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Sökning: AMNE:(MEDICIN OCH HÄLSOVETENSKAP) AMNE:(Annan medicin och hälsovetenskap) AMNE:(Övrig annan medicin och hälsovetenskap)

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1.
  • Amundin, Mats, et al. (författare)
  • A proposal to use distributional models to analyse dolphin vocalisation
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Vocal Interactivity in-and-between Humans, Animals and Robots, VIHAR 2017. - 978-2-9562029-0-5 ; s. 31-32
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>This paper gives a brief introduction to the starting points of an experimental project to study dolphin communicative behaviour using distributional semantics, with methods implemented for the large scale study of human language.</p>
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2.
  • Posthumanistiska nyckelstexter
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: The Posthumanities Hub. - 1. - Lund : Studentlitteratur AB. - 978-91-44-05747-7
  • Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Den här boken introducerar några viktiga författare på samtidsaktuella teoriområden. Donna Haraway, Karen Barad, Rosi Braidotti, Michel Callon, Gilles Deleuze, Félix Guattari, Michel Serres och Annemarie Mol presenteras i boken, som också innehåller översatta texter av dessa namn. Boken ger en bakgrund till och en överblick över ett område i intensiv teoriutveckling. Här presenteras den så kallade materiella, posthumana eller ontologiska vändningen. Här kartläggs grunderna för olika posthumanistiska förhållningssätt till de både mänskliga och icke-mänskliga (djur, miljö, teknik) krafterna i vår värld så som de begreppsliggjorts inom filosofi, feministisk teori, kulturstudier och samhällsvetenskapliga studier av naturvetenskap, medicin och teknik. Genom lästips och en omfattande litteraturlista öppnar boken för fortsatta studier och vidare diskussioner. Avslutningsvis finns också en omfattande ordlista med viktiga nyckelbegrepp som i sig ger en introduktion till ett heterogent forskningsfält. Boken riktar sig till studenter, doktorander och andra nyfikna forskare inom olika tvärvetenskapliga eller disciplinära former av humaniora och samhällsvetenskap.</p><p>POSTHUMANISTISKA NYCKELTEXTER ger i de inledande kapitlen en överblick och en introduktion till posthumanistiska studier och till materiell-semiotik. Här behandlas tankeströmningar som rör det humanas natur, humanismens etik och humanvetenskapernas framtid. Boken ger en introduktion till det som inom genusvetenskap och tekniksociologi kommit att kallas den ontologiska vändningen mot de materiaaliteter och världsliga relationer som både gör och förgör oss. Här kartläggs grunderna för posthumanistiska förhållningssätt till de både mänskliga och icke-mänskliga (djur, miljö, teknik) dimensionerna av vår värld så som de begreppsliggjorts inom filosofi, feministisk teori, kulturstudier och sociala studier av vetenskap och teknik. </p><p>POSTHUMANISTISKA NYCKELTEXTER erbjuder introduktioner till viktiga författare och översättningar av nyckeltexter skrivna av Donna Haraway, Karen Barad, Rosi Braidotti, Michel Callon, Gilles Deleuze med Felix Guattari, Michel Serres och Annemarie Mol. Boken innehåller även en omfattande ordlista med viktiga nyckelbegrepp som i sig ger en introduktion till ett mångfaldigt forskningsfält.</p>
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3.
  • Schötz, Susanne, et al. (författare)
  • Phonetic Characteristics of Domestic Cat Vocalisations
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Melody in Human--Cat Communication (Meowsic).
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>The cat (Felis catus, Linneaus 1758) has lived around or with humans for at least 10,000 years, and is now one of the most popular pets of the world with more than 600 millionindividuals. Domestic cats have developed a more extensive, variable and complex vocal repertoire than most other members of the Carnivora, which may be explained by their social organisation, their nocturnal activity and the long period of association between mother and young. Still, we know surprisingly little about the phonetic characteristics of these sounds, and about the interaction between cats and humans.</p><p>Members of the research project Melody in human–cat communication (Meowsic) investigate the prosodic characteristics of cat vocalisations as well as the communication between human and cat. The first step includes a categorisation of cat vocalisations. In the next step it will be investigated how humans perceive the vocal signals of domestic cats. This paper presents an outline of the project which has only recently started.</p>
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4.
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5.
  • Petersson, Jesper, 1974- (författare)
  • Medicine At A Distance In Sweden: Spatiotemporal Matters In Accomplishing Working Telemedicine
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Science Studies. - 0786-3012. ; 24:2, s. 43-62
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper examines the accomplishment of making technology work, using the discourse around telemedicine in Swedish healthcare during 1994-2003. The paper will compare four projects launched in the mid-1990s and policymakers’ visions of healthcare through telemedicine. I will employ a sociotechnical approach developed within Actor-Network Theory that understands functioning technology not as something intrinsic but as an outcome of an ongoing process of negotiations. In the paper, I will extend the sociotechnical approach of what constitutes working technology to include spatiotemporal matters. I will also approach the closely related issue of space that has become a concern of Actor-Network Theory scholars interested in the accomplishment and continued workings of technology as it travels. In this discussion, an emphasis on fixed relations (network space) has been challenged by investigations into changing relations (fluid space). This paper suggests that in order to travel well, technology must be both fixed and fluid.⁰
6.
  • Munthe, Christian, 1962- (författare)
  • Will IVF ever be the norm?
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Future of IVF - A Brave New World? ESHRE symposium, September 26-27, Stockholm.
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)
7.
  • Munthe, Christian, 1962-, et al. (författare)
  • The Return of Lombroso? Ethical Aspects of (Visions of) Preventive Forensic Screening
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Public Health Ethics. - 1754-9973 .- 1754-9981. ; 8:3, s. 270-283
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The vision of legendary criminologist Cesare Lombroso to use scientific theories of individual causes of crime as a basis for screening and prevention programmes targeting individuals at risk for future criminal behaviour has resurfaced, following advances in genetics, neuroscience and psychiatric epidemiology. This article analyses this idea and maps its ethical implications from a public health ethical standpoint. Twenty-seven variants of the new Lombrosian vision of forensic screening and prevention are distinguished, and some scientific and technical limitations are noted. Some lures, biases and structural factors, making the application of the Lombrosian idea likely in spite of weak evidence are pointed out and noted as a specific type of ethical aspect. Many classic and complex ethical challenges for health screening programmes are shown to apply to the identified variants and the choice between them, albeit with peculiar and often provoking variations. These variations are shown to actualize an underlying theoretical conundrum in need of further study, pertaining to the relationship between public health ethics and the ethics and values of criminal law policy.
8.
  • Toschke, Audré M., et al. (författare)
  • Paternal smoking is associated with a decreased prevalence of type 1 diabetes mellitus among offspring in two national British birth cohort studies (NCDS and BCS70)
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Journal of Perinatal Medicine. - Berlin : Walter de Gruyter. - 0300-5577 .- 1619-3997. ; 35:1, s. 43-7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>AB Aims: An association between paternal age and type 1 diabetes (IDDM) among their offspring was recently reported as well as transgenerational responses in humans. This paper aims to assess the association of markers for prenatal exposures with IDDM. Methods: We analysed data from two birth cohorts in Great Britain on 5214 cohort members from the National Child Development Study (NCDS) and 6068 members of the 1970 British Birth Cohort Study (BCS70) with full information on IDDM and explanatory variables using multivariate logistic regression. Results: IDDM prevalence was 0.7% (95% CI 0.5-1.0%; n = 38) in the NCDS and 0.4% (95% CI 0.3-0.6%; n = 27) in the BCS70 cohort. Paternal age was not associated with IDDM possibly due to lack of sample power. Unex-pectedly, a lowered prevalence of IDDM was observed among offspring of smoking fathers in both cohorts, with a combined odds ratio of 0.44 (95% CI 0.25-0.75). This association could not be explained by maternal smoking prior to, during or after pregnancy, number of siblings, parental social class, maternal and paternal age, or cohort. Maternal smoking in pregnancy did not alter the IDDM prevalence among offspring. Conclusions: This unexpected finding may be explained by germ-line mutations or other mechanisms associated with paternal smoking. This phenomenon should be investigated and these results should not be used as a justification for smoking. Paternal exposures may be important in determining IDDM risk.</p>
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9.
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10.
  • ORU2015 Örebro University Research Evaluation 2015 Evaluation Report
  • 2015
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • ORU2015 – Executive SummaryDuring 2015, all research performed from 2008 to 2014 at Örebro University, as well as research at Örebro University Hospital, has been evaluated. This report – ORU2015 – presents the background, planning and implementation of the research assessment and its results. Chapter I includes the panel evaluations, and chapter II presents the bibliometric data. Of the 38 subunits of evaluation, 8 are within the Faculty of Business, Science and Engineering, 17 are within the Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, 7 within the Faculty of Medicine and Health, and 6 at Region Örebro County’s University Hospital. The evaluation had a meta-analytical approach (see Annex A), and the external multidisciplinary panel assessed the research in each subunit of evaluation (see Annex B). The panel’s evaluation material consisted of a research overview, documentation on academic staff and competence, as well as on funding, self-evaluations and bibliometric data. The self-evaluations by each subunit addressed (i) scientific quality and scientific impact, (ii) impact and outreach, (iii) internationalisation, and (iv) research – education interaction. Each overarching evaluation unit was also assessed, including a SWOT analysis, by the respective heads of schools and deans. Apart from the self-evaluations, the material was retrieved from the university databases, Web of Science and Academic Archive Online (DiVA). The subunits had the opportunity to update their research information for the research overview prior to making the material available to the panel. The fourteen panellists, representing economics, natural sciences and technology, humanities, social sciences, medicine and health sciences, met for two days in October at Örebro University for the evaluation discussions. The agreed evaluation statements were delivered shortly thereafter. The great variability in the subunits’ scientific practices, scale, and establishment had to be accounted for in the panel evaluations. The evaluation subunits range from very large (up to 60 researchers), to medium sized (about 20 researchers), and to quite small subunits (fewer than nine researchers). The points of reference for the panel’s statements were the (i) quality of research, (ii) research environment and infrastructure, (iii) scientific and social interaction and (iv) future potential. Gradings ranged between Excellent (5) and Insufficient (1). The key data in the bibliometric assessment was scientific impact, vitality, productivity and international visibility, as indicated by the publications of each subunit. It can be seen from the panel statement of a subunit and the matching bibliometric data that these two assessments correspond to a large extent, but not completely.It is concluded from the panel evaluation that there are Excellent (5), Very Good (4), Good (3), Sufficient (2), as well as Insufficient (1) subunits at the university. A majority of the fourteen subunits that performed well (grade 3 – 5) are medium-sized, whilst the majority of the sixteen weakly performing subunits (grade 1 – 2) are small in size. Of course, for the humanities and social sciences, the Web of Science data only contains output to a limited degree. Therefore data from DiVA has been used and compared as well. For some subunits this makes a difference, but of the 16 subunits that show a weak performance according to Web of Science data, ten also perform weakly as shown in DiVA. Only three of these subunits score Good and one Very Good in DiVA.It can be seen from ORU2015 that the research volume, especially expressed in scientific publications per year and citations, has roughly doubled since ÖRE2010. In 2014, the total number of publications in Web of Science by researchers at the university and the university hospital reached some 600 and the number of citations were 14,000 the same year. The ‘findings’ of ORU2015 provide an important basis for decisions by leaders at all levels of the university in terms of strategic planning, support, and development of the research for the future.
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