers and industrial engineers should face in practice.
  • Toschke, Audré M., et al. (författare)
  • Paternal smoking is associated with a decreased prevalence of type 1 diabetes mellitus among offspring in two national British birth cohort studies (NCDS and BCS70)
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Journal of Perinatal Medicine. - Berlin : Walter de Gruyter. - 0300-5577 .- 1619-3997. ; 35:1, s. 43-7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>AB Aims: An association between paternal age and type 1 diabetes (IDDM) among their offspring was recently reported as well as transgenerational responses in humans. This paper aims to assess the association of markers for prenatal exposures with IDDM. Methods: We analysed data from two birth cohorts in Great Britain on 5214 cohort members from the National Child Development Study (NCDS) and 6068 members of the 1970 British Birth Cohort Study (BCS70) with full information on IDDM and explanatory variables using multivariate logistic regression. Results: IDDM prevalence was 0.7% (95% CI 0.5-1.0%; n = 38) in the NCDS and 0.4% (95% CI 0.3-0.6%; n = 27) in the BCS70 cohort. Paternal age was not associated with IDDM possibly due to lack of sample power. Unex-pectedly, a lowered prevalence of IDDM was observed among offspring of smoking fathers in both cohorts, with a combined odds ratio of 0.44 (95% CI 0.25-0.75). This association could not be explained by maternal smoking prior to, during or after pregnancy, number of siblings, parental social class, maternal and paternal age, or cohort. Maternal smoking in pregnancy did not alter the IDDM prevalence among offspring. Conclusions: This unexpected finding may be explained by germ-line mutations or other mechanisms associated with paternal smoking. This phenomenon should be investigated and these results should not be used as a justification for smoking. Paternal exposures may be important in determining IDDM risk.</p>
  • Munthe, Christian, 1962-, et al. (författare)
  • The Return of Lombroso? Ethical Aspects of (Visions of) Preventive Forensic Screening
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Public Health Ethics. - 1754-9973 .- 1754-9981. ; 8:3, s. 270-283
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The vision of legendary criminologist Cesare Lombroso to use scientific theories of individual causes of crime as a basis for screening and prevention programmes targeting individuals at risk for future criminal behaviour has resurfaced, following advances in genetics, neuroscience and psychiatric epidemiology. This article analyses this idea and maps its ethical implications from a public health ethical standpoint. Twenty-seven variants of the new Lombrosian vision of forensic screening and prevention are distinguished, and some scientific and technical limitations are noted. Some lures, biases and structural factors, making the application of the Lombrosian idea likely in spite of weak evidence are pointed out and noted as a specific type of ethical aspect. Many classic and complex ethical challenges for health screening programmes are shown to apply to the identified variants and the choice between them, albeit with peculiar and often provoking variations. These variations are shown to actualize an underlying theoretical conundrum in need of further study, pertaining to the relationship between public health ethics and the ethics and values of criminal law policy.
  • Munthe, Christian, 1962- (författare)
  • Will IVF ever be the norm?
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Future of IVF - A Brave New World? ESHRE symposium, September 26-27, Stockholm.
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • Ge, Chenjie, et al. (författare)
  • Enlarged Training Dataset by Pairwise GANs for Molecular-Based Brain Tumor Classification
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: IEEE Access. - 2169-3536. ; 8:1, s. 22560-22570
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper addresses issues of brain tumor subtype classification using Magnetic Resonance Images (MRIs) from different scanner modalities like T1 weighted, T1 weighted with contrast-enhanced, T2 weighted and FLAIR images. Currently most available glioma datasets are relatively moderate in size, and often accompanied with incomplete MRIs in different modalities. To tackle the commonly encountered problems of insufficiently large brain tumor datasets and incomplete modality of image for deep learning, we propose to add augmented brain MR images to enlarge the training dataset by employing a pairwise Generative Adversarial Network (GAN) model. The pairwise GAN is able to generate synthetic MRIs across different modalities. To achieve the patient-level diagnostic result, we propose a post-processing strategy to combine the slice-level glioma subtype classification results by majority voting. A two-stage course-to-fine training strategy is proposed to learn the glioma feature using GAN-augmented MRIs followed by real MRIs. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme, experiments have been conducted on a brain tumor dataset for classifying glioma molecular subtypes: isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) mutation and IDH1 wild-type. Our results on the dataset have shown good performance (with test accuracy 88.82%). Comparisons with several state-of-the-art methods are also included.
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